Crystal Arthropathy in the Setting of Total Knee Arthroplasty.
ABSTRACT: We present a case of an 82-year-old female with a history of right total knee arthroplasty 11 years prior. She was admitted after a ground-level fall and developed progressive pain and swelling of her right knee. She had no history of complications with her total knee replacement. Radiographs of the knee and hip were negative for acute fracture, dislocation, or hardware malalignment. Knee aspiration was performed and revealed inflammatory exudate, synovial fluid consistent with crystal arthropathy, and no bacterial growth. She was diagnosed with an acute gout flare, and her symptoms significantly improved with steroids and anti-inflammatory treatment. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of the potential for crystal arthropathy in the setting of total joint arthroplasty and evaluate for crystals before treating a presumed periprosthetic joint infection.
Project description:Crystalline arthropathies are well-known pathologies in a native knee; however, the literature is scarce with regards to crystalline arthropathies in a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The presentation of crystalline arthropathy in a TKA can be similar to a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), making it difficult to distinguish between the 2 diagnoses. We present 1 case highlighting the similarity between crystalline arthropathy and PJI. A 71-year-old man with a history of bilateral TKAs presented with bilateral painful knee effusions and was initially presumed to have PJIs; however, he was later diagnosed with gout and successfully treated medically. A complete review of the literature demonstrates that crystalline arthropathies after TKA are infrequently reported and can be difficult to decipher from PJIs, and there is a lack of standardized treatment.
Project description:A 74-year-old male presented with acute right knee pain and inability to ambulate. The patient had a total knee arthroplasty, previously complicated by a periprosthetic femur fracture requiring surgical fixation and subsequent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis periprosthetic joint infection treated via two-stage revision. Cultures from knee fluid aspiration were positive for Abiotrophia defectiva. Identification was confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The patient underwent a two-stage revision. Between stages, the patient received intravenous ceftriaxone for six weeks with subsequent normalization of inflammatory markers. Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection with identification of the organism is important to guide appropriate treatment.
Project description:UNLABELLED: Periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most challenging complications of joint arthroplasty. We identified current risk factors of periprosthetic joint infection after modern joint arthroplasty, and determined the incidence and timing of periprosthetic joint infection. We reviewed prospectively collected data from our database on 9245 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty between January 2001 and April 2006. Periprosthetic joint infections developed in 63 patients (0.7%). Sixty-five percent of periprosthetic joint infections developed within the first year of the index arthroplasty. The infecting organism was isolated in 57 of 63 cases (91%). The most common organisms identified were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We identified the following independent predictors for periprosthetic joint infection: higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score, morbid obesity, bilateral arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, allogenic transfusion, postoperative atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, urinary tract infection, and longer hospitalization. This study confirmed some previously implicated factors and identified new variables that predispose patients to periprosthetic joint infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study.
Project description:Periarticular needle-based therapies such as dry needling, acupuncture, and genicular nerve radiofrequency ablation are becoming more popular for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. These therapies are also being used after total knee arthroplasty for persistent postoperative pain. Although limited published evidence exists for the risk of periprosthetic joint infection after these procedures, we describe one case of periprosthetic joint infection developing shortly after dry needling and another case developing shortly after genicular nerve blocks. We present details of these 2 cases along with a review of the literature regarding the use of periarticular needle-based therapies after total knee arthroplasty.
Project description:A 61-year-old woman with a right total knee arthroplasty presented with 1 week of atraumatic right knee swelling, pain, and fevers 2 weeks following a routine screening colonoscopy. Aspiration was concerning for prosthetic joint infection and she underwent definitive treatment with irrigation and debridement with polyethylene exchange followed by a 6-week course of oral metronidazole. Cultures speciated as Bacteroides fragilis with the presumed source being the colonoscopy causing transient bacteremia and subsequent seeding of the right knee. This case highlights the need for consideration of guidelines regarding prophylactic antibiotics to prevent prosthetic joint infection after endoscopic procedures.
