Cellulose Nanocrystal-Templated Tin Dioxide Thin Films for Gas Sensing.
ABSTRACT: Porous tin dioxide is an important low-cost semiconductor applied in electronics, gas sensors, and biosensors. Here, we present a versatile template-assisted synthesis of nanostructured tin dioxide thin films using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). We demonstrate that the structural features of CNC-templated tin dioxide films strongly depend on the precursor composition. The precursor properties were studied by using low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tin tetrachloride in solution. We demonstrate that it is possible to optimize the precursor conditions to obtain homogeneous precursor mixtures and therefore highly porous thin films with pore dimensions in the range of 10-20 nm (ABET = 46-64 m2 g-1, measured on powder). Finally, by exploiting the high surface area of the material, we developed a resistive gas sensor based on CNC-templated tin dioxide. The sensor shows high sensitivity to carbon monoxide (CO) in ppm concentrations and low cross-sensitivity to humidity. Most importantly, the sensing kinetics are remarkably fast; both the response to the analyte gas and the signal decay after gas exposure occur within a few seconds, faster than in standard SnO2-based CO sensors. This is attributed to the high gas accessibility of the very thin porous film.
Project description:Metal oxide thin films such as copper oxide, titanium dioxide, and tin dioxide deposited by magnetron sputtering technology were verified as a gas-sensitive layer in microwave-based gas sensors operated at 2.4 GHz. The developed gas sensors were tested at room temperature (23 °C) and 50% relative humidity (RH) under exposure to 0?200 ppm of selected volatile organic compounds (acetone, ethanol, and methanol) that are of high interest in industry and biomedical applications. The highest responses to acetone were obtained for CuO-based gas sensors, to ethanol for SnO?-based gas sensors, while for methanol detection both dioxides, SnO? and TiO?, exhibited good sensitivity.
Project description:A dataset in this report is regarding an article "Ultrathin Effective TiN Protective Films Prepared by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Metallic Bipolar Plates of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells" . TiN (Titanium Nitride) thin films were deposited by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition (PEALD) method using well known two types of precursor: using tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium (TDMAT) and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl<sub>4</sub>), and plasma. Summarized reports, growth characteristics (growth rate as a function of each precursor pulse time, plasma power, precursor and plasma purge time, thickness depending on the number of PEALD cycles), each precursor structural information and the atomic force micrographs (AFM) data are herein demonstrated. For TDMAT-TiN, N<sub>2</sub> plasma was used as a reactant whereas, H<sub>2</sub>+N<sub>2</sub> plasma was used as TiCl<sub>4</sub>-TiN reactant. To apply the bipolar plate substrate, two types of TiN thin films were introduced into Stainless steel (SUS) 316L.
Project description:The nanostructure of silica and hybrid thin film mesophases templated by phospholipids via an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process was investigated by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Diacyl phosphatidylcholines with two tails of 6 or 8 carbons were found to template 2D hexagonal mesophases, with the removal of lipid from these lipid/silica films by thermal or UV/O3 processing resulting in a complete collapse of the pore volume. Monoacyl phosphatidylcholines with single tails of 10-14 carbons formed 3D micellular mesophases; the lipid was found to be extractable from these 3D materials, yielding a porous material. In contrast to pure lipid/silica thin film mesophases, films formed from the hybrid bridged silsesquioxane precursor bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane exhibited greater stability toward (both diacyl and monoacyl) lipid removal. Ellipsometric, FTIR, and NMR studies show that the presence of phospholipid suppresses siloxane network formation, while actually promoting condensation reactions in the hybrid material. 1D X-ray scattering and FTIR data were found to be consistent with strong interactions between lipid headgroups and the silica framework.
Project description:Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using spin-coating and an annealing process, which can improve the crystallinity and morphology of the thin films. The grain size, optical gap, and atomic contents of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and sulfur (S) in a CZTS thin film absorber relate to the concentrations of aqueous precursor solutions containing copper chloride (CuCl₂), zinc chloride (ZnCl₂), tin chloride (SnCl₂), and thiourea (SC(NH₂)₂), whereas the electrical properties of CZTS thin films depend on the annealing temperature and the atomic content ratios of Cu/(Zn + Sn) and Zn/Sn. All of the CZTS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), Raman spectroscopy, and Hall measurements. Furthermore, CZTS thin film was deposited on an n-type silicon substrate by using spin-coating to form an Mo/p-CZTS/n-Si/Al heterostructured solar cell. The p-CZTS/n-Si heterostructured solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 1.13% with Voc = 520 mV, Jsc = 3.28 mA/cm², and fill-factor (FF) = 66%.
Project description:We examine the influence of the magnetic field on the chemical reaction of nitrogen and carbon dioxide in sparking electric discharge of zinc wires. Samples are prepared on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates in the form of thin films at 0?T, 0.2?T and 0.4?T. Different chemical composition of thin-films prepared by sparking discharge was obtained and verified by XPS, Raman and Cyclic voltammetry. Carbon dioxide conversion to carbonates was observed for zinc sparked in CO<sub>2</sub> and nitrogen affecting crystallization of thin films was confirmed by XRD. Synthesis route for thin-film preparation used in this study is electric sparking discharge, convenient for fast ionization of metal and gasses. Band gap energy of thin films prepared by this method was starting from 2.81?eV and 4.24?eV, with the lowest band gaps prepared on ITO in 0.4?T. Dynamic mobility analysis (DMA) indicates smaller particles are fabricated by discharging zinc wires in a higher magnetic field. Nitridification of zinc nanoparticles occurred on 0.2 Tesla magnetic field strength and it was detectable even after XPS ion gun etching. Carbonation and nitridification of zinc thin films by sparking wires inside the magnetic field to observe the effect of the magnetic field on bandgap and chemical composition are confirmed by XPS.
