A randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing tailored for heavy drinking latinxs.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This randomized controlled trial (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ) compared the efficacy of a brief motivational interview (MI) adapted to address social stressors and cultural influences (culturally adapted MI [CAMI]) to a standard MI for heavy-drinking Latinxs. CAMI was hypothesized to reduce heavy drinking days and frequency of alcohol-related consequences more than MI. Moderators of treatment effect were explored. METHOD:Latinxs (N = 296; 63% male, M age = 41 years) who reported 2+ past month heavy drinking episodes received a single-session (MI/CAMI), with assessments at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS:Both conditions showed significant reductions in percent heavy drinking days and frequency of alcohol-related consequences through 12-month follow-up when compared with baseline; reductions were not significantly different by condition. Acculturation moderated treatment condition effect on alcohol-related problems at 3 months (d = .22, 95% CI [.02, .41]); less acculturated individuals experienced less frequent consequences of drinking after CAMI than MI (d = .34, 95% CI [-.60, -.08]). Discrimination moderated condition effect on frequency of alcohol-related consequences at 3 months (d = .17, 95% CI [-.33, -.01]); individuals with higher levels of baseline discrimination had less frequent consequences after CAMI than MI (d = .20, 95% CI [-.39, -.01]). CONCLUSIONS:Participants in both groups improved with no significant differences between groups. Moderation effects suggest that cultural adaptation has particular benefit for more vulnerable individuals and support the theory of change in this adaptation model. MI is efficacious with Latinx heavy drinkers and should be used to mitigate health disparities related to alcohol misuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:Motivation to use alcohol to regulate positive and negative affect and deficits in cognitive control (i.e., executive functions [EFs]) have both been associated with increased alcohol involvement and alcohol-related consequences. Although dual-process models predict that affect-driven motivations and cognitive control should interact to determine alcohol involvement and alcohol-related consequences, this intersection has remained largely unexplored. The present study examined the extent to which effects of enhancement and coping drinking motives on alcohol use, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences are moderated by individual differences in three theorized components of EF. We anticipated, in general, that drinking motives would more strongly predict alcohol use, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences among individuals low versus high in cognitive control-EF. Participants (N = 801) completed a battery of nine EF tasks, as well as measures of drinking motives, alcohol use, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related negative consequences. A baseline structural model indicated that (a) both enhancement motives and coping motives predicted alcohol use and heavy drinking, (b) both enhancement and coping motives exerted their effects on alcohol-related consequences both directly and indirectly via alcohol use, and (c) shifting-specific abilities were modestly positively associated with heavy drinking. Most important for the aims of the study, latent variable interaction analyses failed to provide consistent evidence that better EF abilities attenuate the effects of drinking motives on alcohol use, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences, as predicted. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Self-medication theory (SMT) posits that individuals exposed to trauma and resulting posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSD) are at risk for heavy drinking and associated negative consequences. Close peer alcohol use is also a powerful predictor of alcohol involvement in college, particularly influencing those with greater negative affect. As individuals with PTSD may rely on peers for support, peer drinking behaviors are possibly putting them at further risk for greater alcohol use and resulting consequences. To test self-medication processes, the present study examined the relationship between weekday PTSD symptoms, weekend alcohol behavior, and the influence of both emotionally supportive peer and other friend drinking behavior by investigating: (a) whether weekday PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent weekend alcohol use and consequences; and (b) whether the relationship between weekday PTSD symptoms and weekend alcohol behavior was moderated by various drinking behaviors of one's peers. Trauma-exposed heavy-drinking college students (N = 128) completed a baseline assessment and 30 daily, Web-based assessments of alcohol use and related consequences, PTSD symptoms, and peer alcohol behavior. Results directly testing SMT were not supported. However, friend alcohol behavior moderated the relationship between weekday PTSD and weekend alcohol behavior. Findings highlight the importance of peer drinking as both a buffer and risk factor for problematic drinking and provide useful information for interventions aimed at high-risk drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:This study tested technical and relational processes hypothesized to explain the therapeutic benefit of an efficacious brief motivational interview (BMI). A randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of a BMI to an attention-matched control (i.e., relaxation training [REL]) for reducing heavy alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences. Participants were underage, past-month heavy drinkers recruited from community settings (N = 167; ages 17-20; 62% female; 59% White). Data were collected on session recordings, using established motivational interviewing process measures. Statistical analyses followed 3 steps. First, a latent class model determined the optimal class solution for characterizing proportion change talk means within BMI and REL. Next, the probability of proportion change talk class membership was examined as a mediator and then as a moderated mediator of BMI efficacy. The latent class model yielded a 3-class solution, including a low-increasing proportion change talk class (n = 61), a moderate-increasing proportion change talk class (n = 97), and a nonlinear proportion change talk class (n = 7). Across the outcomes examined, membership in the moderate-increasing class rather than the low-increasing class mediated BMI effects on alcohol-related consequences at 6 weeks. Mediation tests for consequences at 3 months and heavy drinking were nonsignificant. Moderated mediation results for therapist empathy and MI Spirit were nonsignificant. Findings suggest that moderate increases in prochange statements, relative to anti- or neutral-change statements, help explain BMI effects on reducing alcohol-related negative consequences soon after intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A key assumption when assessing alcohol-related problems is that these problems are considered negative. A growing literature suggests that college drinkers do not perceive all measured consequences to be negative. Research has established the impact of others' beliefs on personal beliefs and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of perceptions of others' evaluations (POE) of consequences on one's own evaluations and subsequent experiences of consequences. METHOD:A sample of 885 heavy drinking college students participated in a longitudinal study. Participants reported the number of alcoholic drinks consumed per week, experiences of alcohol-related problems, evaluations of those consequences, and perceptions of how typical university students evaluate those consequences. A moderated mediation of POE on negative alcohol-related consequences via evaluations of consequences at differing levels of alcohol consumption was conducted, with gender, baseline consequences, and intervention effects being controlled for. RESULTS:Results indicated that POE had no direct effect on subsequent consequences. However, an indirect effect was found through evaluations of consequences, such that there was a positive association between both POE and evaluations of consequences, and evaluations of consequences and subsequent consequences. Average weekly drinking moderated the association between POE and evaluations of consequences, such that the association between POE and evaluations of consequences was stronger for those who drank more heavily. CONCLUSIONS:Results are consistent with social cognition processes, such as pluralistic ignorance, and suggest that POE and evaluations of consequences should be considered in the construction of interventions targeting heavy-drinking college students.
