INCENP and Aurora B promote meiotic sister chromatid cohesion through localization of the Shugoshin MEI-S332 in Drosophila.
ABSTRACT: The chromosomal passenger complex protein INCENP is required in mitosis for chromosome condensation, spindle attachment and function, and cytokinesis. Here, we show that INCENP has an essential function in the specialized behavior of centromeres in meiosis. Mutations affecting Drosophila incenp profoundly affect chromosome segregation in both meiosis I and II, due, at least in part, to premature sister chromatid separation in meiosis I. INCENP binds to the cohesion protector protein MEI-S332, which is also an excellent in vitro substrate for Aurora B kinase. A MEI-S332 mutant that is only poorly phosphorylated by Aurora B is defective in localization to centromeres. These results implicate the chromosomal passenger complex in directly regulating MEI-S332 localization and, therefore, the control of sister chromatid cohesion in meiosis.
Project description:The Shugoshin (Sgo) protein family helps to ensure proper chromosome segregation by protecting cohesion at the centromere by preventing cleavage of the cohesin complex. Some Sgo proteins also influence other aspects of kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Although many Sgo members require Aurora B kinase to localize to the centromere, factors controlling delocalization are poorly understood and diverse. Moreover, it is not clear how Sgo function is inactivated and whether this is distinct from delocalization. We investigated these questions in Drosophila melanogaster, an organism with superb chromosome cytology to monitor Sgo localization and quantitative assays to test its function in sister-chromatid segregation in meiosis. Previous research showed that in mitosis in cell culture, phosphorylation of the Drosophila Sgo, MEI-S332, by Aurora B promotes centromere localization, whereas Polo phosphorylation promotes delocalization. These studies also suggested that MEI-S332 can be inactivated independently of delocalization, a conclusion supported here by localization and function studies in meiosis. Phosphoresistant and phosphomimetic mutants for the Aurora B and Polo phosphorylation sites were examined for effects on MEI-S332 localization and chromosome segregation in meiosis. Strikingly, MEI-S332 with a phosphomimetic mutation in the Aurora B phosphorylation site prematurely dissociates from the centromeres in meiosis I. Despite the absence of MEI-S332 on meiosis II centromeres in male meiosis, sister chromatids segregate normally, demonstrating that detectable levels of this Sgo are not essential for chromosome congression, kinetochore biorientation, or spindle assembly.
Project description:The different regulation of sister chromatid cohesion at centromeres and along chromosome arms is obvious during meiosis, because centromeric cohesion, but not arm cohesion, persists throughout anaphase of the first division. A protein required to protect centromeric cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage has been identified and named shugoshin (or Sgo1) after shugoshin ("guardian spirit" in Japanese). It has become apparent that shugoshin shows marginal homology with Drosophila Mei-S332 and several uncharacterized proteins in other eukaryotic organisms. Because Mei-S332 is a protein previously shown to be required for centromeric cohesion in meiosis, it is now established that shugoshin represents a conserved protein family defined as a centromeric protector of Rec8 cohesin complexes in meiosis. The regional difference of sister chromatid cohesion is also observed during mitosis in vertebrates; the cohesion is much more robust at the centromere at metaphase, where it antagonizes the pulling force of spindle microtubules that attach the kinetochores from opposite poles. The human shugoshin homologue (hSgo1) is required to protect the centromeric localization of the mitotic cohesin, Scc1, until metaphase. Bub1 plays a crucial role in the localization of shugoshin to centromeres in both fission yeast and humans.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion is essential to maintain stable connections between homologues and sister chromatids during meiosis and to establish correct centromere orientation patterns on the meiosis I and II spindles. However, the meiotic cohesion apparatus in Drosophila melanogaster remains largely uncharacterized. We describe a novel protein, sisters on the loose (SOLO), which is essential for meiotic cohesion in Drosophila. In solo mutants, sister centromeres separate before prometaphase I, disrupting meiosis I centromere orientation and causing nondisjunction of both homologous and sister chromatids. Centromeric foci of the cohesin protein SMC1 are absent in solo mutants at all meiotic stages. SOLO and SMC1 colocalize to meiotic centromeres from early prophase I until anaphase II in wild-type males, but both proteins disappear prematurely at anaphase I in mutants for mei-S332, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the cohesin protector protein shugoshin. The solo mutant phenotypes and the localization patterns of SOLO and SMC1 indicate that they function together to maintain sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila meiosis.
