Comparative efficacy of statins, metformin, spironolactone and combined oral contraceptives in reducing testosterone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting about 10% of women in reproductive age and associated with a variety of hormonal abnormalities, including hyperandrogenemia and infertility, all of which could lead to PCOS. Statins were previously introduced as a therapeutic option for reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS, either alone or in combination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different statins alone or in combination with metformin in reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS. METHODS:Medline, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies that investigated the efficacy of statins, metformin, spironolactone, or combined oral contraceptives (COCs), individually or in combination, in reducing the testosterone level in patients with PCOS. The search was limited to randomized clinical trials and conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses - extension statement for network meta-analyses (PRISMA-NMA). The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias (RoB) assessment tool. A frequentist network meta-analysis using random-effects models was used to assess the efficacy in reducing testosterone level and were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% credible interval (95%Crl). All statistical analyses were performed using netmeta Version 1.0 on R statistical package. RESULT:Nine RCTs involving 613 patients were included. Atorvastatin showed greater reduction in testosterone level compared to COC (MD -2.78, 95%CrI -3.60, -1.97), spironolactone plus metformin (MD -2.83, 95%CrI -3.80, -1.87), simvastatin (MD -2.88, 95%CrI -3.85, -1.92), spironolactone (MD -2.90, 95%CI -3.77, -2.02), simvastatin plus metformin (MD -2.93, 95%CrI -3.79, -2.06), metformin (MD -2.97, 95%CrI -3.69, -2.25), lifestyle modification (MD -3.02, 95%CrI -3.87, -2.18), and placebo (MD -3.04, 95%CrI -3.56, -2.53). CONCLUSION:Atorvastatin was found to be more effective than the other management strategies in reducing the total testosterone level for patients with PCOS. Future studies should focus on the optimal dose.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of insulin sensitizers on menstrual frequency, sex hormone, and metabolic parameters in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS:We searched multiple databases from inception to September 2019 for randomized controlled trials. Network meta-analysis was conducted using multivariate random effects method. RESULTS:Fourteen trials reporting on 619 women were included. Compared with metformin, metformin?+?thiazolidinediones (TZDs) was more superior in menstrual recovery (weighted mean difference [WMD] 3.68; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 1.65 to 8.20), metformin?+? glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists was more effective in decreasing androstenedione (WMD -2.53; 95% CrI, -3.96 to -1.09), both metformin?+?GLP-1 receptor agonists (WMD 9.22; 95% CrI, 5.46 to 12.98) and metformin?+?TZDs (WMD 4.30; 95% CrI, 0.78 to 7.82) were more effective in increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), while TZDs were less effective in decreasing body mass index (BMI) (WMD 1.69; 95% CrI, 0.72 to 2.66). Compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists, metformin?+?GLP-1 receptor agonists was associated with higher SHBG (WMD 7.80; 95% CrI, 4.75 to 10.85), lower free testosterone (WMD -1.77; 95% CrI, -3.25 to -0.29), lower androstenedione (WMD -2.70; 95% CrI, -3.91 to -1.50) and lower fasting blood glucose (WMD -0.41; 95% CrI, -0.73 to -0.08). CONCLUSION:For overweight women with PCOS, both metformin combined with GLP-1 receptor agonists and metformin combined with TZDs appear superior to monotherapy in improving hyperandrogenemia. Metformin combined with TZDs could be particularly effective in promoting the recovery of menstruation. Metformin combined with GLP-1 receptor agonists has the additional advantage of improving fasting glucose when compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists alone. TZDs are inferior to metformin in decreasing BMI.
Project description:Purpose:To assess the efficacy and safety of berberine on reproductive endocrine and metabolic outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods:PubMed (from 1950), the Cochrane Library, the CNKI (from 1979), the VIP (from 1989), and the Wanfang Data (from 1990) and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were searched for randomized controlled trials in human beings with the search terms including "polycystic ovary syndrome/PCOS" and "berberine/BBR/Huangliansu (in Chinese)/Xiao bojian (in Chinese)" till 30 May 2019. Relevant indicators were collected and the data were analyzed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Results:Eventually, a total of 12 randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review. Our study suggested that berberine had similar live birth rates compared with placebo or metformin and lower live birth rates (RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.82) compared with letrozole. There was a significant difference between berberine and placebo and between berberine and no treatment in terms of decreasing total testosterone and luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio (8 RCTs, 577 participants, MD: -0.34, 95% CI: -0.47 to -0.20; 3 RCTs, 179 participants, MD: -0.44, 95% CI: -0.68 to -0.21, respectively). Berberine was associated with decreasing total cholesterol (3 RCTs, 201 participants; MD: -0.44, 95% CI: -0.60 to -0.29), waist circumference (3 RCTs, 197 participants, MD: -2.74, 95% CI: -4.55 to -0.93), and waist-to-hip ratio (4 RCTs, 258 participants, MD: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03) compared with metformin, but not with improved BMI (4 RCTs, 262 participants, MD: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.39). Berberine did not increase the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events (3 RCTs, 567 participants, RR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.35) or serious events during pregnancy (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.37) compared with placebo. Conclusion:This review found no solid evidence that berberine could improve live birth or other clinical outcomes in women with PCOS. However, berberine appeared to be more efficacious for improving insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and decreasing androgen levels and LH/FSH ratio in women with PCOS when compared with metformin.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by ovarian dysfunction and hyperandrogenism; it is also associated with increased cardiovascular risks such as adverse lipid profile and endothelial dysfunction. Metformin and, more recently, statins have been shown to improve endocrine and metabolic aspects of PCOS.The aim of the study was to compare effects of simvastatin and metformin on PCOS.In a prospective trial, women with PCOS (n = 136) were randomized to simvastatin (S), metformin (M), or simvastatin plus metformin (SM) groups. Evaluations were performed at baseline and after 3 months.The study was conducted at an academic medical center.The change of serum total testosterone was measured.The study was completed by 113 subjects. Total testosterone decreased significantly and comparably in all groups: by 17.1, 13.6, and 15.1%, respectively, in the S, M, and SM groups. Significant decreases were also observed in all groups with respect to body mass index, C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. DHEAS declined significantly only in the S group. None of the treatments were associated with significant changes in LH or FSH. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly declined only in S and SM groups.Simvastatin treatment was superior to metformin alone, whereas a combination of simvastatin and metformin was not significantly superior to simvastatin alone.
