Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer for removal of Congo red.
ABSTRACT: Congo red (CR) is an anionic azo dye widely used in many industries including pharmaceutical, textile, food and paint industries. The disposal of huge amount of CR into the various streams of water has posed a great threat to both human and aquatic life. Therefore, it has become an important aspect of industries to remove CR from different water sources. Molecular imprinting technology is a very slective method to remove various target pollutant from environment. In this study a precipitation polymerization was employed for the effective and selective removal of CR from contaminated aqueous media. A series of congo red molecularly imprinted polymers (CR-MIPs) of uniform size and shape was developed by changing the mole ratio of the components. The optimum ratio (0.1:4: 20, template, functional monomer and cross-linking monomer respectively) for CR1-MIP from synthesized polymers was able to rebind about 99.63% of CR at the optimum conditions of adsorption parameters (contact time 210 min, polymer dosage 0.5 g, concentration 20 ppm and pH 7). The synthesized polymers were characterized by various techniques such as Fourier Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Brumauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The polymer particles have successfully removed CR from different aqueous media with an efficiency of about?~?90%.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous optimization and removal of dyes, Malachite green (MG), Rhodamine B (RhB) and Cresol Red (CR) from aqueous solutions by using Sistan sand as an extremely low cost adsorbent. Factors affecting adsorption of the analytes on the sorbent were investigated experimentally and by using Taguchi and Plackett-Burman experimental design methods. In most cases, the results of these two models were in agreement with each other and with experimental data obtained. Taguchi method was capable to predict results with accuracies better than 97.89%, 95.43%, and 97.79% for MG, RhB, and CR, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the sorbent could remove simultaneously more than 83% of the dyes with the amount of adsorbed dyes of 0.132, 0.109, and 0.120 mg g-1 for MG, RhB and CR on sand, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that pseudo second order is the best model of adsorption for all analytes. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that this process is spontaneous and endothermic.
Project description:The adsorption behavior of anionic dye congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions using an anion exchange membrane (EBTAC) has been investigated at room temperature. The effect of several factors including contact time, membrane dosage, ionic strength and temperature were studied. Kinetic models, namely pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order, liquid film diffusion and Elovich models as well as Bangham and modified freundlich Equations, were employed to evaluate the experimental results. Parameters such as adsorption capacities, rate constant and related correlation coefficients for every model were calculated and discussed. The adsorption of CR on anion exchange membranes followed pseudo-second-order Kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters, namely changes in Gibbs free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) were calculated for the adsorption of congo red, indicating an exothermic process.
Project description:A large number of industries use heavy metal cations to fix dyes in fabrication processes. Malachite green (MG) is used in many factories and in aquaculture production to treat parasites, and it has genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Chromium is used to fix the dyes and it is a global toxic heavy metal. Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) has been used to determine the most significant factors for enhanced simultaneous removal of MG and chromium ions from aqueous solutions using marine green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis biomass collected from Jeddah beach. The dry biomass of E. intestinalis samples were also examined using SEM and FTIR before and after MG and chromium biosoptions. The predicted results indicated that 4.3 g/L E. intestinalis biomass was simultaneously removed 99.63% of MG and 93.38% of chromium from aqueous solution using a MG concentration of 7.97 mg/L, the chromium concentration of 192.45 mg/L, pH 9.92, the contact time was 38.5 min with an agitation of 200 rpm. FTIR and SEM proved the change in characteristics of algal biomass after treatments. The dry biomass of E. intestinalis has the capacity to remove MG and chromium from aquatic effluents in a feasible and efficient manner.
Project description:Hydrochars were prepared using bamboo sawdust as raw material through hydrothermal carbonization with the present of acid or alkali in the medium and applied to remove Congo red and 2-naphthol from aqueous solutions. This data article provides information on FTIR and SEM profiles of the bamboo hydrochars, and the equation fitting results of the adsorption isotherms and kinetics for the two organics. The FTIR spectra show the differences of functional groups on the hydrochars with different process conditions. The SEM images show the surface morphology of selected hydrochars. Freundlich equation is slightly better than Langmuir model for the correlation of adsorption isotherms for both Congo red and 2-naphthol. Correlation coefficients from the pseudo-second order equation are greater than those of the pseudo-first order equation for both the organics on selected hydorchars.
Project description:Biosorption using natural waste has emerged as a potential and promising strategy for removal of toxic dyes from wastewaters in comparison to conventional ones. Herein, the Codium decorticatum alga (CDA) was biologically identified and used as a biosorbent for anionic and cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. SEM analysis showed a rough surface with an irregular edge and shape while hydroxyl, amine, sulfur and carboxyl functional groups were identified using FTIR analysis. TGA/DTG confirmed the stability of CDA and the adsorption process. Batch studies were conducted to investigate the effect of operational factors such as initial pH, biosorbent dosage, temperature, initial concentration, and solid/liquid contact time on the biosorption of crystal violet (CV) and Congo red (CR) dyes. For both CV and CR dyes, the biosorption kinetics was accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir isotherm was found to be best fitted for equilibrium data. Maximum uptake capacities have attained up to 278.46 mg/g for CV and 191.01 mg/g for CR. The CV and CR dye biosorption mechanism was ultimately manifested through the electrostatic interactions. The regeneration study showed that the CDA presents excellent reuse performance up to four consecutive cycles. The process optimization was performed using the response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (RSM-BDD). Accordingly, the optimum predicted removal efficiencies using RSM-BBD for CV and CR were obtained, respectively, at 96.9 and 89.8% using a CDA dose of 1.5 g/L, dye concentration of 20 mg/L, pH of 10 for CV, and pH of 4 for CR. Overall, CDA behaves as an efficient, recyclable, cheap, and eco-friendly adsorbent for cleaning-up of dyed effluents.