Project description:Proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis is essential to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. This requires that sister chromatids maintain cohesion at the centromere as cohesion is released on the chromatid arms when the homologs segregate at anaphase I. The Shugoshin proteins preserve centromere cohesion by protecting the cohesin complex from cleavage, and this has been shown in yeasts to be mediated by recruitment of the protein phosphatase 2A B' (PP2A B'). In metazoans, delineation of the role of PP2A B' in meiosis has been hindered by its myriad of other essential roles. The Drosophila Shugoshin MEI-S332 can bind directly to both of the B' regulatory subunits of PP2A, Wdb and Wrd, in yeast two-hybrid experiments. Exploiting experimental advantages of Drosophila spermatogenesis, we found that the Wdb subunit localizes first along chromosomes in meiosis I, becoming restricted to the centromere region as MEI-S332 binds. Wdb and MEI-S332 show colocalization at the centromere region until release of sister-chromatid cohesion at the metaphase II/anaphase II transition. MEI-S332 is necessary for Wdb localization, but, additionally, both Wdb and Wrd are required for MEI-S332 localization. Thus, rather than MEI-S332 being hierarchical to PP2A B', these proteins reciprocally ensure centromere localization of the complex. We analyzed functional relationships between MEI-S332 and the two forms of PP2A by quantifying meiotic chromosome segregation defects in double or triple mutants. These studies revealed that both Wdb and Wrd contribute to MEI-S332's ability to ensure accurate segregation of sister chromatids, but, as in centromere localization, they do not act solely downstream of MEI-S332.
Project description:Human Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) protects centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion during prophase and prevents premature sister-chromatid separation. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) has been proposed to protect centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion by directly targeting Sgo1 to centromeres in mitosis. Here we show that HP1? is targeted to mitotic centromeres by INCENP, a subunit of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC). Biochemical and structural studies show that both HP1-INCENP and HP1-Sgo1 interactions require the binding of the HP1 chromo shadow domain to PXVXL/I motifs in INCENP or Sgo1, suggesting that the INCENP-bound, centromeric HP1? is incapable of recruiting Sgo1. Consistently, a Sgo1 mutant deficient in HP1 binding is functional in centromeric cohesion protection and localizes normally to centromeres in mitosis. By contrast, INCENP or Sgo1 mutants deficient in HP1 binding fail to localize to centromeres in interphase. Therefore, our results suggest that HP1 binding by INCENP or Sgo1 is dispensable for centromeric cohesion protection during mitosis of human cells, but might regulate yet uncharacterized interphase functions of CPC or Sgo1 at the centromeres.
Project description:Centromere function requires the coordination of many processes including kinetochore assembly, sister chromatid cohesion, spindle attachment and chromosome movement. Here we show that CID, the Drosophila homologue of the CENP-A centromere-specific H3-like proteins, colocalizes with molecular-genetically defined functional centromeres in minichromosomes. Injection of CID antibodies into early embryos, as well as RNA interference in tissue-culture cells, showed that CID is required for several mitotic processes. Deconvolution fluorescence microscopy showed that CID chromatin is physically separate from proteins involved in sister cohesion (MEI-S332), centric condensation (PROD), kinetochore function (ROD, ZW10 and BUB1) and heterochromatin structure (HP1). CID localization is unaffected by mutations in mei-S332, Su(var)2-5 (HP1), prod or polo. Furthermore, the localization of POLO, CENP-meta, ROD, BUB1 and MEI-S332, but not PROD or HP1, depends on the presence of functional CID. We conclude that the centromere and flanking heterochromatin are physically and functionally separable protein domains that are required for different inheritance functions, and that CID is required for normal kinetochore formation and function, as well as cell-cycle progression.
Project description:Fission yeast has two members of the Shugoshin family, Sgo1 and Sgo2. Although Sgo1 has clearly been established as a protector of centromere cohesion in meiosis I, the roles of Sgo2 remain elusive. Here we show that Sgo2 is required to ensure proper chromosome biorientation upon recovery from a prolonged spindle checkpoint arrest. Consistent with this, Sgo2 is essential for maintaining the Passenger proteins on centromeres upon checkpoint activation. Interestingly, lack of Sgo2 has a more penetrant effect on the localization of Survivin than on the two other Passenger proteins INCENP and Aurora B, and the Survivin-INCENP complex but not the INCENP-Aurora B complex is destabilized in the absence of Sgo2. Finally we show that the conserved C-terminus of Sgo2 is crucial to maintain Sgo2 and Passenger proteins localization on centromeres upon prolonged checkpoint activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Sgo2 is important for chromosome biorientation and that it controls docking of the Passenger proteins on chromosomes in early mitotic cells.
