Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Lipodystrophy Syndromes in Children and Young People
ABSTRACT: Lipodystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by lack of body fat in characteristic patterns, which can be genetic or acquired. Lipodystrophy is associated with insulin resistance that can develop in childhood and adolescence, and usually leads to severe metabolic complications. Diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis ordinarily develop in these patients, and most girls suffer from menstrual abnormalities. Severe complications develop at a relatively young age, which include episodes of acute pancreatitis, renal failure, cirrhosis, and complex cardiovascular diseases, and all of these are associated with serious morbidity. Treatment of lipodystrophy consists of medical nutritional therapy, exercise, and the use of anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering agents. New treatment modalities, such as metreleptin replacement, promise much in the treatment of metabolic abnormalities secondary to lipodystrophy. Current challenges in the management of lipodystrophy in children and adolescents include, but are not limited to: (1) establishing specialized centers with experience in providing care for lipodystrophy presenting in childhood and adolescence; (2) optimizing algorithms that can provide some guidance for the use of standard and novel therapies to ensure adequate metabolic control and to prevent complications; (3) educating patients and their parents about lipodystrophy management; (4) improving patient adherence to chronic therapies; (5) reducing barriers to access to novel treatments; and (5) improving the quality of life of these patients and their families.
Project description:AIM:Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare heterogeneous disorders characterized by deficiency of adipose tissue, usually a decrease in leptin levels and, frequently, severe metabolic abnormalities including diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. PURPOSE:To describe the clinical presentation of known types of lipodystrophy, and suggest specific steps to recognize, diagnose and treat lipodystrophy in the clinical setting. METHODS:Based on literature and in our own experience, we propose a stepwise approach for diagnosis of the different subtypes of rare lipodystrophy syndromes, describing its more frequent co-morbidities and establishing the therapeutical approach. RESULTS:Lipodystrophy is classified as genetic or acquired and by the distribution of fat loss, which can be generalized or partial. Genes associated with many congenital forms of lipodystrophy have been identified that may assist in diagnosis. Because of its rarity and heterogeneity, lipodystrophy may frequently be unrecognized or misdiagnosed, which is concerning because it is progressive and its complications are potentially life threatening. A basic diagnostic algorithm is proposed. Effective management of lipodystrophy includes lifestyle changes and aggressive, evidence-based treatment of comorbidities. Leptin replacement therapy (metreleptin) has been found to improve metabolic parameters in many patients with lipodystrophy. Metreleptin is approved in the United States as replacement therapy to treat the complications of leptin deficiency in patients with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy and has been submitted for approval in Europe. CONCLUSIONS:Here, we describe the clinical presentation of known types of lipodystrophy, present an algorithm for differential diagnosis of lipodystrophy, and suggest specific steps to recognize and diagnose lipodystrophy in the clinical setting.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the long-term clinical effect of treatment with metreleptin (an analogue of human leptin) on glycemic and lipid abnormalities and markers of hepatic steatosis in patients with inherited or acquired lipodystrophy. METHODS:Fifty-five patients (36 with generalized lipodystrophy and 19 with partial lipodystrophy) with at least 1 of 3 metabolic abnormalities (diabetes mellitus, fasting triglyceride level ?200 mg/dL, and insulin resistance) and low leptin levels received subcutaneous injections of metreleptin once or twice daily in an ongoing clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. RESULTS:At baseline, hemoglobin A1c-8.5% ± 2.1% (mean ± standard deviation [SD])-and triglycerides-479 ± 80 mg/dL (geometric mean ± standard error [SE])-were substantially elevated. Robust and sustained reductions in both variables were evident for the observed patient population during a 3-year metreleptin treatment period (-2.1% ± 0.5% [mean ± SE] and -35.4% ± 13.7% [mean ± SE], respectively). Mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were elevated at baseline (100 ± 120 U/L and 71 ± 77 U/L [mean ± SD], respectively) and decreased by -45 ± 19 U/L and -33 ± 14 U/L (mean ± SE), respectively, during the 3-year metreleptin treatment period. Improvements in hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides, ALT, and AST were more pronounced in the subsets of patients having elevated levels at baseline. The most notable adverse events observed in this patient population were likely attributable to underlying metabolic abnormalities or comorbidities. CONCLUSION:Metreleptin treatment substantially reduced glycemic variables, triglycerides, and liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and demonstrated durability of response throughout a 3-year treatment period. These results support metreleptin as a potential treatment for certain metabolic disorders (for example, diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia) associated with lipodystrophy.