Project description:The preparation of Cu₂ZnSnSe₄ (CZTSe) thin films by the selenization of an electrodeposited copper-tin-zinc (CuSnZn) precursor with various Sn contents in low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor was studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements revealed that the Sn content of the precursor that is used in selenization in a low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor atmosphere only slightly affects the elemental composition of the formed CZTSe films. However, the Sn content of the precursor significantly affects the grain size and surface morphology of CZTSe films. A metal precursor with a very Sn-poor composition produces CZTSe films with large grains and a rough surface, while a metal precursor with a very Sn-rich composition procures CZTSe films with small grains and a compact surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM revealed that the metal precursor with a Sn-rich composition can grow a thicker MoSe₂ thin film at CZTSe/Mo interface than one with a Sn-poor composition, possibly because excess Sn in the precursor may catalyze the formation of MoSe₂ thin film. A CZTSe solar cell with an efficiency of 7.94%was realized by using an electrodeposited metal precursor with a Sn/Cu ratio of 0.5 in selenization in a low-pressure Se+SnSex vapor.
Project description:This work presents the effect of magnesium (Mg) doping on the sensing properties of tin dioxide (SnO2) thin films. Mg-doped SnO2 films were prepared via a spray pyrolysis method using three doping concentrations (0.8 at.%, 1.2 at.%, and 1.6 at.%) and the sensing responses were obtained at a comparatively low operating temperature (160 °C) compared to other gas sensitive materials in the literature. The morphological, structural and chemical composition analysis of the doped films show local lattice disorders and a proportional decrease in the average crystallite size as the Mg-doping level increases. These results also indicate an excess of Mg (in the samples prepared with 1.6 at.% of magnesium) which causes the formation of a secondary magnesium oxide phase. The films are tested towards three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including ethanol, acetone, and toluene. The gas sensing tests show an enhancement of the sensing properties to these vapors as the Mg-doping level rises. This improvement is particularly observed for ethanol and, thus, the gas sensing analysis is focused on this analyte. Results to 80 ppm of ethanol, for instance, show that the response of the 1.6 at.% Mg-doped SnO2 film is four times higher and 90 s faster than that of the 0.8 at.% Mg-doped SnO2 film. This enhancement is attributed to the Mg-incorporation into the SnO2 cell and to the formation of MgO within the film. These two factors maximize the electrical resistance change in the gas adsorption stage, and thus, raise ethanol sensitivity.
Project description:This paper discusses the potential of polymer networks, templated by crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF), as novel selective layer material in thin film composite membranes. The ability to create mechanically stable membranes with an ultra-thin selective layer of advanced polymer materials is highly desirable in membrane technology. Here, we describe a novel polymeric membrane, which is synthesized via the conversion of a surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) into a surface anchored gel (SURGEL). The SURGEL membranes combine the high variability in the building blocks and the possibility to control the network topology and membrane thickness of the SURMOF synthesis with high mechanical and chemical stability of polymers. Next to the material design, the transfer of membranes to suitable supports is also usually a challenging task, due to the fragile nature of the ultra-thin films. To overcome this issue, we utilized a porous support on top of the membrane, which is mechanically stable enough to allow for the easy membrane transfer from the synthesis substrate to the final membrane support. To demonstrate the potential for gas separation of the synthesized SURGEL membranes, as well as the suitability of the transfer method, we determined the permeance for eight gases with different kinetic diameters.
Project description:In this work, we present the electrochemical deposition of manganese dioxide (MnO?) thin films on carbon-coated TiN/Si micro-pillars. The carbon buffer layer, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), is used as a protective coating for the underlying TiN current collector from oxidation, during the film deposition, while improving the electrical conductivity of the stack. A conformal electrolytic MnO? (EMD) coating is successfully achieved on high aspect ratio C/TiN/Si pillar arrays by tailoring the deposition process. Lithiation/Delithiation cycling tests have been performed. Reversible insertion and extraction of Li? through EMD structure are observed. The fabricated stack is thus considered as a good candidate not only for 3D micorbatteries but also for other energy storage applications.
Project description:The interaction between cellulose and hemicelluloses is of fundamental importance for understanding the molecular architecture of plant cell walls. Adsorption of xyloglucan (XG) onto regenerated cellulose (RC), sulfated cellulose nanocrystal (s-CNC), and desulfated cellulose nanocrystal (d-CNC) films was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, surface plasmon resonance, and atomic force microscopy. The amount of XG adsorbed onto different cellulose substrates increased in the order RC < s-CNC < d-CNC. The adsorption of XG onto RC films was independent of film thickness (d), whereas XG adsorption was weakly dependent on d for s-CNC films and strongly dependent on d for d-CNC films. However, approximately the same amount of XG adsorbed onto "monolayer-thin" films of RC, s-CNC, and d-CNC. These results suggest that the morphology and surface charge of the cellulose substrate played a limited role in XG adsorption and highlight the importance of film thickness of cellulose nanocrystalline films to XG adsorption.