5'-O-masked 2'-deoxyadenosine analogues as lead compounds for hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic agents.
ABSTRACT: On the basis of our previous study on antiviral agents against the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, a series of nucleoside analogues whose 5'-hydroxyl groups are masked by various protective groups such as carboxylate, sulfonate, and ether were synthesized and evaluated to develop novel anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents. Among these, several 5'-O-masked analogues of 6-chloropurine-2'-deoxyriboside (e.g., 5'-O-benzoyl, 5'-O-p-methoxybenzoyl, and 5'-O-benzyl analogues) were found to exhibit effective anti-HCV activity. In particular, the 5'-O-benzoyl analogue exhibited the highest potency with an EC(50) of 6.1 microM in a cell-based HCV replicon assay. Since the 5'-O-unmasked analogue (i.e., 6-chloropurine-2'-deoxyriboside) was not sufficiently potent (EC(50)=47.2 microM), masking of the 5'-hydroxyl group seems to be an effective method for the development of anti-HCV agents. Presently, we hypothesize two roles for the 5'-O-masked analogues: One is the role as an anti-HCV agent by itself, and the other is as a prodrug of its 5'-O-demasked (deprotected) derivative.
Project description:This work describes the application of thermophilic microorganisms for obtaining 6-halogenated purine nucleosides. Biosynthesis of 6-chloropurine-2'-deoxyriboside and 6-chloropurine riboside was achieved by Geobacillus stearothermophilus CECT 43 with a conversion of 90% and 68%, respectively. Furthermore, the selected microorganism was satisfactorily stabilized by immobilization in an agarose matrix. This biocatalyst can be reused at least 70 times without significant loss of activity, obtaining 379mg/L of 6-chloropurine-2'-deoxyriboside. The obtained compounds can be used as antiviral agents.
Project description:The purine-2'-deoxyribonucleosidase of Crithidia luciliae catalyses an efficient deoxyribosyl transfer between a variety of purine bases, benzimidazole and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole. Since the deoxyriboside of a deoxyribosyl acceptor is necessarily also a substrate, the trans-N-deoxyribosylase activity of the enzyme allows a study of its specificity to be extended to a large number of purines and purine analogues. Amongst 27 different deoxyribosyl acceptors, only hypoxanthine gave rise to isomeric products. The introduction of methyl groups at appropriate positions in either purine or benzimidazole lowered the Michaelis constant, KB, for deoxyribosyl acceptors: by about 10-fold for 6-methylpurine (KB 351 +/- 87 microM) compared with purine (KB 3.91 +/- 0.8 mM) and by about 10(3)-fold for 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (KB 7.0 +/- 0.79 microM) compared with benzimidazole (Km,app. 7.8 +/- 2.4 mM). The maximal rates of deoxyribosyl transfer to different acceptors, on the other hand, varied by only 4.5-fold, and can be ascribed to decreases in the rate of release of the newly formed purine deoxyriboside from the enzyme.
Project description:Chiral Z- and E-stereoisomers of (1,2-dihydroxyethyl)methylenecyclopropane analogues of 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxyguanosine were synthesized, and their antiviral activity was investigated. (S)-Methylenecyclopropylcarbinol (16) was converted in seven steps to reagents 26 and 27, which were used for alkylation-elimination of adenine and 2-amino-6-chloropurine to get ultimately analogues 12a, 12b, 13a, 13b, 14a, 14b, 15a, and 15b. The enantiomeric series ent-12a, ent-12b, ent-13a, ent-13b, ent-14a, ent-14b, ent-15a, and ent-15b was obtained by similar procedures starting from (R)-methylenecyclopropylcarbinol (ent-16). The Z-isomer ent-12b was an inhibitor of two strains of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) with EC(50) of 6.8 and 7.5 microM and of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) with EC(50) of 11.3 microM. It was less active against HCMV with mutated gene UL97. It inhibited Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with EC(50) of 8 microM. The E-isomers ent-15a, ent-13a, and 15b were less effective. All adenine analogues with the exception of the Z-isomers ent-12a and ent-14a were moderate substrates for adenosine deaminase.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for toxoplasmosis. T. gondii is a purine auxotroph incapable of de novo purine biosynthesis and depends on salvage pathways for its purine requirements. Adenosine kinase (EC.220.127.116.11) is the major enzyme in the salvage of purines in these parasites. 6-Benzylthioinosine and analogues were established as "subversive substrates" for the T. gondii, but not for the human adenosine kinase. Therefore, these compounds act as selective anti-toxoplasma agents. In the present study, a series of N(6)-benzyladenosine analogues were synthesized from 6-chloropurine riboside with substituted benzylamines via solution phase parallel synthesis. These N(6)-benzyladenosine analogues were evaluated for their binding affinity to purified T. gondii adenosine kinase. Furthermore, the anti-toxoplasma efficacy and host toxicity of these compounds were tested in cell culture. Certain substituents on the aromatic ring improved binding affinity to T. gondii adenosine kinase when compared to the unsubstituted N(6)-benzyladenosine. Similarly, varying the type and position of the substituents on the aromatic ring led to different degrees of potency and selectivity as anti-toxoplasma agents. Among the synthesized analogues, N(6)-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)adenosine exhibited the most favorable anti-toxoplasma activity without host toxicity. The binding mode of the synthesized N(6)-benzyladenosine analogues were characterized to illustrate the role of additional hydrophobic effect and van der Waals interaction within an active site of T. gondii adenosine kinase by induced fit molecular modeling.