Project description:Most childhood cancer survivors who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation subsequently develop impaired glucose tolerance and hypertriglyceridemia. These conditions are presumably associated with total-body irradiation-related acquired lipodystrophy and may lead to cardiovascular disease. Metreleptin (recombinant leptin) may help improve the lipoprotein profile, insulin sensitivity, and quality of life of patients with total-body irradiation-related lipodystrophy. This report describes the safe and effective use of metreleptin supplementation for insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in acquired incomplete lipodystrophy. A 24-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia was admitted to our hospital. She was diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia at 3 years of age and had undergone systemic chemotherapy and total-body irradiation before allogeneic stem cell transplantation. She was also diagnosed with hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes mellitus at 11 years of age. She had a low adiponectin level, low-normal leptin level, and diabetes mellitus with marked insulin resistance. Thus, acquired incomplete lipodystrophy was diagnosed. Her serum triglyceride and lipoprotein profiles improved within 1 month of treatment initiation. Glycemic metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscles improved after 6 months. As previously reported, metreleptin therapy is effective in improving lipid and glycemic profiles in generalized lipodystrophy. In the present case, we considered that metreleptin supplementation could reduce the remnant VLDL cholesterol fraction and improve diabetes mellitus. We conclude that it may be an effective alternative therapy for improving the expected prognosis of patients with acquired incomplete lipodystrophy, including childhood cancer survivors.
Project description:Lipodystrophies are extreme forms of metabolic syndrome. Metreleptin was approved in the United States for generalized lipodystrophy (GLD) but not partial lipodystrophy (PLD).The objective of the study was to test metreleptin's efficacy in PLD vs GLD and find predictors for treatment response.This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label study since 2000 with continuous enrollment. Current analysis included metreleptin treatment for 6 months or longer as of January 2014.The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Maryland).Patients clinically diagnosed with lipodystrophy, leptin less than 8 ng/mL (males) or less than 12 (females), age older than 6 months, and one or more metabolic abnormalities (diabetes, insulin resistance, or hypertriglyceridemia) participated in the study.The interventions included sc metreleptin injections (0.06-0.24 mg/kg · d).Changes in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and triglycerides after 6 and 12 months of metreleptin were measured.Baseline metabolic parameters were similar in 55 GLD [HbA1c 8.4% ± 2.3%; triglycerides, geometric mean (25th, 75th percentile), 467 mg/dL (200, 847)] and 31 PLD patients [HbA1c 8.1% ± 2.2%, triglycerides 483 mg/dL (232, 856)] despite different body fat and endogenous leptin. At 12 months, metreleptin decreased HbA1c (to 6.4% ± 1.5%, GLD, P < .001; 7.3% ± 1.6%, PLD, P = .004) and triglycerides [to 180 mg/dL (106, 312), GLD, P < .001; 326 mg/dL (175, 478), PLD, P = .02]. HbA1c and triglyceride changes over time significantly differed between GLD and PLD. In subgroup analyses, metreleptin improved HbA1c and triglycerides in all GLD subgroups except those with baseline triglycerides less than 300 mg/dL and all PLD subgroups except baseline triglycerides less than 500 mg/dL, HbA1c less than 8%, or endogenous leptin greater than 4 ng/mL.In addition to its proven efficacy in GLD, metreleptin is effective in selected PLD patients with severe metabolic derangements or low leptin.
