Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-5-halouridine phosphoramidate ProTides.
ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis of a series of novel 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-5-halouridines and their corresponding phosphoramidate ProTides. All compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity and for cellular toxicity. Interestingly, 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-5-iodo- and -5-bromo-uridines showed selective activity against feline herpes virus replication in cell culture due to a specific recognition (activation) by the virus-encoded thymidine kinase.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging flavivirus that causes neurodevelopmental impairment to fetuses and has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome continues to threaten global health due to the absence of targeted prophylaxis or treatment. Nucleoside analogues are good examples of efficient anti-viral inhibitors, and prodrug strategies using phosphate masking groups (ProTides) have been employed to improve the bioavailability of ribonucleoside analogues. Here, we synthesized and tested a small library of 13 ProTides against ZIKV in human neural stem cells. Strong activity was observed for 2'-C-methyluridine and 2'-C-ethynyluridine ProTides with an aryloxyl phosphoramidate masking group. Substitution of a 2-(methylthio) ethyl phosphoramidate for the aryloxyl phosphoramidate ProTide group of 2'-C-methyluridine completely abolished antiviral activity of the compound. The aryloxyl phosphoramidate ProTide of 2'-C-methyluridine outperformed the hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug sofosbuvir in suppression of viral titers and protection from cytopathic effect, while the former compound's triphosphate active metabolite was better incorporated by purified ZIKV NS5 polymerase over time. These findings suggest both a nucleobase and ProTide group bias for the anti-ZIKV activity of nucleoside analogue ProTides in a disease-relevant cell model.
Project description:Phosphoramidate pro-nucleotides (ProTides) have revolutionized the field of anti-viral and anti-cancer nucleoside therapy, overcoming the major limitations of nucleoside therapies and achieving clinical and commercial success. Despite the translation of ProTide technology into the clinic, there remain unresolved in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic questions. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]-labelled model ProTides could directly address key mechanistic questions and predict response to ProTide therapy. Here we report the first radiochemical synthesis of [18F]ProTides as novel probes for PET imaging. As a proof of concept, two chemically distinct radiolabelled ProTides have been synthesized as models of 3'- and 2'-fluorinated ProTides following different radiosynthetic approaches. The 3'-[18F]FLT ProTide was obtained via a late stage [18F]fluorination in radiochemical yields (RCY) of 15-30% (n = 5, decay-corrected from end of bombardment (EoB)), with high radiochemical purities (97%) and molar activities of 56 GBq/?mol (total synthesis time of 130 min.). The 2'-[18F]FIAU ProTide was obtained via an early stage [18F]fluorination approach with an RCY of 1-5% (n = 7, decay-corrected from EoB), with high radiochemical purities (98%) and molar activities of 53 GBq/?mol (total synthesis time of 240 min).
Project description:Several ?-d-2'-deoxy-2'-substituted nucleoside analogs have displayed potent and selective anti-HCV activities and some of them have reached human clinical trials. In that regard, we report herein the synthesis of a series of 2'-deoxy,2'-dibromo substituted U, C, G and A nucleosides 10a-d and their corresponding phosphoramidate prodrugs 13a-d. The synthesized nucleosides 10a-d and prodrugs 13a-d were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against HCV as well as cellular toxicity. The results showed that the most potent compound was prodrug 13a, which exhibited micromolar inhibitory activity (EC50?=?1.5?±?0.8?µM) with no observed toxicity. In addition, molecular modeling and free energy perturbation calculations for the 5'-triphosphate formed from 13a and related 2'-modified nucleotides are discussed.
Project description:Nucleoside analogues are among the most common medications given for the treatment of viral infections and cancers. The therapeutic effectiveness of nucleoside analogues can be dramatically improved by phosphorylation. The ProTide approach was developed using a phosphorylated nucleoside that is masked by esterification with an amino acid and phenol forming a chiral phosphorus center. The biological activity of the ProTides depends, in part, on the stereochemistry at phosphorus, and thus, it is imperative that efficient methods be developed for the chemical synthesis and isolation of diastereomerically pure ProTides. Chiral ProTides are often synthesized by direct displacement of a labile phenol (p-nitrophenol or pentafluorophenol) from a chiral phosphoramidate precursor with the appropriate nucleoside analogue. The ability to produce these chiral products is dictated by the synthesis of the chiral phosphoramidate precursors. The enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta is well-known for its high stereoselectivity and broad substrate profile. Screening PTE variants from enzyme evolution libraries enabled the identification of variants of PTE that can stereoselectively hydrolyze the chiral phosphoramidate precursors. The variant G60A-PTE exhibits a 165-fold preference for hydrolysis of the RP isomer, while the variant In1W-PTE has a 1400-fold preference for hydrolysis of the SP isomer. Using these mutants of PTE, the SP and RP isomers were isolated on a preparative scale with no detectable contamination of the opposite isomer. Combining the simplicity of the enzymatic resolution of the precursor with the latest synthetic strategy will facilitate the production of diastereometrically pure nucleotide phosphoramidate prodrugs.