Project description:Limited evidence on treatment options for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has led to considerable variation in health care practices. We aimed to compare the effects of metformin and/or oral contraceptive pills (OCP) in combination with pioglitazone, spironolactone, flutamide, and lifestyle interventions among adolescents aged 11 to 19 years with PCOS. Literature searches were performed in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception through December 2018, with no language restriction. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, assessed full text eligibility, and extracted information from eligible trials. Evidence was synthesized through network meta-analyses (NMA) using a Bayesian random-effects approach. We identified 37 randomized controlled trials, in which 2400 patients were randomized. NMA showed no statistically important difference among all interventions to improve menstrual regulation or body mass index. Moderate-quality evidence showed hirsutism scores were reduced by multiple interventions that included single and combination medications namely; lifestyle intervention, metformin, OCP, spironolactone, pioglitazone, metformin-OCP, metformin-spironolactone, and metformin-flutamide against placebo. Moderate-quality evidence showed OCP results in more dysglycemia compared to metformin (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% credible interval, 1.02-8.96), no intervention resulted in dysglycemia reduction. In conclusion, metformin and OCP as monotherapy or in combination with other interventions compared with placebo can reduce hirsutism scores, but none of these medications lead to effective menstrual cycle regulation or weight reduction. However, the use of OCP leads to worse cardiometabolic risk factors. Further research into new treatment options is urgently needed.<h4>Prospero registration number</h4>CRD42015016148.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that metformin or statins may decrease hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in diabetic patients. Accordingly, this article evaluates whether combination therapy may further reduce HCC. Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, excluding those with history of malignancy prior to the date of DM diagnosis, were recruited to a DM cohort. DM patients developed HCC as the cancer cohort and the date for HCC diagnosis as index date. Non-cancer cohort was frequency matched with 4:1 according to age, sex, DM-year, and index date as case group from DM cohort. Patients who were treated with statins showed a 63% decreased risk of HCC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27-0.49). Patients who consumed simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin significantly decreased risk for HCC (OR = 0.32, 0.31, and 0.22; 95% CI = 0.18-0.58, 0.19-0.52, and 0.08-0.61, respectively). Metformin combinations with simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin may decrease HCC (OR = 0.30, 0.30, and 0.24; 95% CI = 0.15-0.59, 0.16-0.54, and 0.08-0.70, respectively). The comorbidities for HCC were decreased by consuming simvastatin and atorvastatin (OR = 0.31 and 0.29; 95% CI = 0.14-0.67 and 0.15-0.57, respectively). Only combination therapy of metformin and simvastatin may significantly decreased HCC comorbidities (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.11-0.60) in our study. In Asia, not all metformin combinations with statins may reduce the incidence of HCC and not all of this kind of combination therapy may decrease the HCC comorbidities.
Project description:Objective:Metformin is an important component of PCOS treatment. At present, the effect of metformin in overweight women with PCOS has not been evaluated. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to assess the effects of metformin in overweight women with PCOS and to analyze the effects of metformin in overweight women with PCOS. Methods:We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases for studies published before March 2020. Randomized controlled trials were identified to study the effects of metformin in overweight women with PCOS. Data from studies including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, testosterone, and androstenedione were pooled. Qualified trials were selected, and methodological quality was strictly assessed. Two reviewers chose the studies independently of each other. Results:Twelve trials were included. The intervention group and the control group had significant differences in the changes in body mass index (BMI) (WMD?=?-1.25, 95% CI (-1.60, -0.91), p < 0.00001) and waist circumference (WC) (WMD?=?-1.41, 95% CI (-2.46, -0.37), p=0.008) after metformin. The comprehensive results show that, in all studies, overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with metformin had significantly improved endocrine and metabolic indicators, including testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, metformin did not regulate the secretion indexes of fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, sex hormone-binding globulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and androstenedione. Conclusions:Compared with control interventions, metformin appears to be an effective intervention for overweight women with PCOS.
