ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic, common, inflammatory skin disease. The classic skin lesions can be described as sharply demarcated, scaly, erythematous plaques often found on the extensor surfaces. Several variants of psoriasis have also been described, including palmoplantar, pustular, erythrodermic, and guttate forms. Although psoriasis is usually diagnosed clinically, characteristic histologic findings include hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, and acanthosis of the epidermis with dilated blood vessels and a lymphocytic infiltrate. Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease, and although the etiology is not fully understood, genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. Importantly, psoriasis is associated with a number of systemic complications and comorbidities that have a high impact on affected patients.
Project description:Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatments are effective in controlling disease activity in many immune-mediated diseases such as psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Although side effects such as infection and skin reactions are predictable in anti-TNF treatment; susceptibility to psoriasis is considered as a paradoxical side effect.We report a case of forty-year-old male patient with 7 years of AS was taking anti-TNF therapy. He admitted our clinic with widespread guttate sized round, crusty rashes at feet, legs and elbows. In pathological examination of lesions; focal parakeratosis, mild acanthosis, capillary proliferation in the papillary dermis and focal extravasated erythrocytes were observed. He was diagnosed as anti-TNF induced guttate psoriasis. Although there is no definite treatment option, topical treatments, interrupting drug treatment or adding a disease-modifying agent for psoriasis are recommended. In this case report, we aimed to share our clinical approach to the paradoxical psoriasis manifestation which developed after two different anti-TNF treatments in a patient with AS.
Project description:Psoriasis, a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease characterized by red, scaly plaques, affects approximately 0.3% of the population in Japan. The aim of this open-label study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ixekizumab, a humanized, anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in Japanese patients with plaque psoriasis (n = 78, including 11 psoriatic arthritis), erythrodermic psoriasis (n = 8) and generalized pustular psoriasis (n = 5). Ixekizumab was administrated s.c. at baseline (week 0, 160 mg), from weeks 2 to 12 (80 mg every 2 weeks), and from weeks 16 to 52 (80 mg every 4 weeks). At week 52, 92.3% of patients with plaque psoriasis achieved Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75, 80.8% achieved PASI 90, 48.7% achieved PASI 100, and 52.6% had remission of plaques (by static Physician Global Assessment, sPGA ). Difficult to treat areas of psoriasis (nail or scalp) also responded to ixekizumab. All patients with psoriatic arthritis who were assessed (5/5) achieved an American College of Rheumatology 20 response. Most patients with erythrodermic psoriasis or generalized pustular psoriasis responded to ixekizumab and the clinical outcome was maintained over 52 weeks (75% and 60% of patients achieved sPGA [0, 1] at week 52, respectively). Mostly mild or moderate treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79 of 91 patients; the most common were nasopharyngitis, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, urticaria and injection site reactions. In conclusion, 52-week ixekizumab treatment was efficacious and well tolerated in Japanese patients with plaque psoriasis. Efficacy was also observed in patients with erythrodermic psoriasis, generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
Project description:Inverse and erythrodermic psoriasis are rare subtypes of psoriasis. Whereas the former is characterized by shiny erythematous non-scaly plaques in the body folds, the latter has widespread redness with fine scale, covering over 80% of the body-surface area, and can be life-threatening. Both are considered to be clinical subtypes of chronic plaque psoriasis, and often co-exist or evolve from plaque psoriasis (Boyd and Menter, 1989; Omland and Gniadecki, 2015), but the pathogenic mechanisms involved are unknown, and current treatments are frequently unsatisfactory. To assess shared and unique processes between chronic plaque, inverse, and erythrodermic psoriasis we analyzed archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies of clinically and histologically confirmed chronic plaque (n=12), inverse (n=40) and erythrodermic psoriasis cases (n=30) and healthy control skin (n=20) using Affymetrix ST 2.1 Arrays. Compared with healthy skin, psoriatic plaque lesions yielded 2450 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR, p<0.05), inverse psoriasis lesions yielded 408 DEGs (FDR, p<0.05) and erythrodermic psoriasis lesions yielded 447 DEGs (FDR, p<0.05). In total 294 genes were found to be shared among the three disease subtypes (FDR, p<0.05). While the overlap only accounted for 12% of the DEGs in chronic plaque psoriasis, it accounted for 66% and 72% of DEGs in erythrodermic and inverse psoriasis respectively. Overall design: 20 normal healthy skin biopsies, 12 chronic plaque psoriasis, 40 inverse psoriasis, 30 erythrodermic psorasis