Project description:Streptomyces coelicolor (Sco) GlgEI is a glycoside hydrolase involved in ?-glucan biosynthesis and can be used as a model enzyme for structure-based inhibitor design targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) GlgE. The latter is a genetically validated drug target for the development of anti-Tuberculosis (TB) treatments. Inhibition of Mtb GlgE results in a lethal buildup of the GlgE substrate maltose-1-phosphate (M1P). However, Mtb GlgE is difficult to crystallize and affords lower resolution X-ray structures. Sco GlgEI-V279S on the other hand crystallizes readily, produces high resolution X-ray data, and has active site topology identical to Mtb GlgE. We report the X-ray structure of Sco GlgEI-V279S in complex with 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-?-maltosyl fluoride (?-MTF, 5) at 2.3 Å resolution. ?-MTF was designed as a non-hydrolysable mimic of M1P to probe the active site of GlgE1 prior to covalent bond formation without disruption of catalytic residues. The ?-MTF complex revealed hydrogen bonding between Glu423 and the C1F which provides evidence that Glu423 functions as proton donor during catalysis. Further, hydrogen bonding between Arg392 and the axial C2 difluoromethylene moiety of ?-MTF was observed suggesting that the C2 position tolerates substitution with hydrogen bond acceptors. The key step in the synthesis of ?-MDF was transformation of peracetylated 2-fluoro-maltal 1 into peracetylated 2,2-difluoro-?-maltosyl fluoride 2 in a single step via the use of Selectfluor®.
Project description:Nucleosides represent a major chemotherapeutic class for treating cancer, however their limitations in terms of cellular uptake, nucleoside kinase-mediated activation and catabolism are well-documented. The monophosphate pro-nucleotides known as ProTides represents a powerful strategy for bypassing the dependence on active transport and nucleoside kinase-mediated activation. Herein, we report the structural tuning of BVdU ProTides. Forty six phosphoramidates were prepared and biologically evaluated against three different cancer cell lines; murine leukemia (L1210), human CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CEM) and human cervical carcinoma (HeLa). Twenty-fold potency enhancement compared to BVdU was achieved against L1210 cells. Interestingly, a number of ProTides showed low micromolar activity against CEM and HeLa cells compared to the inactive parent BVdU. The ProTides showed poor, if any measurable toxicity to non-tumourigenic human lung fibroblast cell cultures. Separation of four pairs of the diastereoisomeric mixtures and comparison of their spectral properties, biological activities and enzymatic activation rate is reported.
Project description:Monophosphate prodrug analogs of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-<i>C</i>-methylguanosine have been reported as potent inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These prodrugs also display potent anti-dengue virus activities in cellular assays although their prodrug moieties were designed to produce high levels of triphosphate in the liver. Since peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are among the major targets of dengue virus, different prodrug moieties were designed to effectively deliver 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-<i>C</i>-methylguanosine monophosphate prodrugs and their corresponding triphosphates into PBMCs after oral administration. We identified a cyclic phosphoramidate, prodrug 17, demonstrating well-balanced anti-dengue virus cellular activity and <i>in vitro</i> stability profiles. We further determined the PBMC concentration of active triphosphate needed to inhibit virus replication by 50% (TP<sub>50</sub>). Compound 17 was assessed in an AG129 mouse model and demonstrated 1.6- and 2.2-log viremia reductions at 100 and 300 mg/kg twice a day (BID), respectively. At 100 mg/kg BID, the terminal triphosphate concentration in PBMCs exceeded the TP<sub>50</sub> value, demonstrating TP<sub>50</sub> as the target exposure for efficacy. In dogs, oral administration of compound 17 resulted in high PBMC triphosphate levels, exceeding the TP<sub>50</sub> at 10 mg/kg. Unfortunately, 2-week dog toxicity studies at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day showed that "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) could not be achieved due to pulmonary inflammation and hemorrhage. The preclinical safety results suspended further development of compound 17. Nevertheless, present work has proven the concept that an efficacious monophosphate nucleoside prodrug could be developed for the potential treatment of dengue virus infection.
Project description:This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of an anchimerically activated proTide of 2'-<i>C</i>-?-methylguanosine as an inhibitor of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2). The proTide incorporates a chemically cleavable 2-(methylthio)ethyl moiety and a HINT1 hydrolyzable tryptamine phosphoramidate. Inhibition of DENV-2 replication by proTide <b>6</b> was 5-fold greater than the parent nucleoside while displaying no apparent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we demonstrate with a HINT1 inhibitor that the anti DENV-2 activity of the proTide correlates with the activity of HINT1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a phosphoramidate based pronucleotide that undergoes an initial nonenzymatic activation step based on anchimeric assistance followed by P-N bond cleavage by HINT1 can be prepared.
Project description:Recently, it has been reported that phosphorylated acyclovir (ACV) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase in a cell-free system. To deliver phosphorylated ACV inside cells, we designed ACV monophosphorylated derivatives using ProTide technology. We found that the L-alanine derived ProTides show anti-HIV activity at noncytotoxic concentrations; ester and aryl variation was tolerated. ACV ProTides with other amino acids, other than L-phenylalanine, showed no detectable activity against HIV in cell culture. The inhibitory activity of the prodrugs against herpes simplex virus (HSV) types -1 and -2 and thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1 revealed different structure-activity relationships but was again consistent with successful nucleoside kinase bypass. Enzymatic and molecular modeling studies have been performed in order to better understand the antiviral behavior of these compounds. ProTides showing diminished carboxypeptidase lability translated to poor anti-HIV agents and vice versa, so the assay became predictive.
Project description:Ribavirin is a nucleoside analogue with broad antiviral activity. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ribavirin ProTides designed to deliver the bioactive ribavirin monophosphate into cells. Some of the compounds display activity similar to the parent nucleoside against a range of viruses. Enzymatic, cell lysate and preliminary modeling studies have been performed to investigate the lack of enhancement of potency by the ProTides, and these indicate a failure at the final, amino acid cleavage step in the ProTide activation process, leading to inefficient release of the nucleoside monophosphate.