Presence and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Peru.
ABSTRACT: The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and ?-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible.
Project description:Little is known about the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in deer in China. In this study, 662 fecal samples were collected from 11 farms in Henan and Jilin Provinces between July 2013 and August 2014, and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis with genotyping and subtyping methods.Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were detected in 6.80% (45/662) and 1.21% (5/662) of samples, respectively. Six Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene: C. parvum (n = 11); C. andersoni (n = 5); C. ubiquitum (n = 3); C. muris (n = 1); C. suis-like (n = 1); and Cryptosporidium deer genotype (n = 24). When five of the 11 C. parvum isolates were subtyped by sequencing the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 (n = 4) and IIdA19G1 (n = 1) were found. According to a subtype analysis, three C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to XIIa subtype 2. In contrast, only assemblage E was detected in the five Giardia-positive samples with small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing.To our knowledge, this is the first study to report C. andersoni, as well as C. parvum zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 and IIdA19G1 in cervids. These data, though limited, suggest that cervids may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Cervids in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic potential to humans, and more molecular epidemiological studies are required to clarify the prevalence and public health significance of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in cervids throughout China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eukaryotic pathogens, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon, have been implicated in neonatal diarrhoea, leading to marked morbidity and mortality in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) around the world. Australia has the largest population of alpacas outside of South America, but very little is known about these pathogens in alpaca populations in this country. Here, we undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in V. pacos in Australia. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey of 81 herds, comprising alpacas of 6 weeks to 26 years of age, were sampled from the six Australian states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia) across the four seasons. PCR-based sequencing was employed, utilising genetic markers in the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (SSU) and 60-kilodalton glycoprotein (gp60) genes for Cryptosporidium, triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene for Giardia duodenalis and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) for Enterocytozoon bieneusi. RESULTS:PCR-based analyses of 81 faecal DNA samples representing 1421 alpaca individuals detected Cryptosporidium, Giardia and/or Enterocytozoon on 15 farms in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, equating to 18.5% of all samples/herds tested. Cryptosporidium was detected on three (3.7%) farms, G. duodenalis on six (7.4%) and E. bieneusi on eight (9.9%) in two or all of these three states, but not in Queensland, Tasmania or Western Australia. Molecular analyses of selected faecal DNA samples from individual alpacas for Cryptosporidium, Giardia and/or Enterocytozoon consistently showed that alpacas of ≤ 6 months of age harboured these pathogens. CONCLUSIONS:This first molecular investigation of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in alpaca subpopulations in Australia has identified species and genotypes that are of likely importance as primary pathogens of alpacas, particularly young crias, and some genotypes with zoonotic potential. Although the prevalence established here in the alpaca subpopulations studied is low, the present findings suggest that crias are likely reservoirs of infections to susceptible alpacas and/or humans. Future studies should focus on investigating pre-weaned and post-weaned crias, and on exploring transmission patterns to establish what role particular genotypes play in neonatal or perinatal diarrhoea in alpacas and in zoonotic diseases in different states of Australia.
