Proof-of-concept trial of the combination of lactitol with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus for the eradication of intestinal OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
ABSTRACT: Background:The major reservoir of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is the gastrointestinal tract of colonized patients. Colonization is silent and may last for months, but the risk of infection by CPE in colonized patients is significant. Methods:Eight long-term intestinal carriers of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-PE) were treated during 3 weeks with daily oral lactitol (Emportal®), Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Infloran®). Weekly stool samples were collected during the treatment period and 6 weeks later. The presence of OXA-PE was investigated by microbiological cultures and qPCR. Results:At the end of treatment (EoT, secondary endpoint 1), four of the subjects had negative OXA-PE cultures. Three weeks later (secondary endpoint 2), six subjects were negative. Six weeks after the EoT (primary endpoint), three subjects had negative OXA-PE cultures. The relative intestinal load of OXA-PE decreased in all the patients during treatment. Conclusions:The combination of prebiotics and probiotics was well tolerated. A rapid reduction on the OXA-PE intestinal loads was observed. At the EoT, decolonization was achieved in three patients.Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02307383. EudraCT Number: 2014-000449-65.
Project description:More than 300 million travelers visit regions with poor hygiene annually. A significant percentage of them become colonized by resistant intestinal bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) and may transmit the strains to others and to medical care settings when they return home. Despite the threats to global healthcare caused by an upsurge in antimicrobial resistance, no effort has been centered on prevention of colonization while traveling.Stool samples were collected from 430 Finns before and after traveling outside Scandinavia. All specimens were analyzed for ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Questionnaires were used to survey volunteers about use of antimicrobials as well as other potential risk factors. The results were subjected to multivariable analysis.Twenty-one percent (90/430) of the travelers became colonized by ESBL-PE and none by CPE. Geographic region, occurrence of travelers' diarrhea (TD), age, and use of antimicrobial (AB) for TD were identified as independent risk factors predisposing to contracting ESBL-PE. Eleven percent of those in subgroup TD-AB-, 21% in TD+AB-, and 37% in TD+AB+ acquired ESBL-PE. The risk proved to be highest in South Asia (46%); 23% became colonized in subgroup TD-AB-, 47% in TD+AB-, and 80% in TD+AB+. In Southeast Asia, the rates were 14%, 37%, and 69%, respectively.TD and antimicrobials for TD proved to be independent risk factors, with up to 80% of TD+AB+ travelers contracting ESBL-PE. In modern pre-travel counseling for those visiting high-risk regions, travelers should be advised against taking antibiotics for mild or moderate TD.
Project description:Background:The current spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) is a great concern. Methods:We recovered 198 CPE from 162 patients admitted in our Hospital (March 2014-March 2016) during the R-GNOSIS European Project. Microbiological features and plasmid characteristics of CPE recovered from patients co-colonized with multiple CPE were studied. Findings:Thirty patients (18.5%; CI 95%=?12.5%-24.5%) presented co-colonization with multiple CPE producing the same (CPE-SC) (15.4%) or a different carbapenemase (CPE-DC) (4.3%). OXA-48 (83.3%) was the most frequent carbapenemase, followed by VIM-1 (26.7%), NDM-1 (10%) and KPC-3 (3.3%). CPE-DC-patients had longer admissions [63 days (20-107)] than the other patients. Moreover, hospital stay until CPE detection was lower [9 days (5-14)] (p?=?0.0052) in CPE-SC-patients than in those with a single colonization; 56% showed co-colonization in the first positive sample, although most of them had previous admissions and had received multiple antibiotic treatments. CPE were more frequently recovered in clinical samples from co-colonized [CPE-DC (28.6%), CPE-SC (24%)] patients than from patients with a single CPE (15.2%). Among CPE-SC-OXA-48 [80% (p?=?0.11)], K. pneumoniae [88% (p?=?0.006)] and E. coli [84% (p < 0.001)] were the most frequent species. In 60% of patients, K. pneumoniae and E. coli species were simultaneously recovered, frequently after a single OXA-48-K. pneumoniae colonization. High-risk clones (ST11, ST15, ST307) were detected in OXA-48-K. pneumoniae but a higher clonal diversity was found among E. coli. A frequent in-vivo cross-species plasmid transmission was shown, due to a dominant plasmid (IncL-pOXA-48), but also involving related or unrelated bla VIM-1-, bla NDM-1- and bla KPC-3-encoding plasmids. Interpretation:CPE co-colonization status should be monitored during epidemiological surveillance cultures, as these patients might be at a higher risk for infection. Funding:European Commission Framework Programme 7 and Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain.
