Interleukin-35 sensitizes monocytes from patients with asthma to glucocorticoid therapy by regulating p38 MAPK.
ABSTRACT: The activation of monocytes and macrophages is associated with steroid-resistant (SR) asthma. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, but its regulatory effects on monocytes in patients with SR asthma is not fully understood. Based on clinical response to oral prednisolone, 34 patients with steroid-sensitive (SS) asthma and 20 patients with SR asthma were enrolled in the present study. Serum IL-35 levels were analyzed using the Luminex 200 platform. Monocytes from patients with asthma were pretreated with IL-35 followed by dexamethasone (DEX) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), then corticosteroid sensitivity was evaluated according to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of DEX with respect to LPS-induced IL-6 maximal production in monocytes (DEX-IC50). The percentage of maximal inhibition of IL-6 by DEX was presented as Emax. Phosphorylated-P38 mitogen activated kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were examined by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis, respectively. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding to the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Compared with patients with SS asthma, patients with SR asthma had lower IL-35 expression levels (P<0.05). Correlation analysis results demonstrated that the expression levels of IL-35 showed a weak negative correlation with log DEX-IC50 (r=-0.351; P<0.01) and a moderate positive correlation with Emax value (r=0.4501; P<0.01) in all patients with asthma. Moreover, IL-35 enhanced DEX-suppressed IL-6 production and the DEX-induced upregulation of the MKP-1 mRNA expression level in monocytes from both patient groups (P<0.01). In addition, IL-35 inhibited p-p38 MAPK expression in monocytes, and these effects were mediated via an increase in DEX-induced GR binding to GRE. Therefore, IL-35 may be involved in the corticosteroid enhancing effects in monocytes of patients with SR and SS asthma, suggesting potential benefits of IL-35 supplementation in asthmatics with DEX.
Project description:Vitamin D is known for its anti-inflammatory effects.Vitamin D regulation of responses in patients with steroid-resistant (SR) versus steroid-sensitive (SS) asthma has not been studied.Peripheral blood cells from 11 patients with SR asthma and 8 patients with SS asthma were preincubated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D [VitD]), followed by dexamethasone (DEX) treatment and LPS stimulation. LPS-induced phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38) in monocytes was examined by means of flow cytometry. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) mRNA expression, which inhibits p-p38, was analyzed by means of real-time PCR. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding and histone H4 acetylation in the glucocorticoid response element of the MKP-1 promoter in monocytes were analyzed by means of chromatin immunoprecipitation.DEX significantly inhibited LPS-induced p-p38 in monocytes from patients with SS asthma but not those from patients with SR asthma (P < .01). VitD inhibited LPS-induced p-p38 in monocytes from both patient groups (P < .01) but enhanced DEX suppression of LPS-induced p-p38 only in monocytes from patients with SS asthma (P < .01). VitD induced MKP-1 expression and enhanced DEX induction of MKP-1 in both patients with SS asthma and patients with SR asthma. VitD/DEX-induced MKP-1 mRNA levels remained significantly lower in monocytes from patients with SR asthma (P < .05). DEX-stimulated recruitment of GR and histone H4 acetylation at the glucocorticoid response element 4.6 kbp upstream of the MKP-1 gene were significantly lower in monocytes from patients with SR asthma compared with those from patients with SS asthma. VitD pretreatment enhanced DEX-induced GR binding and histone acetylation in monocytes from both patient groups. However, GR binding and histone H4 acetylation remained significantly lower in monocytes from patients with SR asthma.VitD demonstrated anti-inflammatory and corticosteroid-enhancing effects in monocytes of patients with SR asthma and patients with SS asthma. However, the responses to corticosteroids in patients with SR asthma remained significantly lower than those in patients with SS asthma.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the main treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, some patients are resistant to these agents. Abnormalities of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) seem to be related to steroid resistance. This study evaluated GRs in T lymphocytes and monocytes of SLE patients by flow cytometry (FCM) using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and FITC-Dex probes.Thirty-five patients with SLE before treatment and 27 age- and sex-matched normal controls were studied. Disease activity scores were determined before and after treatment and used to divide the patients into steroid-resistant (SR) and steroid-sensitive (SS) groups. GRs in T lymphocytes (CD3+) and monocytes (CD14+) were examined by FCM with GR-mAb and FITC-Dex probes before treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for in vitro GCs sensitivity assays. The validity of FCM analysis of intracellular staining for GR with GR-mAb and FITC-Dex probes was evaluated through comparison with western blot and radioligand binding assay (RLBA) in U937 and K562 cells in vitro. One-way ANOVA, student's t test, linear regression and spearman correlation were performed.A significant decrease in GR binding and the expression in K562 and U937 cells with 10-6 M dexamethasone (Dex) was found compared with those without Dex. In addition, a positive correlation was found between FCM and RLBA as well as FCM and Western blot. The expression and binding of both CD3/GR and CD14/GR in SR patients with SLE, detected by FCM, were all lower than those in SS patients with SLE, whereas there was no significant difference in SS patients and controls. In vitro corticosteroid sensitivity assay indicated that PHA-stimulated tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion was significantly inhibited by 10-6 M Dexamethasone in all controls and SS patients, compared with that in SR group, which confirms patient classification as SR and SS by disease activity index (SLEDAI) score.Abnormalities of expression and binding of the GR may be involved in tissue resistance to steroids in SLE patients. Determination of GR expression and binding by FCM may be useful in predicting the response to steroid treatment of SLE patients.