Project description:The environmental transport of Cryptosporidium spp. through combined sewer overflow (CSO) and the occurrence of several emerging human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species in developing countries remain unclear. In this study, we collected 40 CSO samples and 40 raw wastewater samples from Shanghai, China, and examined them by PCR and DNA sequencing for Cryptosporidium species (targeting the small subunit rRNA gene) and Giardia duodenalis (targeting the triosephosphate isomerase, ?-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) genotypes. Human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species were further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene, with additional multilocus sequence typing on the emerging zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi were detected in 12 and 15, 33 and 32, and 37 and 40 CSO and wastewater samples, respectively, including 10 Cryptosporidium species, 3 G. duodenalis assemblages, and 8 E. bieneusi genotypes. In addition to Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, two new pathogens identified in industrialized nations, C. ubiquitum and Cryptosporidium viatorum, were frequently detected. The two novel C. ubiquitum subtype families identified appeared to be genetic recombinants of known subtype families. Similarly, the dominant group 1 E. bieneusi genotypes and G. duodenalis subassemblage AII are known human pathogens. The similar distribution of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis genotypes between wastewater and CSO samples reaffirms that storm overflow is potentially a significant contamination source of pathogens in surface water. The frequent identification of C. ubiquitum and C. viatorum in urban wastewater suggests that these newly identified human pathogens may be endemic in China.IMPORTANCECryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are major waterborne pathogens. Their transport into surface water through combined sewer overflow, which remains largely untreated in developing countries, has not been examined. In addition, the identification of these pathogens to genotypes and subtypes in urban storm overflow and wastewater is necessary for rapid and accurate assessment of pathogen transmission in humans and transport in the environment. Data from this study suggest that, like untreated urban wastewater, combined sewer overflow is commonly contaminated with human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi genotypes and subtypes, and urban storm overflow potentially plays a significant role in the contamination of drinking source water and recreational water with human pathogens. They also indicate that Cryptosporidium ubiquitum and Cryptosporidium viatorum, two newly identified human pathogens, may be common in China, and genetic recombination can lead to the emergence of novel C. ubiquitum subtype families.
Project description:Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important causes of diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and there is an increased interest in the role of animals in the mechanical transmission of these protozoa. To examine the role of yaks in this process, we examined the occurrence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in yaks in western China.A total of 545 fecal specimens were collected from yaks from nine different counties in the central western region of China. The prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 4.0 % (22/545) and 6.0 % (16/545), respectively. Mixed infections of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis were also detected in four specimens. The prevalence of both protozoa differed significantly between some age groups, with higher rates of infection in animals?<?1 year old. Sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of the Cryptosporidium isolates identified the species as C. parvum (n?=?12), C. bovis (n?=?6), C. ryanae (n?=?3), and C. ubiquitum (n?=?1). Genotyping based on 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene from five C. parvum isolates identified all as IId with three isolates identified as IIdA15G1, one as IIdA18G1, and one as IIdA19G1. One C. ubiquitum isolate was identified as subtype VIIa. Amongst the G. duodenalis isolates, 16 were identified as assemblage E at the SSU rRNA gene. Four novel glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) subtypes and two triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) subtypes were found amongst the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates.The presence of C. parvum subtype IIdA15G1, IIdA18G1, and IIdA19G1 isolates further confirms the dominance of the C. parvum IId subtypes in China. These findings also indicate that yaks may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection, and this is the first report of G. duodenalis in yaks. The data presented here provides the basis for further genotyping or subtyping studies of G. duodenalis in yaks.
Project description:Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis are gastro-intestinal parasites that infect human and animals worldwide. Both parasites share a broad host range and are believed to be zoonosis. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of G. duodenalis in lambs and to elucidate their role in zoonotic transmission.A total of 389 fecal samples were collected from lambs and screened by microscopy and nested PCR targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA for Cryptosporidium; and the small-subunit ribosomal RNA, triose phosphate isomerase, ?-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes for G. duodenalis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis was 2.1% (8/389) and 2.6% (10/389), respectively. The infection rate at the three study sites ranged from 1.3 to 3.1% for Cryptosporidium and 1.6 to 3.9% for G. duodenalis; but variation was not statistically significant (p?>?0.05). The finding also showed that there is no sex and age group associated difference in the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis infections in lambs. Sequence analysis revealed that lambs were mono-infection with C. ubiquitum and G. duodenalis assemblage E. The analysis also indicated the presence of genetic variation within isolates of assemblage E; with 4 of them are novel genotypes at the small-subunit ribosomal RNA, ?-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes.The findings of the current study showed that lambs are capable of harboring C. ubiquitum and G. duodenalis assemblage E. This finding suggests that lambs might be sources for potentially zoonotic Cryptosporidium species. This was first molecular study in lambs and contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in central Ethiopia.