Project description:Bloodstream infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are associated with treatment failure and increased mortality. Detection of CPE from blood cultures (BC) by standard methods takes 16-72 hours, which can delay the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and compromise patient outcome. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a new method for the rapid detection of carbapenemases directly from positive BC using a new multiplex immunochromatographic test (ICT). The new ICT was assessed using 170 molecularly characterized Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates including 126 CPE (OXA-48-like (N = 79), KPC (N = 18) and NDM (N = 29)). After spiking with bacteria and incubation in a BC system, blood from positive BC bottles was hemolyzed, bacteria concentrated by centrifugation and lysed. The lysate was transferred to the RESIST-3 O.K.N. ICT (Coris BioConcept, Gembloux, Belgium), which detects OXA-48-like, KPC and NDM carbapenemases. The final results of the ICT were read when they became positive, at the latest after 15 min. All CPE isolates (126/126) were correctly detected with the new protocol (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity). There was perfect concordance between ICT results and molecular characterization. Total time to result was 20-45 min. CONCLUSIONS:This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that with the newly developed method, OXA-48-like, KPC and NDM carbapenemases can be reliably detected directly from positive BC bottles. The new method is more rapid than other currently available assays and can be performed in any routine microbiology laboratory. This can help to rapidly identify patients with CPE BSI and optimize the management of patients with these difficult-to-treat infections. Further studies are needed to assess the performance of the ICT in routine diagnostics.
Project description:Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are an important and increasing threat to global health. Both clonal spread and plasmid-mediated transmission contribute to the ongoing rise in incidence of these bacteria. Among the 4 classes of β-lactamases defined by the Ambler classification system, the carbapenemases that confer carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae belong to 3 of them: Class A (K. pneumoniae carbapenemases, KPC), Class B (metallo-β-lactamases, MBL including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases, NDM) and Class D (OXA-48-like carbapenemases). KPC-producing CPE are the most commonly occurring CPE in the United States. MBL-producing CPE have been most commonly associated with the Indian Subcontinent as well as with specific countries in Europe, including Romania, Denmark, Spain, and Hungary. The epicenter of OXA-48-like-producing is in Turkey and surrounding countries. Detailed knowledge of the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of CPE is essential to stem the spread of these pathogens.
Project description:We report the epidemiological impact of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in Spain in 2012. Of the 237 carbapenemases detected, 163 were from the OXA-48 group, 60 were from VIM-1, 8 were from KPC-2, 5 were from IMP, and 1 was from NDM-1. Interhospital spread of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was due to a limited number of multilocus sequence types (MLST) and carbapenemase types, including ST15-VIM-1, ST11-OXA-48, ST405-OXA-48, ST101-KPC-2, and ST11-VIM-1. The number of CPE cases in Spain has increased sharply in recent years, due mainly to the emergence of OXA-48.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance associated with the expression of the clinically significant carbapenemases, IMP, KPC, and NDM and OXA-48 in Enterobacteriaceae is emerging as a worldwide calamity to health care. In Australia, IMP-producing Enterobacteriaceae is the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Genomic characteristics of such carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are well described, but the corresponding proteome is poorly characterised. We have thus developed a method to analyse dynamic changes in the proteome of CPE under antibiotic pressure. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of meropenem at sub-lethal concentrations to develop a better understanding of how antibiotic pressure leads to resistance. Escherichia coli, producing either NDM, IMP or KPC type carbapenemase were included in this study, and their proteomes were analysed in growth conditions with or without meropenem.