Project description:All stereoisomers of adenine and guanine methylene-3-fluoromethylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleosides 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b, 12a, and 12b were synthesized and their antiviral activities were evaluated. A highly convergent approach permitted the synthesis of all these analogues using a single intermediate 15. Reaction of aldehyde 13 with fluorotrichloromethane and tri-n-butylphosphine gave fluoroalkenes 14a+14b (83:17). Addition of carbene derived from ethyl diazoacetate gave cyclopropane 15 as the major product. Reduction (19), bromination (20), and phenylselenenylation (21), followed by Se oxidation and beta-elimination gave cis-methylenecyclopropane 22. Addition of bromine provided the reagent 23 for alkylation-elimination. Reaction of 23 with adenine led to an isomeric mixture 25a+26a that after deprotection afforded analogues 9a and 10a. The 2-amino-6-chloropurine furnished 25e+26e and after deblocking (9e and 10e) and hydrolysis gave targets 9b and 10b. Intermediate 15 provided, after debenzylation (27), 2-nitrophenylselenenylation (28), reduction (29), benzylation (30), and oxidation-elimination trans-methylenecyclopropane 31. Addition of bromine gave reagent 32. Further transformations followed the sequence outlined for analogues 9a, 9b, 10a, and 10b. Analogue 9b was effective against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV; Towne) with EC50 2.9 microM. The trans-isomer 10b inhibited AD169 strain of HCMV (EC50 15 microM) and the murine virus MCMV (EC50 2.5 microM). Compound 12a was effective against Epstein-Barr virus (EC50<0.03 microM). Analogue 9a inhibited varicella zoster virus (EC50 5.9 microM) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (EC50 5.2 microM). Analogues 9a, 10a, and 11a are moderate substrates for adenosine deaminase. The structure-activity relationships will be discussed in context with other methylenecyclopropane analogues.
Project description:A series of 7-deazaneplanocin A (7-DNPA, 2) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against HBV and HCV. The syntheses of target carbocyclic nucleosides were accomplished via a convergent procedure. 7-Substitutions were introduced by using 7-substituted-7-deaza heterocyclic base precursors (F, Cl, Br, and I) or via substitution reactions after the synthesis of the carbocyclic nucleosides. Among the synthesized compounds, 2, 13-15, 24, and 27 exhibited significant anti-HCV activity (EC(50) ranged from 1.8 to 20.1 microM) and compounds 2, 15, 22, and 24 demonstrated moderate to potent anti-HBV activity (EC(50) = 0.3-3.3 microM). In addition, compound 24 also showed activity against lamivudine- and adefovir-associated HBV mutants.
Project description:We designed and synthesized a classical analogue N-[4-[(2-amino-6-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)thio]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid (4) and thirteen nonclassical analogues 5-17 as potential dual thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors and as antitumor agents. The key intermediate in their synthesis was 2-amino-6-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine, 22, to which various aryl thiols were conveniently attached at the 5-position via an oxidative addition reaction using iodine. For the classical analogue 4, the ester obtained from the reaction was deprotected and coupled with diethyl L-glutamate followed by saponification. Compound 4 was a potent dual inhibitor of human TS (IC(50) = 90 nM) and human DHFR (IC(50) = 420 nM). Compound 4 was not a substrate for human FPGS. Metabolite protection studies established TS as its principal target. Most of the nonclassical analogues were only inhibitors of human TS with IC(50) values of 0.23-26 microM.