Project description:The surgical treatment of ochronotic arthropathy remains unclear. Although there is no absolute cure for ochronotic arthropathy, current management typically begins with conservative treatment. Total joint replacement may eventually be necessary for joints that become severely degenerative. Ochronotic arthropathy is present in patients with alkaptonuric ochronosis, which is characterized by dark pigmentation of connective tissue and black discoloration of urine owing to a deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase. As a result, soft tissues become brittle and subsequently more susceptible to mechanical stress, resulting in articular cartilage degeneration. The diagnosis of ochronotic arthropathy of the knee often occurs intraoperatively after discovery of darkened synovium and black deposits during arthroscopy. The purpose of this article is to describe arthroscopic debridement as an effective treatment option and diagnostic tool for ochronotic arthropathy of the knee after failure of conservative measures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The number of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing annually. Animal models have been used to clarify their clinical characteristics and the infection mechanism of pathogenic bacteria, However, since the prosthesis design of animal models is not uniform, it is difficult to simulate the environment of clinical PJI. OBJECTIVES:To retrospect the progress on the prosthesis design of animal models of PJI after TKA and to summarize the criteria for evaluating a clinically representative model of PJI. METHODS:This systematic review was reported on the basis of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). Pubmed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were researched for animal models of PJI after TKA from database establishment to April 2019 according to Chinese and English retrieval words, including "periprosthetic joint infections and total knee arthroplasty," "periprosthetic joint infections and model," "periprosthetic joint infections and biofilm," and "total knee arthroplasty and model." RESULTS:A total of 12 quantitative studies were enrolled in our study finally: 8 representative studies described prosthesis designs used in PJI animal models, 4 studies described prosthesis designs in non-infected animal models which were suitable for infection models. The major problems need to be dealed with were prosthesis, installation location, material, the function of separating the articular and medullary cavity, fixation manner, and the procedure of preserving the posterior cruciate ligament. CONCLUSION:A highly representative design of the animal prosthesis of PJI should meet the following criteria: the surface of the prosthesis is smooth with the formation of biofilm, composed of titanium-6Al-4V or cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy; prosthesis can bear weight and is highly stable; and it can connect the joint cavity and medullary cavity simultaneously. To reach a more reliable conclusion, further experiments and improvements are required.
Project description:Lyme arthritis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is a common tick-borne illness in New England and the upper Midwest. Most often, the disease affects the knee and has typically been reported as a cause of native joint infection. There has been only 1 case of Lyme periprosthetic joint infection (associated with a total knee arthroplasty) reported in the literature, and to our knowledge, no other reported cases of Lyme periprosthetic joint infections exist. In this article, we report on 2 patients diagnosed with prosthetic joint infections who were subsequently found to have Lyme prosthetic joint infections, with B burgdorferi as the infectious organism. We discuss the medical and surgical management of these patients.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Previous studies have reported a lower extremity stress fracture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, a fibular fracture after TKA is quite rare. We report a case of proximal fibula fracture after TKA in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).<h4>Presentation of case</h4>A 45?year old woman with RA had severe knee and foot pain with an antalgic gait disturbance. There was a significant joint deformity in many of lower limb joints. Interval bilateral TKAs were performed two weeks apart. Right TKA was performed using a constraint-type prosthesis, through lateral parapatellar approach. Left TKA was performed using a posterior-stabilized (PS) prosthesis through the more commonly employed, medial parapatellar approach. Seven weeks after the right TKA, the patient was found to have an atraumatic proximal fibular fracture. The fracture went on to heal conservatively.<h4>Discussion</h4>The fracture was considered to have occurred after the TKA. The callus appeared eleven weeks after the TKA. The factors that contributed to the fracture were thought to be overload of the fragile bone secondarily to disuse osteopaenia, RA or potentially the significant valgus malalignment correction. The surgical approach, the implant or implantation or the persisting joint deformity, were thought to be contributing factors to the aetiology of the stress fracture. The resultant change in clinical outcome/course is outlined in this case report.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A stress fracture of the proximal fibula has the potential in the aetiology of may cause other stress fractures, joint other instability, and/or malalignment of the total lower extremity.
Project description:The study by Gomez et al., "The Fate of Spacers in the Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection," evaluates the clinical course and success rate of treatment of periprosthetic joint infection with two-stage revision with spacer placement in the interim period. The current review critically analyzes the findings of this study and examines how these findings may influence patient care in the field of hip and knee replacement. Gomez et al. report sobering results of two-stage revision with spacer placement for periprosthetic joint infection. Nearly 20% of patients in their study who had a spacer placed never went on to get a new prosthesis and nearly 20% of those who did get a new prosthesis ultimately failed treatment. The authors reported a 7.5% mortality rate in the interstage period after resection arthroplasty. This study provides valuable information for counseling patients about the outcomes of treatment using spacers for infection after total joint arthroplasty. The results of this study also highlight the need for future investigation into better treatments for periprosthetic joint infections.