Hereditary and acquired angioedema: problems and progress: proceedings of the third C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency workshop and beyond.
ABSTRACT: Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a rare but life-threatening condition, manifests as acute attacks of facial, laryngeal, genital, or peripheral swelling or abdominal pain secondary to intra-abdominal edema. Resulting from mutations affecting C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), inhibitor of the first complement system component, attacks are not histamine-mediated and do not respond to antihistamines or corticosteroids. Low awareness and resemblance to other disorders often delay diagnosis; despite availability of C1-INH replacement in some countries, no approved, safe acute attack therapy exists in the United States. The biennial C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency Workshops resulted from a European initiative for better knowledge and treatment of HAE and related diseases. This supplement contains work presented at the third workshop and expanded content toward a definitive picture of angioedema in the absence of allergy. Most notably, it includes cumulative genetic investigations; multinational laboratory diagnosis recommendations; current pathogenesis hypotheses; suggested prophylaxis and acute attack treatment, including home treatment; future treatment options; and analysis of patient subpopulations, including pediatric patients and patients whose angioedema worsened during pregnancy or hormone administration. Causes and management of acquired angioedema and a new type of angioedema with normal C1-INH are also discussed. Collaborative patient and physician efforts, crucial in rare diseases, are emphasized. This supplement seeks to raise awareness and aid diagnosis of HAE, optimize treatment for all patients, and provide a platform for further research in this rare, partially understood disorder.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease that commonly manifests with episodes of cutaneous or submucosal angioedema and intense abdominal pain. The condition usually presents due to a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) that leads to the overproduction of bradykinin, causing an abrupt increase in vascular permeability. A less-understood and less-common form of the disease presents with normal C1-INH levels. Symptoms of angioedema may be confused initially with mast cell-mediated angioedema, such as allergic reactions, and may perplex physicians when epinephrine, antihistamine, or glucocorticoid therapies do not provide relief. Similarly, abdominal attacks may lead to unnecessary surgeries or opiate dependence. All affected individuals are at risk for a life-threatening episode of laryngeal angioedema, which continues to be a source of fatalities due to asphyxiation. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is delayed on average by almost a decade due to a misunderstanding of symptoms and general lack of awareness of the disease. Once physicians suspect HAE, however, diagnostic methods are reliable and available at most laboratories, and include testing for C4, C1-INH protein, and C1-INH functional levels. In patients with HAE, management consists of acute treatment of an attack as well as possible short- or long-term prophylaxis. Plasma-derived C1-INH, ecallantide, icatibant, and recombinant human C1-INH are new treatments that have been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of HAE attacks. The current understanding of HAE has greatly improved in recent decades, leading to growing awareness, new treatments, improved management strategies, and better outcomes for patients.
Project description:Subcutaneous C1-inhibitor (HAEGARDA, CSL Behring), is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, highly concentrated formulation of a plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), which, in the phase III Clinical Studies for Optimal Management in Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT) trial, reduced the incidence of hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks when given prophylactically. Data from the COMPACT trial were used to develop a repeated time-to-event model to characterize the timing and frequency of HAE attacks as a function of C1-INH activity, and then develop an exposure-response model to assess the relationship between C1-INH functional activity levels (C1-INH(f)) and the risk of an attack. The C1-INH(f) values of 33.1%, 40.3%, and 63.1% were predicted to correspond with 50%, 70%, and 90% reductions in the HAE attack risk, respectively, relative to no therapy. Based on trough C1-INH(f) values for the 40 IU/kg (40.2%) and 60 IU/kg (48.0%) C1-INH (SC) doses, the model predicted that 50% and 67% of the population, respectively, would see at least a 70% decrease in the risk of an attack.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE), an inherited deficiency of functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), is characterized by unpredictable recurrent episodes of painful and often disabling swelling in subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with type I HAE who had abdominal, facial, and peripheral attacks throughout her first pregnancy. A facial HAE attack occurred at week 38 of her pregnancy, and symptoms improved after self-administration of 50 U/kg of recombinant human C1-INH (total dose, 3500 U), but soon after she had an unusual abdominal sensation. Ultrasonography detected fetal lower lip swelling (?3 times the normal size) and limb swelling. Physical examination of the mother found cervical dilatation, indicating the final stages of labor. Two hours after treatment of her HAE attack, she spontaneously delivered a healthy male infant. Photographs taken within 2 minutes of delivery revealed resolution of the infant's facial edema, and the limb edema was resolved within 30 minutes. By 10 minutes postdelivery, the mother's facial attack had almost completely resolved. Ten months after birth, genetic analysis confirmed that the infant had type I HAE. This is the first documented case of an HAE attack in utero. Treatment of the mother with recombinant human C1-INH was effective for the maternal and fetal attacks, with resolution within approximately 2 to 2.5 hours for both patients.
