Coenhabiting Interpersonal Inter-Identities in Recurrent Social Interaction.
ABSTRACT: We propose a view of identity beyond the individual in what we call interpersonal inter-identities (IIIs). Within this approach, IIIs comprise collections of entangled stabilities that emerge in recurrent social interaction and manifest for those who instantiate them as relatively invariant though ever-evolving patterns of being (or more accurately, becoming) together. Herein, we consider the processes responsible for the emergence of these IIIs from the perspective of an enactive cognitive science. Our proposal hinges primarily on the development of two related notions: enhabiting and coenhabiting. First, we introduce the notion of enhabiting, a set of processes at the individual level whereby structural interdependencies stabilize and thereafter undergird the habits, networks of habits, and personal identities through which we make sense of our experience. Articulating this position we lean on the notion of a tendency toward an optimal grip, though offering it a developmental framing, whereby iterative states of selective openness help realize relatively stable autonomous personal identities with their own norms of self-regulation. We then extend many of the notions found applicable here to an account of social coenhabiting, in particular, we introduce the notion of tending toward a co-optimal grip as central to the development of social habits, networks of habits, and ultimately IIIs. Such structures, we propose, also emerge as autonomous structures with their own norms of self-regulation. We wind down our account with some reflections on the implications of these structures outside of the interactions wherein they come into being and offer some thoughts about the complex animations of the individual embodied subjects that instantiate them.
Project description:According to WHO data, only around 20% of adolescents participate in physical activity (PA) during their free time. The social context can act as a support for adolescents to do PA, given the effect that both parents, friends and teachers have on young people's behaviour owing to the large amount of time and influence they have on them. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the role of the social context on adolescents' motivation to practise PA and their intention to be physically active. This study involved the participation of students in compulsory and post-compulsory secondary education. Several statistical analyses were performed, including three confirmatory factorial analyses of the scales and a structural equations model that explains the causal relationships between the variables. The results showed how support for autonomy in the social context positively predicts autonomous motivation, whereas the psychological control of the social context negatively predicts it. Autonomous motivation positively predicted intent, attitude, behavioural control and subjective norms, and consequently, the practice of physical activity. In short, the study showed how the three validated scales have adequate goodness-of-fit indices while the structural equations model demonstrated the influence of the social context on the student's motivational processes and the adoption of active life habits.
Project description:We examined the social networks and alcohol use of a community-based sample of nonstudent emerging adults (N=59). The research examined (1) personal network characteristics and the drinking habits of its members, (2) the link between network alcohol use and personal alcohol involvement, (3) perceived social norms as they related to network alcohol use, and (4) relationship between perceived social norms and personal alcohol involvement. Men and women (M age=27 years) were equally represented in the social network. Level of educational attainment of members was diverse. On average, respondents were in contact on a daily basis with network members and about 38% of the network was known between 1 and 5 years. The majority (57%) of the network consisted of household or family members. There were some associations between network drinking and personal alcohol involvement. The proportion of "drinking buddies" in one's network was directly associated with perceived drinking norms. Perceived drinking norms also were positively associated with personal alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and approval of drinking behaviors. Findings from this study have implications for understanding social factors in the drinking behavior of nonstudent emerging adults and could inform the development of effective prevention and treatment interventions for this important, but understudied group of drinkers.
Project description:Physical fitness tests are important to maintain and promote the health status of people. The purpose of this study was to develop health-related fitness evaluation norms according to the age and gender of Nepalese older adults. One thousand nine subjects (449 males, 560 females) above 60 years, residing in 19 wards (rural and urban) of Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City participated in this study. The test included the PAR-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire), social aspects questionnaire, blood pressure test, height, weight, BMI (body mass index), percent body fat, and four physical fitness components (grip strength, 1-minute sit-to-stand, sit and reach, and 2-minute step tests). Mean, SD, and fitness evaluation norms for each component were obtained after the main test and statistical analyses. This study showed higher BMI and percent body fat in female age groups than in male age groups. Grip strength, relative grip strength, sit-to-stand, and 2-minute steps scores were better in male age groups than in female age groups, but in contrast, flexibility was better in female age groups. This study may help the related sectors to assess physical fitness, identify fitness levels, and develop appropriate physical activities or exercise programs for older adults based on age.
Project description:This study examines the existing norms regarding immunisation within the communities and the ethical notions that govern the actions of different health professionals and their collective synergistic or conflicting effects on the governance of the programme.We used descriptive and analytical qualitative methods as it suited the research question.The data were collected from areas under 16 primary health centres in Kerala and Tamil Nadu identified through a three-step sampling process.This involved in-depth interviews with stakeholders including providers, beneficiaries and other stakeholders, focus group discussions with mothers of under-five children and participant and non-participant observations of vaccination-related activities.Unlike most other ethical analyses that look at the ethics of vaccination policies, the interactions of normative principles and notions are analysed in this article. Moral obligation of parents towards their children, beneficence of healthcare providers and the utilitarian aspirations of the state are the key normative principles involved. Our analysis points to the interplay of both synergy and conflict in ethical notions and moral values in the context of immunisation services. Paternalistic interventions like special immunisation campaigns against polio and Japanese encephalitis are a case in point: they generate conflict at the normative level and create mistrust.Analysis of vaccination policies and programmes needs to go beyond factors that assess monetary benefits or herd immunity. Understanding the interactions of normative notions that shape the social organisation of the providers and the users of vaccination is important in creating a sustainable environment for the programme.