Project description:BACKGROUND:Erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis are rare, difficult to treat forms of psoriasis. In previous reports, we documented 24- and 52-week findings of an open-label, phase 3 trial (UNCOVER-J) of ixekizumab in Japanese patients with erythrodermic or generalized pustular psoriasis; most patients responded to treatment and maintained response through 52 weeks. OBJECTIVE:To assess the long-term (>3 years) efficacy and safety of ixekizumab in Japanese patients with erythrodermic or generalized pustular psoriasis. METHODS:These subgroup analyses were of a partial population of patients from UNCOVER-J (NCT01624233; Sponsored by Eli Lilly and Company), specifically those with erythrodermic psoriasis (N = 8) or generalized pustular psoriasis (N = 5). These patients received 160 mg ixekizumab at Week 0, ixekizumab 80 mg every 2 weeks through Week 12, and ixekizumab 80 mg every 4 weeks thereafter up to Week 244. This regimen is consistent with the regimen approved in Japan for plaque, erythrodermic, and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Efficacy assessments included Global Improvement Score (GIS), Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), dermal symptoms (for patients with generalized pustular psoriasis), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Itch Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events and adverse events of special interest. RESULTS:Most patients had a GIS of resolved or improved from Week 12 onwards, and all patients had early and sustained improvement in PASI and dermal symptom (generalized pustular psoriasis only) scores. Mean improvements in DLQI and Itch NRS at Week 12 were sustained through Week 244. Ixekizumab was well tolerated over 3 years of treatment in patients with erythrodermic psoriasis or generalized pustular psoriasis, and no new safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that ixekizumab can be an effective long-term treatment option for erythrodermic or generalized pustular psoriasis.
Project description:Amphiregulin (AR) is a heparin-binding, heparin-inhibited member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and an autocrine growth factor for human keratinocytes. Previous studies have shown that AR expression is increased in psoriatic epidermis. To test the hypothesis that aberrant AR expression is central to the development of psoriatic lesions, we constructed a transgene (K14-ARGE) encoding a human keratin 14 promoter-driven AR gene. Our results indicate that transgene integration and subsequent expression of AR in basal keratinocytes correlated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype. Afflicted mice demonstrated shortened life spans, prominent scaling and erythematous skin with alopecia, and occasional papillomatous epidermal growths. Histologic examination revealed extensive areas of marked hyperkeratosis with focal parakeratosis, acanthosis, dermal and epidermal lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltration, and dilated blood vessels within the papillary dermis. Our results reveal that AR exerts activity in the skin that is distinct from that of transgenic transforming growth factor-alpha or other cytokines, and induces skin pathology with striking similarities to psoriasis. Our observations also link the keratinocyte EGF receptor-ligand system to psoriatic inflammation, and suggest that aberrant expression of AR in the epidermis may represent a critical step in the development or propagation of psoriatic lesions.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Ixekizumab has demonstrated rapid onset of action, high levels of skin clearance, and improvements in quality of life in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, including plaque, erythrodermic, or generalized pustular psoriasis. METHODS:This was a post hoc analysis of UNCOVER-J, a phase 3, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study of ixekizumab for treatment of Japanese patients with psoriasis. The objective was to assess the proportion of patients who achieved Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) (0,1) and Itch Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) (0) at weeks 4 and 12 according to Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) percentage improvement levels. All intent-to-treat patients with plaque, erythrodermic, or generalized pustular psoriasis were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 91 patients were treated with ixekizumab and included in the analysis. Rapid improvements in PASI at weeks 4 and 12 were associated with improvements in DLQI (0,1) response at week 4 and at week 12. Complete skin clearance (PASI 100) achieved either at week 4 or week 12 was associated with a higher Itch NRS (0) response at week 12. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with rapid improvement in clinical symptoms of psoriasis had better patient outcomes than those with slower responses. These findings highlight the clinical importance of achieving a fast response in patients with psoriasis, which may lead to better treatment outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01624233.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorder affecting 2%-4% of the world's population. The prevalence of the disease in childhood and adolescence ranges between 0.5% and 2%. The management of psoriasis in adolescence is an intriguing and complicated task. Given the paucity of officially approved therapies, the very limited evidence-based data from randomized controlled trials, and the absence of standardized guidelines, physicians must rely on published experience from case reports both from the field of dermatology as well as from the application of these drugs for other pediatric conditions coming from the disciplines of rheumatology, gastroenterology, and oncology. Psoriatic adolescents deal with a potentially disfiguring and lifelong disease that could permanently impair their psychological development. It must be clarified to them that psoriasis does not have a permanent cure, and therefore the main goal of treatments is to establish disease control and prolonged periods between flares. The majority of adolescents suffer from mild psoriasis, and thus they are treated basically with topical treatment modalities. Phototherapy is reserved for adolescents with mild-to-moderate plaque disease and/or guttate psoriasis when routine visits to specialized centers do not create practical problems. Systemic agents and biologics are administered to patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, or erythrodermic psoriasis.