Project description:To explore treatment behaviours in a cohort of Italian patients with hereditary angioedema due to complement C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), and to estimate how effects and costs of treating attacks in routine practice differed across available on-demand treatments.Cost analyses and survival analyses using attack-level data collected prospectively for 1 year.National reference centre for C1-INH-HAE.167 patients with proved diagnosis of C1-INH-HAE, who reported data on angioedema attacks, including severity, localisation and duration, treatment received, and use of other healthcare services.Attacks were treated with either icatibant, plasma-derived C1-INH (pdC1-INH) or just supportive care.Treatment efficacy in reducing attack duration and the direct costs of acute attacks.Overall, 133 of 167 patients (79.6%) reported 1508 attacks during the study period, with mean incidence of 11 attacks per patient per year. Only 78.9% of attacks were treated in contrast to current guidelines. Both icatibant and pdC1-INH significantly reduced attack duration compared with no treatment (median times from onset 7, 10 and 47 hours, respectively), but remission rates with icatibant were 31% faster compared with pdC1-INH (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.51). However, observed treatment behaviours suggest patterns of suboptimal dosing for pdC1-INH. The average cost per attack was €1183 (SD €789) resulting in €1.58 million healthcare costs during the observation period (€11 912 per patient per year). Icatibant was 54% more expensive than pdC1-INH, whereas age, sex and prophylactic treatment were not associated to higher or lower costs.Both icatibant and pdC1-INH significantly reduced attack duration compared with no treatment, however, icatibant was more effective but also more expensive. Treatment behaviours and suboptimal dosing of pdC1-INH may account for the differences, but further research is needed to define their role.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease characterized by episodic subcutaneous or submucosal swelling. The primary cause for the most common form of HAE is a deficiency in functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). The swelling caused by HAE can be painful, disfiguring, and life-threatening. It reduces daily function and compromises the quality of life of affected individuals and their caregivers. Among different treatment strategies, replacement with C1-INH concentrates is employed for on-demand treatment of acute attacks and long-term prophylaxis. Three human plasma-derived C1-INH preparations are approved for HAE treatment in the US, the European Union, or both regions: Cinryze(®), Berinert(®), and Cetor(®); however, only Cinryze is approved for long-term prophylaxis. Postmarketing studies have shown that home therapy (self-administered or administered by a caregiver) is a convenient and safe option preferred by many HAE patients. In this review, we summarize the role of self-administered plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate therapy with Cinryze at home in the prophylaxis of HAE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients affected by angioedema due to hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (HAE and AAE, respectively) report trouble accessing dental care, due to the risk of a life-threatening oropharyngeal and laryngeal attack triggered by dental procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the identification of hurdles in receiving dental care, and the effectiveness of short-term prophylaxis (STP) in preventing angioedema attacks. In addition, the study evaluated the impact of dental care in angioedema disease. All patients affected by angioedema due to C1-INH deficiency who were treated in the dentistry outpatient department of ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco hospital (Milan, Italy) between 2009 and 2017 were considered for the analysis. Data were collected from patients' records. RESULTS:Twenty-nine patients were analyzed (27 with HAE and 2 with AAE). Of these, 63.0% reported that they had previously experienced hurdles in accessing dental care. Among patients with pathological oral status, at the first visit, 59.26% patients had moderate-to-severe oral disease. Seventy-five dental procedures were performed in 20 patients. Sixty procedures were preceded by STP (58 with plasma-derived C1-INH and 2 with danazol) in patients with/without long-term prophylaxis (LTP). Post-procedural attacks occurred in two patients. One HAE patient undergoing a tooth extraction without STP/LTP experienced a laryngeal attack. The other post-procedural attack occurred in an AAE patient with anti-C1-INH antibodies with STP with pdC1-INH. The angioedema disease did not worsen in any patient after dental care, but improved in four of them. CONCLUSIONS:Most C1-INH-HAE patients reported hurdles in receiving dental care. STP protects against attacks after dental procedures. Treating oral diseases results in improvement in the frequency of attacks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) experience recurrent attacks of cutaneous or submucosal edema that may be frequent and severe; prophylactic treatments can be prescribed to prevent attacks. However, despite the use of long-term prophylaxis (LTP), breakthrough attacks are known to occur. We used data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) to evaluate the characteristics of breakthrough attacks and the effectiveness of icatibant as a treatment option. METHODS:Data on LTP use, attacks, and treatments were recorded. Attack characteristics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes (time to treatment, time to resolution, and duration of attack) were compared for attacks that occurred with versus without LTP. RESULTS:Data on 3228 icatibant-treated attacks from 448 patients with C1-INH-HAE were analyzed; 30.1% of attacks occurred while patients were using LTP. Attack rate, attack severity, and the distribution of attack sites were similar across all types of LTP used, and were comparable to the results found in patients who did not receive LTP. Attacks were successfully treated with icatibant; 82.5% of all breakthrough attacks were treated with a single icatibant injection without C1-INH rescue medication. Treatment outcomes were comparable for breakthrough attacks across all LTP types, and for attacks without LTP. CONCLUSIONS:Patients who use LTP should be aware that breakthrough attacks can occur, and such attacks can be severe. Thus, patients with C1-INH-HAE using LTP should have emergency treatment readily available. Data from IOS show that icatibant is effective for the treatment of breakthrough attacks. Trial Registration NCT01034969.