Project description:Numbers of CD8(+) T cells expressing the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor, BLT1, have been correlated with asthma severity.To examine the activation and numbers of BLT1-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from patients with steroid-sensitive (SS) and steroid-resistant (SR) asthma.CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy human subjects and patients with SS and SR asthma were stimulated in culture with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 followed by analysis of BLT1 surface expression and cytokine production. Activation of CD8(+) T cells after ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 was monitored by changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations.The number of BLT1-expressing cells was larger in patients with asthma than in controls and larger on activated CD8(+) than on CD4(+) T cells. Addition of LTB4 to activated CD8(+) T cells resulted in increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Expansion of activated CD4(+) T cells, unlike CD8(+) T cells, was significantly decreased in the presence of corticosteroid. In patients with SS asthma, numbers of BLT1-expressing CD8(+) T cells were lower in the presence of corticosteroid, unlike in those with SR asthma in whom cell expansion was maintained. Levels of interleukin-13 were highest in cultured CD8(+) T cells, whereas interleukin-10 levels were higher in CD4(+) T cells from controls and patients with SS asthma. Interferon-? levels were lowest in patients with SR asthma.Differences in BLT1 expression, steroid sensitivity, and cytokine production were demonstrated in T lymphocytes from patients with SS and SR asthma. The LTB4-BLT1 pathway in CD8(+) cells may play an important role in asthma and serve as an important target in the treatment of patients with SR asthma.
Project description:High-salt intake and high-fructose intake are risk factors for hypertension via oxidative stress and inflammation. T helper (Th)17 lymphocytes play an important role in the development of hypertension. Here, we tested the hypothesis that activation of pathogenic Th17 lymphocytes induces hypertension after high-fructose intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) but not Dahl salt-resistant (SR) rats. Eight-week-old male SS and SR rats were offered 20% fructose solution or tap water only for 4?weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. T lymphocyte [Th17 and T regulatory (Treg)] profiling was determined via flow cytometry. The expression of Th17-related (IL-17A, IL-17RA, IL-23R and ROR?t) and Treg-related (IL-10, CD25, FOXP3 and TGF?) factors were measured via ELISA or qRT-PCR. Th17 lymphocytes isolated from high-fructose-fed SS rats were intraperitoneally injected into recipient SS and SR rats, and recombinant IL-23 protein was subcutaneously injected into SS and SR rats to induce hypertension.High-fructose intake induced hypertension via the activation of pathogenic Th17 lymphocytes in SS but not SR rats. Injection of activated Th17 lymphocytes isolated from fructose-fed SS rats induced hypertension via increase of serum IL-17A only in recipient SS rats. In addition, injection of IL-23 induced hypertension via activation of pathogenic Th17 lymphocytes only in SS rats.Thus, activation of pathogenic Th17 lymphocytes induces hypertension after high-fructose intake in SS but not SR rats. These results indicate that immunologic tolerance plays an important role in protection against hypertension in SR rats.