Project description:The current study examined the relations between observed normativity and deviance during adolescents' and young adults' conversations about sex with their friends and their individual perceptions of sexual peer norms. Participants were 16-21-year-old same-sex friendship dyads (31 male and 30 female dyads) who performed a peer interaction task that consisted of five discussion assignments focusing on party planning, sexual double standards, condom use, homosexuality, and consensual sex. Videotaped discussions were coded to capture the amounts of normative talk (e.g., consistent with notions of healthy sexuality) and deviant talk (e.g., consistent with notions of risky sexuality), and the verbal or nonverbal reinforcement thereof. Participants also completed individual questionnaires to assess their perceived sexual descriptive norms, injunctive norms, pressure, and risk norms among their peers. Actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) results revealed that youths' perceived descriptive, injunctive, and risk norms, but not their experienced peer pressure, were related to both their own (actor effects) and their friends' (partner effects) normativity and deviance. Overall, more deviance was related to perceiving friends to be more sexually active, more approving of having sex, and engaging in more risky sex, whereas more normativity was related to these perceptions in the opposite direction. Gender differences in the APIMs indicated that interactive normativity and deviance was related to perceived descriptive, injunctive, and risk norms for boys, but only to perceived injunctive norms for girls. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing the dyadic nature of youths' sexual communication with friends, their relation to individual sexual peer norm perceptions, and gender differences therein.
Project description:This study investigated the underlying reasons women desire to be beautiful in South Korean, Chinese, and Japanese cultures by proposing a new concept called human beauty value (HBV). This exploratory qualitative study includes a literature review in related disciplines and the results from ten focus group interviews. Based on the interviews, this study proposes four dimensions of HBV (i.e., superiority, self-development, individuality, and authenticity) and a hierarchical process among the antecedents (i.e., social comparison, social competition, and social norms), the pursuit of HBV, and the consequences (i.e., emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral aspects). Participants from each culture revealed a unique hierarchical process of HBV that reflects both cultural universality and specificity. The results of this study lead to new knowledge about East Asian women's identities and perceptions of beauty. In addition, the proposed concept, HBV, can broaden the academic lens for beauty-related disciplines.
Project description:Background: Gender roles impact different spheres of life and lead women to behavioral patterns and lifestyle habits associated with femininity, generating important differences between men and women in health. The present study analyzed relationships between conformity to the feminine norms and different lifestyle indicators: Educational level, marital status, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, sleeping hours, social support, and physical activity. Additionally, cluster analysis was developed in order to identify different patterns of gender role conformity. Methods: The sample was made up of 347 women age 18-70 from Spain. Data collection was conducted during 2014. Results: Multiple logistic regression analyses produced odds ratios showing that women with lower feminine role conformity were more likely to use tobacco and alcohol, but less likely to share their lives with someone. Cluster analysis found four different profiles of gender role conformity related to different patterns of alcohol consumption and marital status. Conclusions: Conformity to feminine norms was associated with basic affective conditions such as sharing life with others and with alcohol and tobacco consumption, but not with physical activity, social support, and sleep duration. Whereas tobacco and alcohol use have important health implications, public health systems should pay attention to gender-related variables in order to design and implement specific prevention programs.
Project description:This article is on collective phenomena in pedestrian dynamics during the assembling and dispersal of gatherings. To date pedestrian dynamics have been primarily studied in the natural and engineering sciences. Pedestrians are analyzed and modeled as driven particles revealing self-organizing phenomena and complex transport characteristics. However, pedestrians in crowds also behave as living beings according to stimulus-response mechanisms or act as human subjects on the basis of social norms, social identities or strategies. To show where pedestrian dynamics need social psychology in addition to the natural sciences we propose the application of three categories-phenomena, behavior and action. They permit a clear discrimination between situations in which minimal models from the natural sciences are appropriate and those in which sociological and psychological concepts are needed. To demonstrate the necessity of this framework, an experiment in which a large group of people (n = 270) enters a concert hall through two different spatial barrier structures is analyzed. These two structures correspond to everyday situations such as boarding trains and access to immigration desks. Methods from the natural and social sciences are applied. Firstly, physical measurements show the influence of the spatial structure on the dynamics of the entrance procedure. Density, waiting time and speed of progress show large variations. Secondly, a questionnaire study (n = 60) reveals how people perceive and evaluate these entrance situations. Markedly different expectations, social norms and strategies are associated with the two spatial structures. The results from the questionnaire study do not always conform to objective physical measures, indicating the limitations of models which are based on objective physical measures alone and which neglect subjective perspectives.
Project description:Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what might be done to counter the effects of an environment promoting large portions, especially in children. Explanations for the PSE are many and diverse, ranging from consumer error in estimating portion size to simple heuristics such as cleaning the plate or eating in accordance with consumption norms. However, individual characteristics and hedonic processes influence the PSE, suggesting a more complex explanation than error or heuristics. Here PSE studies are reviewed to identify interventions that can be used to downsize portions of HED foods, with a focus on children who are still learning about social norms for portion size. Although the scientific evidence for the PSE is robust, there is still a need for creative downsizing solutions to facilitate portion control as children and adolescents establish their eating habits.
Project description:The influence of social norms on child feeding is recognized, but guidance is lacking on how to address norms and related perceptions that hinder or support positive nutrition practices. We reviewed recent peer-reviewed and grey literature to summarize social norms relevant to complementary feeding (CF), intervention approaches that address norms, and their impacts on social norms and CF outcomes. Many reports described various norms, customs, and perceptions related to appropriate foods for young children, parenting practices, gender, and family roles, but rarely explored how they motivated behavior. Community engagement and media interventions addressed norms through facilitated discussions, challenging negative norms, portraying positive norms, engaging emotions, and correcting misperceptions. Evaluations of norms-focused interventions reported improved CF practices, but few assessed impacts on social norms. Although multiple contextual factors influence CF practices, evidence suggests the feasibility and effectiveness of addressing social norms as one component of programs to improve CF practices.