Project description:Quantum-chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulation were applied to a model self-organization process of Congo red (CR) molecules in aqueous solution and the impact of doxorubicin (DOX) molecules on such a process. It was demonstrated that both pure CR/CR and mixed CR/DOX dimers were stable. Van der Waals interactions between aromatic units were responsible for a stacked dimer formation. An important source of stabilization in the CR/CR dimer was the polarization energy. In the CR/DOX mixed dimer long range, electrostatic interactions were the main driving force leading to complexation. An implicit solvent model showed that the formation of the CR/CR dimer was favored over the CR/DOX one. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated rapid complexation. In the pure CR system, short sequences of ribbon-like structures were formed. Such structures might be glued by hydrogen bonds to form bigger complexes. It was shown that the aromatic part of the DOX molecule enters CR ribbons with the sugar part covering the CR ribbons. These findings demonstrated that CR may find applications as a carrier in delivering DOX molecules; however, further more extensive investigations are required.
Project description:Core-shell structured CaCO3 microspheres (MSs) were prepared by a facile, one-pot method at room temperature. The adsorbent dosage and adsorption time of the obtained CaCO3 MSs were investigated. The results suggest that these CaCO3 MSs can rapidly and efficiently remove 99-100% of anionic dyes within the first 2?min. The obtained CaCO3 MSs have a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (211.77?m2?g-1). In addition, the maximum adsorption capacity of the obtained CaCO3 MSs towards Congo red was 99.6?mg?g-1. We also found that the core-shell structured CaCO3 MSs have a high recycling capability for removing dyes from water. Our results demonstrate that the prepared core-shell structured CaCO3 MSs can be used as an ideal, rapid, efficient and recyclable adsorbent to remove dyes from aqueous solution.
Project description:Biochars, produced by pyrolyzing vermicompost at 300, 500, and 700°C were characterized and their ability to adsorb the dyes Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of biochars varied significantly based on the pyrolysis temperatures. Analysis of the data revealed that the aromaticity, polarity, specific surface area, pH, and ash content of the biochars increased gradually with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the cation exchange capacity, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The adsorption kinetics of CR and MB were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Both of Langmuir and Temkin model could be employed to describe the adsorption behaviors of CR and MB by these biochars. The biochars generated at higher pyrolysis temperature displayed higher CR adsorption capacities and lower MB adsorption capacities than those compared with the biochars generated at lower pyrolysis temperatures. The biochar generated at the higher pyrolytic temperature displayed the higher ability to adsorb CR owing to its promoted aromaticity, and the cation exchange is the key factor that positively affects adsorption of MB.
Project description:Alternative methods of aqueous chromium removal have been of great research interest in recent years as Cr (VI) is a highly toxic compound causing severe human health effects. To achieve better removal of Cr (VI), it is essential to understand the chemical reactions that lead to the successful removal of Cr species from the solution. Recent studies have demonstrated that graphene oxide (GO) based polymer beads cannot only adsorb Cr (VI) via electrostatic attractions but also reduce it to Cr (III), which is a much less toxic form of chromium. This conversion and the functional groups involved in this conversion, until now, were not elucidated. In the present study, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the conversion pathway of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) in graphene-based polymer beads. The results showed that alcoholic groups are converted to carboxylic groups while reducing Cr (VI) to Cr (III). The inclusion of GO in the polymer beads dramatically increased the potential of Cr (VI) uptake and conversion to Cr (III), indicating polymers and nanomaterials containing alcohol groups can remove and convert chromium in water. Other functional groups present in the polymer bead play an important role in adsorption but are not involved in the conversion of Cr (VI) to Cr (III).
Project description:Advances in nanoscale science and engineering are providing new opportunities to develop promising adsorbents for environmental remediation. Here, hybrid aerogels are assembled from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and carbon nanomaterials to remove cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and anionic dye Congo red (CR) in single and binary systems. Two classes of carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplates (GnPs), are incorporated into CNFs with various amounts, respectively. The adsorption, mechanics and structure properties of the hybrid aerogels are investigated and compared among different combinations. The results demonstrate CNF-GnP 3:1 hybrid exhibits the best performance among all composites. Regarding a single dye system, both dye adsorptions follow a pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic and monolayer Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximal adsorption capacities of CNF-GnP aerogels for MB and CR are 1178.5 mg g-1 and 585.3 mg g-1, respectively. CNF-GnP hybrid show a superior binary dye adsorption capacity than pristine CNF or GnP. Furthermore, nearly 80% of MB or CR can be desorbed from CNF-GNP using ethanol as the desorption agent, indicating the reusability of this hybrid material. Hence, the CNF-GnP aerogels show great promise as adsorption materials for wastewater treatment.