Project description:Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders of deficient adipose tissue. Metreleptin, a human analog of leptin, improved metabolic abnormalities in mixed cohorts of children and adults with lipodystrophy and low leptin.Determine effects of metreleptin on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), growth, and puberty in pediatric patients with lipodystrophy and low leptin.Prospective, single-arm, open-label studies with continuous enrollment since 2000.National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.Fifty-three patients aged 6 months to <18 years with lipodystrophy, leptin level <8 ng/mL (male patients) or <12 ng/mL (female patients), and ?1 metabolic abnormality (diabetes, insulin resistance, or hypertriglyceridemia).Subcutaneous metreleptin injections (0.04 to 0.19 mg/kg/d).Change in A1c, lipid, and transaminase levels after a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 12 ± 0.2 months and 61 ± 39 months. Changes in liver histology, growth, and pubertal development throughout treatment.After 12 months, the A1c level (mean ± SD) decreased from 8.3% ± 2.4% to 6.5% ± 1.8%, and median triglyceride level decreased from 374 mg/dL [geometric mean (25th,75th percentile), 190, 1065] to 189 mg/dL (112, 334; P < 0.0001), despite decreased glucose- and lipid-lowering medications. The median [geometric mean (25th,75th percentile)] alanine aminotransferase level decreased from 73 U/L (45, 126) to 41 U/L (25, 59; P = 0.001), and that of aspartate aminotransferase decreased from 51 U/L (29, 90) to 26 U/L (18, 42; P = 0.0002). These improvements were maintained over long-term treatment. In 17 patients who underwent paired biopsies, the NAFLD activity score (mean ± SD) decreased from 4.5 ± 2.0 to 3.4 ± 2.0 after 3.3 ± 3.2 years of metreleptin therapy (P = 0.03). There were no clinically significant changes in growth or puberty.Metreleptin lowered A1c and triglyceride levels, and improved biomarkers of NAFLD in pediatric patients with lipodystrophy. These improvements are likely to reduce the lifetime burden of disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recombinant leptin (metreleptin) ameliorates hyperphagia and metabolic abnormalities in leptin-deficient humans with lipodystrophy. We aimed to determine whether metreleptin improves glucose and lipid metabolism in humans when food intake is held constant. METHODS:Patients with lipodystrophy were hospitalized for 19 days, with food intake held constant by a controlled diet in an inpatient metabolic ward. In a nonrandomized, crossover design, patients previously treated with metreleptin (n = 8) were continued on metreleptin for 5 days and then taken off metreleptin for the next 14 days (withdrawal cohort). This order was reversed in metreleptin-naive patients (n = 14), who were reevaluated after 6 months of metreleptin treatment on an ad libitum diet (initiation cohort). Outcome measurements included insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, fasting glucose and triglyceride levels, lipolysis measured using isotopic tracers, and liver fat by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS:With food intake constant, peripheral insulin sensitivity decreased by 41% after stopping metreleptin for 14 days (withdrawal cohort) and increased by 32% after treatment with metreleptin for 14 days (initiation cohort). In the initiation cohort only, metreleptin decreased fasting glucose by 11% and triglycerides by 41% and increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. Liver fat decreased from 21.8% to 18.7%. In the initiation cohort, changes in lipolysis were not independent of food intake, but after 6 months of metreleptin treatment on an ad libitum diet, lipolysis decreased by 30% (palmitate turnover) to 35% (glycerol turnover). CONCLUSION:Using lipodystrophy as a human model of leptin deficiency and replacement, we show that metreleptin improves insulin sensitivity and decreases hepatic and circulating triglycerides and that these improvements are independent of its effects on food intake. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01778556FUNDING. This research was supported by the intramural research program of the NIDDK.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Patients with lipodystrophy have severe metabolic abnormalities (insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia) that may increase morbidity and mortality. Metreleptin is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of generalized forms of lipodystrophy. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of metreleptin among patients with partial lipodystrophy using an expanded-access model. METHODS:Study FHA101 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00677313) was an open-label, expanded-access, long-term clinical effectiveness and safety study in 23 patients with partial lipodystrophy and diabetes and/or hypertriglyceridemia with no prespecified leptin level. Metreleptin was administered subcutaneously at 0.02 mg/kg twice daily (BID) at Week 1, followed by 0.04 mg/kg BID at Week 2. Dose adjustments thereafter were based on patient response (maximum dose of 0.08 mg/kg BID). One-year changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were evaluated. RESULTS:HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides were numerically decreased throughout 1 year, with mean (standard error) changes from baseline of -0.88 (0.62)%, -42.0 (22.4) mg/dL, and -119.8 (84.1) mg/dL, respectively, which were greater among patients with higher baseline abnormalities. Liver enzymes did not worsen, and the most frequently observed TEAEs (? 