Project description:A central feature of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis is decreased bone formation, secondary to decreased numbers of functional osteoblasts. We find that ERK activity is essential for serum-induced osteoblast proliferation in vitro because inhibition of MAPK/ERK kinase activity by U0126 completely abolished both serum-induced activation of ERK and proliferation of mouse (MBA-15.4) and human (MG-63) osteoblast cell lines. Dexamethasone (Dex) rapidly (<2 h) inhibits the sustained phase of ERK activation, required for nuclear shift and mitogenesis. This inhibition is reversed by cotreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and by the GC receptor antagonist, RU486, suggesting a classical transcriptional mechanism. Phosphatase activity was up-regulated by Dex treatment, and inhibition of ERK activity by Dex was also reversed by the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, vanadate. Coupled with the rapidity of Dex action, this indicates immediate-early gene phosphatase involvement, and we therefore used quantitative, real-time PCR to examine expression profiles of the dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, MKP-1 and MKP-3. MKP-1, but not MKP-3, mRNA expression was 10-fold up-regulated in both mouse and human osteoblast cell lines within 30 min of Dex treatment and remained elevated for 24 h. MKP-1 protein was also markedly up-regulated following 1-8 h of Dex treatment, and this correlated precisely with dephosphorylation of ERK. Cell proliferation was impaired by Dex treatment, and this was reversed by both RU486 and vanadate. Therefore, MKP-1 up-regulation provides a novel and rapid mechanism, whereby GCs inhibit osteoblast proliferation.
Project description:Allergic asthma is a typical chronic inflammatory disease of respiratory tract. Clinical data shows that patients with allergic asthma have different degrees of cognitive dysfunction. The molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of asthma-induced cognitive disorder is not yet well defined. Dexamethasone (DEX), one of the first-line drugs being widely used in the treatment of asthma, has not been reported to have an effect on cognitive dysfunction in mice model. To investigate the effect of asthma on cognitive impairment as well as the effect of DEX on asthma-caused morphological and behavioral changes, C57BL/6J mice received treatment with house dust mites (HDM) for 60 days to become allergic asthma model mice, and a group of HDM-treated asthma model mice were treated with DEX. HDM-treated asthma model mice exhibited increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammatory infiltration in lung tissue. An elevated level of IL-4, IL-5, and TNF-α was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by Luminex liquid suspension chip. Asthma model mice also presented memory deficits accompanied with morphological changes at the synaptic levels in the cortex and hippocampus. Meanwhile, vascular edema and increased expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α were found in the brain of asthma model mice. Interestingly, DEX treatment could reverse the inflammatory changes in asthma model mice airway, rescue the cognitive impairment and improve the synaptic plasticity. Besides, DEX significantly decreased the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in mice brain and lung. These processes may be used to decipher the complex interplay and pathological changes between asthma and cognition. This study provides laboratory evidence for the prevention and treatment of cognitive malfunction induced by asthma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Subsets of patients with severe asthma remain symptomatic despite prolonged, high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. We hypothesized that the clinical glucocorticoid sensitivity of these asthmatics is reflected in differences in peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.<h4>Objective</h4>To compare peripheral blood leucocyte populations using flow cytometry at baseline and after 2 weeks of systemic glucocorticoid (steroid) treatment to identify immunological differences between steroid-sensitive (SS) and steroid-resistant (SR) asthmatics.<h4>Methods</h4>Adult severe asthmatics (SS n = 12; SR n = 23) were assessed for their response to 2 weeks of therapy with oral prednisolone. Peripheral blood was obtained before and after therapy and stained for lymphocyte (CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8 and Foxp3) and dendritic cell markers (Lineage negative [CD3, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD56], HLA-DR+, CD304, CD11c, ILT3 and CD86).<h4>Results</h4>A higher median frequency of myeloid DCs (mDCs) but not plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) was observed in the blood of SR as compared to SS asthmatics (P = .03). Glucocorticoid therapy significantly increased median B cell, but not T cell numbers in both cohorts, with a trend for increased numbers of Foxp3+ Tregs in SS (P = .07), but not SR subjects. Oral prednisolone therapy significantly reduced the median numbers and frequencies of total DCs and pDCs in both SS and SR asthmatics. Interestingly, the expression of HLA-DR and ILT3 was also reduced on pDCs in all patients. In contrast, therapy increased the median frequency of mDCs in SS, but reduced it in SR asthmatics.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Myeloid DC frequency is elevated in SR compared with SS asthmatics, and mDC shows a differential response to oral prednisolone therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) are the main treatment for asthma as they reduce type 2 cytokine expression and induce apoptosis. Asthma severity is associated with type 2 inflammation, circulating Th2 cells and higher GC requirements. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess whether ex vivo production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), a T-cell survival factor, associated with clinical features of asthma severity, the proportion of blood Th2 cells and Th2 cell responses to GC. METHODS:Peripheral blood from asthma patients (n?=?18) was obtained and the proportion of Th2 cells determined by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood cells were activated with mitogen (24 hours) and supernatant levels of IL-2 and IL-13 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro differentiated Th2 cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) and IL-2 and assessed for apoptosis by flow cytometry (annexin V). Level of messenger RNA (mRNA) for antiapoptotic (BCL-2) and proapoptotic (BIM) genes, IL-13, GC receptor (GR) and FKBP5 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. GR binding was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. RESULTS:IL-2 produced by activated peripheral blood cells correlated negatively with lung function and positively with a daily dose of inhaled GC. When patients were stratified based on IL-2 level, high IL-2 producers made more IL-13 and had a higher proportion of circulating Th2 cells. In vitro, increasing the level of IL-2 in the culture media was associated with resistance to DEX-induced apoptosis, with more BCL-2/less BIM mRNA. Th2 cells cultured in high IL-2 had more IL-13, less GR mRNA, showed reduced binding of the GR to FKBP5, a known GC-induced gene, and required higher concentrations of DEX for cytokine suppression. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:IL-2 downregulates Th2 cell responses to GC, supporting both their survival and pro-inflammatory capacity. These results suggest that a patient's potential to produce IL-2 may be a determinant in asthma severity.
Project description:IL-17A plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of steroid-resistant neutrophilic airway inflammation, which is a hallmark of severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Through RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptomes of human airway smooth muscle cells treated with IL-17A, dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid drug), alone or in combination, we identified a group of genes that are synergistically induced by IL-17A and DEX, including the neutrophil-promoting cytokine CSF3. In type-17 (Th17/IL-17Ahi) preclinical models of neutrophilic severe asthma (acute and chronic) and COPD, although DEX treatment was able to reduce the expression of neutrophil-mobilizing CXCL1 and CXCL2 in lung tissue, CSF3 expression was upregulated by DEX treatment. We found that DEX treatment alone failed to alleviate neutrophilic airway inflammation and pathology, and even exacerbated the disease phenotype when CSF3 was highly induced. Disruption of the IL-17A/DEX synergy by IL-17A inhibition with anti-IL-17A mAb or cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, a small-molecule IL-17A blocker) or depletion of CSF3 effectively rendered DEX sensitivity in type-17 preclinical models of neutrophilic airway diseases. Our study elucidates what we believe is a novel mechanism of steroid resistance in type-17 neutrophilic airway inflammation and offers an effective steroid-sparing therapeutic strategy (combined low-dose DEX and C3G) for treating neutrophilic airway diseases.
Project description:Introduction: There is growing knowledge of the wide ranging effects of histamine throughout the body therefore it is important to better understand the effects of this amine in patients with asthma. We aimed to explore the association between histamine pharmacodynamic (PD) response and genetic variation in the histamine pathway in children with asthma. Methods: Histamine Iontophoresis with Laser Doppler Monitoring (HILD) was performed in children with asthma and estimates for area under the effect curve (AUEC), maximal response over baseline (Emax), and time of Emax (Tmax) were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and non-linear mixed-effects model with a linked effect PK/PD model. DNA isolation and genotyping were performed among participants to detect known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 10) among genes (HDC, HNMT, ABP1, HRH1, HRH4) within the histamine pathway. General linear model was used to identify associations between histamine related genetic variants and measured histamine PD response parameters. Results: Genotyping and HILD response profiles were completed for 163 children. ABP1 47 C/T, ABP1 4107, and HNMT-1639 C/Twere associated with Emax (ABP1 47 CC genotype mean Emax 167.21 vs. CT/TT genotype mean Emax 139.20, p = 0.04; ABP1 4107 CC genotype mean Emax 141.72 vs. CG/GG genotype mean Emax 156.09, p = 0.005; HNMT-1639 CC genotype mean Emax 132.62 vs. CT/TT genotype mean Emax 155.3, p = 0.02). In a stratified analysis among African American children only, ABP1 and HNMT SNPs were also associated with PD response; HRH4 413 CC genotype was associated with lower Emax, p = 0.009. Conclusions: We show for the first time that histamine pathway genetic variation is associated with measureable changes in histamine response in children with asthma. The variability in histamine response and impact of histamine pathway genotype is important to further explore in patients with asthma so as to improve disease phenotyping leading to more personalized treatments.