Project description:Introduction:For prophylaxis of hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks, replacement therapy with human C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) treatment is approved and available as intravenous [C1-INH(IV)] (Cinryze®) and subcutaneous [C1-INH(SC)] HAEGARDA® preparations. In the absence of a head-to-head comparative study of the two treatment modalities, an indirect comparison of data from 2 independent but similar clinical trials was undertaken. Methods:Two similar randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were identified which evaluated either C1-INH(SC) (COMPACT; NCT01912456; 16 weeks) or C1-INH(IV) (CHANGE; NCT01005888; 14 weeks) vs. placebo (on-demand treatment only) for routine prevention of HAE attacks. Individual patient data from each trial were used to conduct an indirect comparison of treatment effects. Attack reductions (absolute and percent of mean/median number of monthly HAE attacks reduction over placebo) were compared between the two C1-INH formulations at approved/recommended doses: C1-INH(SC) 60 IU/kg twice weekly (n?=?45) and 1000 U of C1-INH(IV) twice weekly (n?=?22). Point estimates were adjusted using mixed and quantile regression models that controlled for study design. Results:The absolute mean monthly numbers of HAE attack reductions were 3.6 (95% CI 2.9, 4.2) for C1-INH(SC) 60 IU/kg vs. placebo and 2.3 (1.4, 3.3) for C1-INH(IV) vs. placebo; between-product difference, 1.3 (0.1, 2.4; P?=?0.034). The mean percent reduction in monthly attack rate was significantly greater with C1-INH(SC) as compared with C1-INH(IV) (84% vs. 51%; P?<?0.001). The percentages of subjects experiencing ??50%,???70%, and???90% reductions in monthly HAE attack rates versus placebo were significantly higher with C1-INH(SC) 60 IU/kg as compared to C1-INH(IV) 1000 U (??50% reduction: 91% vs. 50%, odds ratio [OR]?=?10.33, P?=?0.003; ??70% reduction: 84% vs. 46%, OR?=?6.19, P?=?0.005; ??90% reduction: 57% vs. 18%, OR?=?6.04, P?=?0.007). Conclusion:Within the limitations of an indirect study comparison, this analysis suggests greater attack reduction with twice-weekly C1-INH(SC) 60 IU/kg as compared to twice-weekly C1-INH(IV) 1000 U for the routine prevention of HAE attacks.
Project description:Background:Women with hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1INH) experience more frequent and severe angioedema attacks compared with men. Fluctuations in female sex hormones can influence HAE attack frequency and severity. Subcutaneous C1-INH (C1-INH [SC]) is indicated as routine prophylaxis to prevent HAE attacks. In this post hoc subgroup analysis, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of C1-INH (SC) in female subjects with HAE-C1INH enrolled in an open-label extension of the pivotal phase III COMPACT trial. Methods:In this multicenter, randomized, parallel-arm trial, eligible subjects (age???6 years with???4 attacks over 2 consecutive months) received C1-INH (SC) 40 IU/kg or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 52 to 140 weeks. Analyses of efficacy endpoints were performed for all female subjects and those of childbearing age (age???15 to???45 years), including subjects who became pregnant during the evaluation period. Results:Overall, 91% (69/76) of female subjects were classified as responders (??50% reduction in HAE attacks relative to the pre-study period); 82% experienced?<?1 attack/4 weeks. The median number of attacks/month was 0.10, with 96% median reduction in attacks relative to the pre-study period. Results were similar in the subgroup of subjects of childbearing age. Four women who became pregnant during the trial and were exposed to C1-INH (SC) during the first trimester delivered healthy babies with no congenital abnormalities. Conclusions:C1-INH (SC) prophylaxis was safe and effective in women with HAE-C1INH, including those of childbearing age. Four women exposed to C1-INH (SC) during the first trimester had uneventful pregnancies and delivered healthy babies.Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02316353 (Registered December 10, 2014); https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02316353.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) deficiency (C1-Inh-HAE) is a rare, life-threatening, and disabling genetic disorder characterized by self-limited tissue swelling caused by deficiency or dysfunction of C1-Inh. Our aim in this update is to discuss new advances in HAE therapy, focusing mainly on the various treatment options that have become available recently and also drugs that are under trial for prophylaxis to prevent attacks. There is a paradigm shift to where the treatment of HAE is headed, focusing now on prophylactic treatment rather than abortive management.