10% incidence) were mild to moderate and included nausea (39.1%), hypoglycemia (26.1%), and urinary tract infections (26.1%)-all reported previously. There were no reports of clinically significant immune-related adverse events or new safety signals. CONCLUSIONS:Our clinical observations document the large heterogeneity and disease burden of partial lipodystrophy syndromes and suggest that metreleptin treatment benefits may extend to patients with partial lipodystrophy. Additional studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A number of genetic syndromes associated with variants in the BSCL2/seipin gene have been identified. Variants that cause skipping of exon 7 are associated with progressive encephalopathy with/without lipodystrophy (PELD), which is characterized by the development of progressive myoclonic epilepsy at a young age, severe progressive neurological impairment, and early death, often in childhood. Because the genetic basis of PELD is similar to that of congenital lipodystrophy type 2, we hypothesized that a patient with PELD may respond to treatments approved for other congenital lipodystrophic syndromes. CASE PRESENTATION:We describe a 5-year-old boy with an extremely rare phenotype involving severe progressive myoclonic epilepsy who received metreleptin (a recombinant analogue of leptin) to control metabolic abnormalities. At the age of two, he had no subcutaneous adipose tissue, with hypertriglyceridemia, hypertransaminasemia and hepatic steatosis. He also had a moderate psychomotor delay and generalized tonic seizures. At 4?years, he had insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, mild hepatosplenomegaly and mild hepatic steatosis; he began a hypolipidemic diet. Severe psychomotor delay and myoclonic/myoclonic atonic seizures with absences was evident. At 5?years of age, metreleptin 0.06?mg/kg/day was initiated; after 2?months, the patient's lipid profile improved and insulin resistance resolved. After 1?year of treatment, hepatic steatosis improved and abdominal ultrasound showed only mild hepatomegaly. Seizure frequency decreased but was not eliminated during metreleptin therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Metreleptin may be used to control metabolic disturbances and may lead to better seizure control in children with PELD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) improves glycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with generalized lipodystrophy; antibody development with in vitro neutralizing activity has been reported. We aimed to characterize antimetreleptin antibody development, including in vitro neutralizing activity. DESIGN:Two randomized controlled studies in patients with obesity (twice-daily metreleptin ± pramlintide for 20-52 weeks; 2006-2009); two long-term, open-label studies in patients with lipodystrophy (once-daily or twice-daily metreleptin for 2 months to 12·3 years; 2000-2014). PATIENTS:A total of 579 metreleptin-treated patients with obesity and 134 metreleptin-treated patients with lipodystrophy (antibody/neutralizing activity data: n = 105). MEASUREMENTS:Antimetreleptin antibodies, in vitro neutralizing activity. RESULTS:Antimetreleptin antibodies developed in most patients (obese: 96-100%; lipodystrophy: 86-92%). Peak antibody titers (approximately 1:125 to 1:3125) generally occurred within 4-6 months and decreased with continued therapy (lipodystrophy). Antibody development did not adversely impact efficacy or safety (patients with obesity), except for inflammatory injection site reactions, but was associated with elevated leptin concentrations. Three patients with obesity developed in vitro neutralizing activity coincident with weight gain. Weight later returned to baseline in one patient despite persistent neutralizing activity. Four patients with generalized lipodystrophy developed in vitro neutralizing activity concurrent with worsened metabolic control; two with confounding comorbidities had sepsis. One patient with lipodystrophy had resolution of neutralizing activity on metreleptin. CONCLUSIONS:Development of in vitro neutralizing activity could be associated with loss of efficacy but has not been consistently associated with adverse clinical consequences. Whether neutralization of endogenous leptin with clinical consequences occurs remains unclear.
Project description:CONTEXT:Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is associated with leptin deficiency as a result of adipose tissue loss and hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. It may coexist with other autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemolytic anemia, and chronic active hepatitis. Metreleptin therapy has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities in lipodystrophy, but the effect on AGL patients with active autoimmune disease is unknown. CASE DESCRIPTION:We report 3 cases of pediatric patients with AGL and distinct active autoimmune diseases who were treated with metreleptin over a period of 4-6 years. Case 1 is a 9-year-old girl with active juvenile dermatomyositis, who was successfully treated with leptin with no worsening of her dermatomoysitis. Case 2 is a 16-year-old female with Graves' disease, who could discontinue all her antidiabetic medication completely with improved triglyceride levels. Case 3 is an 11-year-old boy with active autoimmune hepatitis and chronic urticaria, whose hyperphagia has resolved and his liver enzymes and hepatosplenomegaly have improved. CONCLUSION:Metreleptin therapy is of considerable clinical benefit to reduce insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia and did not appear to alter the clinical course of autoimmune disease nor clinical efficacy of immunosuppressive treatments. Our observations suggest that risk or presence of autoimmune disease should not lead to withholding of metreleptin treatment from patients with AGL, but should prompt close clinical follow up in light of cautionary preclinical data.