Project description:To determine the effects of statins on vascular function, inflammation, and androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we randomized 20 women with PCOS who had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels >100 mg/dL to atorvastatin (40 mg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks and found that atorvastatin reduced androgen levels, biomarkers of inflammation, and blood pressure; increased insulin levels and brachial artery conductance during reactive hyperemia; and failed to improve brachial artery flow-mediated dilation. We conclude that until additional studies demonstrate a clear risk-to-benefit ratio favoring statin therapy in PCOS, statins should only be used in women with PCOS who meet current indications for statin treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Statins are extensively used for cardiovascular disease prevention. Statins reduce mortality rates more than other lipid-modulating drugs, although evidence from randomized controlled trials also suggests that statins unexpectedly increase the risk of diabetes and improve immune function. Physiologically, statins would be expected to lower androgens because statins inhibit production of the substrate for the local synthesis of androgens and statins' pleiotropic effects are somewhat similar to the physiological effects of lowering testosterone, so we hypothesized that statins lower testosterone. METHODS: A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials of statins to test the a priori hypothesis that statins lower testosterone. We searched the PubMed, Medline and ISI Web of Science databases until the end of 2011, using '(Testosterone OR androgen) AND (CS-514 OR statin OR simvastatin OR atorvastatin OR fluvastatin OR lovastatin OR rosuvastatin OR pravastatin)' restricted to randomized controlled trials in English, supplemented by a bibliographic search. We included studies with durations of 2+ weeks reporting changes in testosterone. Two reviewers independently searched, selected and assessed study quality. Two statisticians independently abstracted and analyzed data, using random or fixed effects models, as appropriate, with inverse variance weighting. RESULTS: Of the 29 studies identified 11 were eligible. In 5 homogenous trials of 501 men, mainly middle aged with hypercholesterolemia, statins lowered testosterone by -0.66 nmol/l (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.14 to -1.18). In 6 heterogeneous trials of 368 young women with polycystic ovary syndrome, statins lowered testosterone by -0.40 nmol/l (95% CI -0.05 to -0.75). Overall statins lowered testosterone by -0.44 nmol/l (95% CI -0.75 to -0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Statins may partially operate by lowering testosterone. Whether this is a detrimental side effect or mode of action warrants investigation given the potential implications for drug development and prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. See commentary article here http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/58.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disease that has an effect on approximately 10% of women of childbearing age. Although there is evidence regarding the role of lifestyle factors in the development of PCOS, the exact etiology remains unclear. Additionally, metformin is used in the treatment of PCOS but its role remains unclear. We compared the effects of lifestyle modification (LSM)?+?metformin and metformin alone on PCOS. We performed a systematic review by searching electronic databases for publications until December 2019. The primary endpoints were clinical outcomes, such as menstrual cycles and pregnancy rates, and the secondary endpoints were anthropometric, metabolic, and androgenic parameters. The meta-analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the improvements in the menstrual cycles between LSM and metformin alone (weighted mean difference [MD]?=?1.62) and between LSM?+?metformin and LSM (MD?=?1.20). The pregnancy rates and body mass indices were not significantly different between LSM and metformin alone (MD?=?1.44 and -0.11, respectively). LSM reduced insulin resistance (MD?=?-0.52) and increased serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulins (MD?=?8.27) compared with metformin. Therefore, we suggest recommending lifestyle modifications actively to women with PCOS if they do not have indications for metformin.
Project description:CONTEXT:Large, longitudinal studies on androgen levels in pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are lacking. While metformin has a mild androgen-lowering effect in non-pregnant women with PCOS, its effects on maternal androgen levels in pregnancy are less well understood. OBJECTIVE:To describe androgen patterns in pregnant women with PCOS and in healthy control women, and to explore the potential effects of metformin on maternal androgen levels in PCOS. DESIGN AND SETTING:A post hoc analysis from a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study carried out at 11 secondary care centers and a longitudinal single-center study on healthy pregnant women in Norway. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 262 women with PCOS and 119 controls. INTERVENTION:The participants with PCOS were randomly assigned to metformin (2 g daily) or placebo, from first trimester to delivery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and free testosterone index (FTI) at 4 time points in pregnancy. RESULTS:Women with PCOS versus healthy controls had higher A4, T, and FTI, and lower SHBG at all measured time points in pregnancy. In the overall cohort of women with PCOS, metformin had no effect on A4, T, SHBG, and FTI. In subgroup analyses, metformin reduced A4 (P?=?0.019) in nonobese women. Metformin also reduced A4 (P?=?0.036), T (P?=?0.023), and SHBG (P?=?0.010) levels through pregnancy in mothers with a male fetus. CONCLUSION:Metformin had no effect on maternal androgens in PCOS pregnancies. In subgroup analyses, a modest androgen-lowering effect was observed in nonobese women with PCOS. In PCOS women carrying a male fetus, metformin exhibited an androgen-lowering effect.