Project description:Rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is critical for appropriate treatment and infection control. We compared a rapid fluorogenic assay using a carbapenem-based fluorogenic probe with other phenotypic assays: modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM), Carba NP test (CNP), and carbapenemase inhibition test (CIT). A total of 217 characterized isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were included as follows: 63 CPE; 48 non-carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (non-CP-CRE); 53 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase producers; and 53 third-generation-cephalosporin-susceptible isolates. The fluorogenic assay using bacterial colonies (Fluore-C) was conducted by lysing the isolates followed by centrifugation and mixing the supernatant with fluorogenic probe. In addition, for the fluorogenic assay using spiked blood culture bottles (Fluore-Direct), pellets were obtained via the saponin preparation method, which can directly identify the pathogens using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The fluorescence signal was measured over 50?min using a fluorometer. The fluorescent signal of CPE was significantly higher than that of non-CPE in both Fluore-C (median relative fluorescence units [RFU] [range], 5,814 [240 to 32,009] versus 804 [36 to 2,480], respectively; P?<?0.0001) and Fluore-Direct (median RFU [range], 10,355 [1,689 to 31,463] versus 1,068 [428 to 2,155], respectively; P?<?0.0001) tests. Overall, positive and negative percent agreements of Fluore-C, mCIM, CNP, CIT, and Fluore-Direct were 100% and 98.7%, 98.3% and 97.5%, 88.1% and 100%, 96.4% and 98.7%, and 98.3% and 98.1%, respectively. The relatively lower positive percent agreement (PPA) of CNP was mainly observed in OXA-type CPE. The fluorogenic assay showed excellent performance with bacterial colonies and also directly from positive blood cultures. We included many non-CP-CRE isolates for strict evaluation. The fluorogenic assay will be a useful tool for clinical microbiology laboratories.
Project description:Resistance to carbapenems is a severe threat to human health. These last resort antimicrobials are indispensable for the treatment of severe human infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In accordance with their increasing medical impact, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) might be disseminated from colonized humans to non-human reservoirs (i.e., environment, animals, food). In Germany, the occurrence of CPE in livestock and food has been systematically monitored since 2016. In the 2019 monitoring, an OXA-48-producing E. coli (19-AB01443) was recovered from a fecal sample of a fattening pig. Phenotypic resistance was confirmed by broth microdilution and further characterized by PFGE, conjugation, and combined short-/long-read whole genome sequencing. This is the first detection of this resistance determinant in samples from German meat production. Molecular characterization and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the blaOXA-48 gene was located on a common pOXA-48 plasmid-prototype. This plasmid-type seems to be globally distributed among various bacterial species, but it was frequently associated with clinical Klebsiella spp. isolates. Currently, the route of introduction of this plasmid/isolate combination into the German pig production is unknown. We speculate that due to its strong correlation with human isolates a transmission from humans to livestock has occurred.
Project description:Objectives. A large OXA-48 outbreak in the Netherlands involved the spread of OXA-48producing Enterobacteriaceae among at least 118 patients, suggesting horizontal transfer of this resistance gene through one or more plasmids. Elucidating transmission dynamics of resistance plasmids is hampered by the low resolution of classic typing methods. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of plasmids carrying OXA-48 carbapenemase using a next-generation sequencing approach.Methods. A total of 68 OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the hospital outbreak, as well as 22 non-outbreak related OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae from the Netherlands, Libya and Turkey were selected. Plasmids were sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform, and read sets were assembled and analysed.Results. In all plasmids bla OXA-48 was embedded in transposon Tn1999.2 and located on a ca. 62 kb IncL/M conjugative plasmid in 14 different species. There were a maximum of 2 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) between the core sequence alignment of all plasmids. Closely related sequence variants of this plasmid were detected in non-outbreak isolates from the Netherlands and other countries. Thirty-one of 89 OXA-48-producing isolates also harboured bla CTX-M-15, which was not located on the bla OXA-48-carrying plasmid. Sequencing of four plasmids harbouring bla CTX-M15 revealed extensive plasmid heterogeneity.Conclusions. A ca 62 kb plasmid was responsible for the OXA-48 outbreak in a Dutch hospital. Our findings provide strong evidence for both within-host inter-species and between host dissemination of plasmid-based OXA-48 during a nosocomial outbreak. These findings exemplify the complex epidemiology of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE).
Project description:The recent development of new antimicrobials active against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriales (CPE) has brought new hope for the treatment of infections due to these organisms. However, the evolving epidemiology of bacteria with carbapenemases may complicate management, as providers are faced with treating patients colonized by bacteria producing multiple carbapenemases. Here, we present the clinical course and treatment of Raoultella planticola bacteremia in a cirrhotic patient known to be colonized with both bla KPC- and bla OXA-48-carrying organisms.