Project description:Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous protozoan in human and animals. To investigate the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in China, 484 fecal samples from alpacas were collected at nine sites, and Cryptosporidium spp. were screened with PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosome RNA (SSU rRNA) locus. Cryptosporidium spp. infected 2.9% (14/484) of the alpacas. Of the nine collection sites, two were positive for Cryptosporidium, Wensu (3.0%, 3/100) and Qinghe (31.4%, 11/35). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. parvum (n = 2), C. ubiquitum (n = 1), and C. occultus (n = 11). Cryptosporidium parvum and C. ubiquitum were further subtyped with the 60-kDa glycoprotein locus (gp60). The two C. parvum isolates were subtype IIdA15G1, but the one C. ubiquitum isolate was not subtyped successfully. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Cryptosporidium isolates clustered with previously identified species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Cryptosporidium infections in alpacas in China and provides baseline data for the study of Cryptosporidium in alpacas in China.
Project description:As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498) of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498) with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498) by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498) by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method) were from children aged 1-10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2%) samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%), Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%), Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%), and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples) was most common followed by A (12.3%) and mixed infections (5.1%). Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67-55.46), chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79-11.34) and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.73); specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03) and C. meleagridis (p<0.001) were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission in this population. Interventions to improve sanitation, increase hand washing after defecation and before preparing food and promote drinking boiled water may reduce the burden of these two parasites.
Project description:Italy is the only European country where the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) lives. A parasitological investigation was performed on faecal samples, aimed to evaluate Giardia and other parasites in a free-ranging crested porcupine population in Central Italy. Samples were collected from captured and road-killed individuals as well as from feeding areas and pathways. Collected faecal samples were examined by the Mini-FLOTAC technique and a rapid immunoassay for the search of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. faecal antigens. For the identification of Giardia species and genotypes, molecular analysis was performed on Giardia-positive samples, by using PCR protocols able to amplify glutamate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase and a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. A total of 52 crested porcupine faecal samples were collected and analysed. At microscopical examination, 39 out of 52 samples were found positive for at least a single parasite species and six different parasite taxa were identified. Forty-eight percent (25/52) of faecal samples were positive for Giardia spp. and 1.9% (1/52) for Cryptosporidium spp. at the immunoassay. Among 12 faecal samples belonging to different individuals, 33.3% (4/12) were positive for Giardia spp. By using the Mini-FLOTAC technique, positivity for Trichuris spp. (32.7%, 17/52), gastrointestinal strongyles (32.7%, 17/52), capillariid eggs (3.8%, 2/52) and coccidian oocysts (1.9%; 1/52) was also evidenced. Molecular analysis was performed on 17 out of 25 Giardia-positive isolates. At the SSU rDNA locus, expected bands were achieved for 12 out of 17 isolates and all samples were assigned to Giardia duodenalis assemblage B. Sequencing at tpi locus revealed potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblage AII (two isolates) and assemblage BIV (one isolate). The present study provides the first report of G. duodenalis infection in H. cristata. More in depth studies are needed on the impact and epidemiology of G. duodenalis and other identified parasites in crested porcupines.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common gastrointestinal protozoa in mammals. Many studies have been conducted on the distribution of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in sheep and cattle. However, in China, information about molecular characterization and genetic analysis of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in goats is limited. In this study, 342 fecal samples from adult goats were collected from 12 farms in Sichuan Province, China. The occurrence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in adult goats was 14.9% (51/342) and 4.7% (16/342), respectively. All G. duodenalis were identified as assemblage E, with two novel genotypes (assemblages E17 and E18) being detected at the beta-giardin (bg) locus. Based on three loci-beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh)-multilocus sequence typing revealed three novel multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of assemblage E (MLG-E1, E2, E3 (sc)). Small Subunit (SSU) rRNA-based PCR identified two Cryptosporidium species, namely C. xiaoi (11/16) and C. suis (5/16). This study is not only the first to report C. suis infection in adult goats in China but is also the first to use the MLG approach to identify G. duodenalis in adult goats.