Project description:SARS-CoV 3CL protease is essential for viral protein processing and is regarded as a good drug target to prevent SARS-CoV replication. In the present study, we established a high-throughput FRET technique for screening for anti-SARS-CoV 3CL protease drugs. Of a thousand existing drugs examined, hexachlorophene was identified as the most potent in inhibiting SARS-CoV 3CL protease. Further characterization showed that it was effective at micromolar concentrations (K(i) = 4 microM). The binding mode was competitive, and the inhibitory effect was dependent on preincubation time. Two other drugs, triclosan and nelfinavir, were about 10 times less potent. The structure-based search and biological evaluation of various hexachlorophene analogues were described. These analogues gave optimal inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV 3CL protease with IC(50) values ranging from 7.6 to 84.5 microM. Optimization of hexachlorophene analogues was shown to provide several active 3CL protease inhibitors that function as potential anti-SARS agents.
Project description:We reported previously that Artemisinin (ART), a widely used anti-malarial drug, is an inhibitor of in vitro HCV subgenomic replicon replication. We here demonstrate that ART exerts its antiviral activity also in hepatoma cells infected with full length infectious HCV JFH-1. We identified a number of ART analogues that are up to 10-fold more potent and selective as in vitro inhibitors of HCV replication than ART. The iron donor Hemin only marginally potentiates the anti-HCV activity of ART in HCV-infected cultures. Carbon-centered radicals have been shown to be critical for the anti-malarial activity of ART. We demonstrate that carbon-centered radicals-trapping (the so-called TEMPO) compounds only marginally affect the anti-HCV activity of ART. This provides evidence that carbon-centered radicals are not the main effectors of the anti-HCV activity of the Artemisinin. ART and analogues may possibly exert their anti-HCV activity by the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The combined anti-HCV activity of ART or its analogues with L-N-Acetylcysteine (L-NAC) [a molecule that inhibits ROS generation] was studied. L-NAC significantly reduced the in vitro anti-HCV activity of ART and derivatives. Taken together, the in vitro anti-HCV activity of ART and analogues can, at least in part, be explained by the induction of ROS; carbon-centered radicals may not be important in the anti-HCV effect of these molecules.
Project description:Ribonucleoside analogues have potential utility as anti-viral, -parasitic, -bacterial and -cancer agents. However, their clinical applications have been limited by off target effects. Development of antiviral ribonucleosides for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been hampered by appearance of toxicity during clinical trials that evaded detection during preclinical studies. It is well established that the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase is an off target for deoxyribonucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Here we test the hypothesis that triphosphorylated metabolites of therapeutic ribonucleoside analogues are substrates for cellular RNA polymerases. We have used ribonucleoside analogues with activity against HCV as model compounds for therapeutic ribonucleosides. We have included ribonucleoside analogues containing 2'-C-methyl, 4'-methyl and 4'-azido substituents that are non-obligate chain terminators of the HCV RNA polymerase. We show that all of the anti-HCV ribonucleoside analogues are substrates for human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) and eukaryotic core RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in vitro. Unexpectedly, analogues containing 2'-C-methyl, 4'-methyl and 4'-azido substituents were inhibitors of POLRMT and Pol II. Importantly, the proofreading activity of TFIIS was capable of excising these analogues from Pol II transcripts. Evaluation of transcription in cells confirmed sensitivity of POLRMT to antiviral ribonucleosides, while Pol II remained predominantly refractory. We introduce a parameter termed the mitovir (mitochondrial dysfunction caused by antiviral ribonucleoside) score that can be readily obtained during preclinical studies that quantifies the mitochondrial toxicity potential of compounds. We suggest the possibility that patients exhibiting adverse effects during clinical trials may be more susceptible to damage by nucleoside analogs because of defects in mitochondrial or nuclear transcription. The paradigm reported here should facilitate development of ribonucleosides with a lower potential for toxicity.