Project description:Cohesion between sister chromatids is essential for their bi-orientation on mitotic spindles. It is mediated by a multisubunit complex called cohesin. In yeast, proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's alpha kleisin subunit at the onset of anaphase removes cohesin from both centromeres and chromosome arms and thus triggers sister chromatid separation. In animal cells, most cohesin is removed from chromosome arms during prophase via a separase-independent pathway involving phosphorylation of its Scc3-SA1/2 subunits. Cohesin at centromeres is refractory to this process and persists until metaphase, whereupon its alpha kleisin subunit is cleaved by separase, which is thought to trigger anaphase. What protects centromeric cohesin from the prophase pathway? Potential candidates are proteins, known as shugoshins, that are homologous to Drosophila MEI-S332 and yeast Sgo1 proteins, which prevent removal of meiotic cohesin complexes from centromeres at the first meiotic division. A vertebrate shugoshin-like protein associates with centromeres during prophase and disappears at the onset of anaphase. Its depletion by RNA interference causes HeLa cells to arrest in mitosis. Most chromosomes bi-orient on a metaphase plate, but precocious loss of centromeric cohesin from chromosomes is accompanied by loss of all sister chromatid cohesion, the departure of individual chromatids from the metaphase plate, and a permanent cell cycle arrest, presumably due to activation of the spindle checkpoint. Remarkably, expression of a version of Scc3-SA2 whose mitotic phosphorylation sites have been mutated to alanine alleviates the precocious loss of sister chromatid cohesion and the mitotic arrest of cells lacking shugoshin. These data suggest that shugoshin prevents phosphorylation of cohesin's Scc3-SA2 subunit at centromeres during mitosis. This ensures that cohesin persists at centromeres until activation of separase causes cleavage of its alpha kleisin subunit. Centromeric cohesion is one of the hallmarks of mitotic chromosomes. Our results imply that it is not an intrinsically stable property, because it can easily be destroyed by mitotic kinases, which are kept in check by shugoshin.
Project description:Incenp is an essential mitotic protein that, together with Aurora B, Survivin, and Borealin, forms the core of the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC). The CPC regulates various mitotic processes and functions to maintain genomic stability. The proper subcellular localization of the CPC and its full catalytic activity require the presence of each core subunit in the complex. We have investigated the mitotic tasks of the CPC using a function blocking antibody against Incenp microinjected into cells at different mitotic phases. This method allowed temporal analysis of CPC functions without perturbation of complex assembly or activity prior to injection. We have also studied the dynamic properties of Incenp and Aurora B using fusion protein photobleaching. We found that in early mitotic cells, Incenp and Aurora B exhibit dynamic turnover at centromeres, which is prevented by the anti-Incenp antibody. In these cells, the loss of centromeric CPC turnover is accompanied by forced mitotic exit without the execution of cytokinesis. Introduction of anti-Incenp antibody into early anaphase cells causes abnormalities in sister chromatid separation through defects in anaphase spindle functions. In summary, our data uncovers new mitotic roles for the CPC in anaphase and proposes that CPC turnover at centromeres modulates spindle assembly checkpoint signaling.
Project description:Sustained spindle tension applied to sister centromeres during mitosis eventually leads to uncoordinated loss of sister chromatid cohesion, a phenomenon known as "cohesion fatigue." We report that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of serine 7 of the centromere histone variant CENP-A (p-CENP-AS7) protects bioriented chromosomes against cohesion fatigue. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of CENP-A (CENP-AS7A) weakens sister chromatid cohesion only when sister centromeres are under tension, providing the first evidence of a regulated mechanism involved in protection against passive cohesion loss. Consistent with this observation, p-CENP-AS7 is detected at the inner centromere where it forms a discrete domain. The depletion or inhibition of Aurora A phenocopies the expression of CENP-AS7A and we show that Aurora A is recruited to centromeres in a Bub1-dependent manner. We propose that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-A at the inner centromere protects chromosomes against tension-induced cohesion fatigue until the last kinetochore is attached to spindle microtubules.