Project description:Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against TNF-alpha. It has been approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriatic arthritis and plaque-type psoriasis. In case reports, positive effects on pustular variants of psoriasis have also been reported. However, paradoxically, manifestation of pustular psoriasis and plaque-type psoriasis has been reported in patients treated with TNF antagonists including infliximab for other indications. Here, we report on 5 patients with chronic plaque-type psoriasis who developed palmoplantar pustulosis during or after discontinuation of infliximab therapy. In two of the five cases, manifestation of palmoplantar pustulosis was not accompanied by worsening of plaque-type psoriasis. Possibly, site-specific factors or a differential contribution of immunological processes modulated by TNF inhibitors to palmoplantar pustulosis and plaque-type psoriasis may have played a role.
Project description:To investigate how the CARD14E138A psoriasis-associated mutation induces skin inflammation, a knock-in mouse strain was generated that allows tamoxifen-induced expression of the homologous Card14E138A mutation from the endogenous mouse Card14 locus. Heterozygous expression of CARD14E138A rapidly induced skin acanthosis, immune cell infiltration and expression of psoriasis-associated pro-inflammatory genes. Homozygous expression of CARD14E138A induced more extensive skin inflammation and a severe systemic disease involving infiltration of myeloid cells in multiple organs, temperature reduction, weight loss and organ failure. This severe phenotype resembled acute exacerbations of generalised pustular psoriasis (GPP), a rare form of psoriasis that can be caused by CARD14 mutations in patients. CARD14E138A-induced skin inflammation and systemic disease were independent of adaptive immune cells, ameliorated by blocking TNF and induced by CARD14E138A signalling only in keratinocytes. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory therapies specifically targeting keratinocytes, rather than systemic biologicals, might be effective for GPP treatment early in disease progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Palmoplantar pustulosis is a rare but painful and debilitating disease. It consistently ranks the highest of all psoriasis phenotypic variants in terms of symptoms and functional impairment. Management of plaque-type psoriasis has been revolutionised in the last 10 years with the advent of biologic therapies, but treatment options for pustular psoriasis remain profoundly limited. On the basis of mechanistic findings which suggest a key pathogenic role for interleukin (IL)-1 in pustular psoriasis, we hypothesise that anakinra (IL-1 blockade) will be an efficacious treatment for pustular psoriasis. METHODS/DESIGN:We will conduct a two-stage, adaptive, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial to test the hypothesis that anakinra, self-administered daily by subcutaneous injection over 8 weeks, will deliver therapeutic benefit in palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, a localised form of pustular psoriasis typically involving the palms and/or soles. Safety outcomes will be collected for 20 weeks. A total of 64 participants will be randomised to anakinra or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. At the end of stage 1, a decision to progress to stage 2 will be made. This decision will take place after 24 participants have been randomised and followed for 8 weeks and will be based on the ordering of the observed mean outcome values in both treatment arms. At the end of stage 1, the reliability of outcome measurements and method to collect the data will also be assessed, and the primary outcome will be confirmed for stage 2. DISCUSSION:We have undertaken an adaptive approach in which we will gain proof-of-concept data prior to completing a powered efficacy trial because pustular psoriasis is a rare disease, no validated outcome measures to detect change exist, and limited safety data for anakinra exist in this population. To our knowledge, this will be the first randomised controlled trial that will provide valuable evidence for the efficacy and safety of IL-1 blockade for treatment in pustular psoriasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN13127147 . Registered on 1st August 2016. EudraCT, 2015-003600-23 . Registered on 1st April 2016.