Project description:The previously published randomized controlled trial, EARLY, tested the efficacy of a motivational interviewing (MI) plus feedback condition against a video information (VI) condition and an informational brochure (IB) condition in reducing drinking and/or increasing contraception effectiveness, and found that drinking and rates of effective contraception improved in all conditions. In this reanalysis of the data from EARLY, potential moderating effects of depressive, global distress, and anxiety symptoms in response to the three brief interventions to reduce alcohol exposed pregnancy risk were examined. Women with higher levels of depression at baseline reported greater improvements in the MI plus feedback condition versus the VI and IB conditions with depression moderating both drinking and contraceptive effectiveness. Global distress moderated only drinking behavior in the MI plus feedback but not other groups and anxiety was not a moderator of outcome in any of the intervention groups. Depressed or distressed women at risk for AEP may benefit from an AEP risk reduction intervention that incorporates interaction with a treatment provider versus educational information provided via video or written materials.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to examine the efficacy of a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (the eCHECKUP TO GO) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences among high school seniors. METHOD:Participants (n = 221) were high school seniors randomized by class period to either a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (the eCHECKUP TO GO) or an assessment-only control group. Participants completed online surveys at baseline and at a 6-week follow-up. RESULTS:Students participating in the eCHECKUP TO GO intervention reported a significant reduction in weekly drinking quantity, peak drinking quantity, and frequency of drinking to intoxication relative to those in the control group. Intervention effects were moderated by high-risk status (one or more episodes of heavy episodic drinking in the past 2 weeks reported at baseline) such that intervention effects were significant for high-risk students only. Results for alcohol-related consequences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS:Providing a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention in the school setting is a promising approach for reducing problem alcohol use among high school seniors who report recent heavy episodic drinking.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking men who have sex with men (MSM) who are engaged in HIV care but not currently receiving addictions treatment. METHOD:One hundred eighty MSM living with HIV-recruited regardless of interest in changing drinking-were randomly assigned to MI or an assessment-only treatment as usual (TAU) control. MI comprised one in-person session followed by two brief phone calls and in-person booster sessions at 3 and 6 months. The Timeline Follow-Back Interview assessed past 30-day alcohol use and sexual behavior at 3, 6, and 12 months postbaseline, and serum samples and medical records assessed viral load, CD4 cell count, and liver function. RESULTS:At 6 and 12 months, MI compared to TAU resulted in significantly fewer drinks per week (6 months: b = -8.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-12.69, -4.76]; 12 months: b = -5.98, 95% CI [-9.77, -2.19]) and lower number of heavy drinking days (6 months: incidence rate ratio = 0.55, 95% CI [0.38, 0.79]; 12 months: incidence rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI [0.33, 0.78]). Effects on viral load, CD4 cell count, and liver function were nonsignificant. Among those reporting condomless sex with nonsteady partners at baseline, MI resulted in significantly lower rates of this behavior at 3 and 12 months compared to TAU. CONCLUSIONS:In MSM living with HIV, MI shows substantial promise for reducing heavy drinking and for reducing condomless sex among those at risk. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:To examine the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of a dual-target motivational intervention (MI) to reduce heavy drinking and risky sex. A priori hypotheses were that: increases in alcohol-related readiness to change (RTC) and self-efficacy would mediate the effect of MI on alcohol use; increases in sex-related RTC and self-efficacy would mediate the effect of MI on risky sex; and reductions in alcohol use would mediate reductions in risky sex. Patients in Emergency Departments who screened positive for heavy drinking and risky sex were randomly assigned to receive MI or brief advice. RTC and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and immediately postintervention. Alcohol use and sexual behavior was assessed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow up. Single- and serial-mediation models were tested. Patients who received MI had higher postintervention RTC and self-efficacy, but neither mechanism mediated the effects of MI on behavioral outcomes. Reduction in heavy drinking mediated the effect of MI on frequency of sex under the influence (SUI). Further, the effect of MI on condomless sex was mediated by an indirect path in which reductions in heavy drinking at 3 months predicted less SUI at 6 months, which in turn predicted reduction in condomless sex at 9-months. Although some effect of dual-target MI on risky sex is independent of drinking, treatment-related reduction in heavy drinking does account for a significant portion of reduction in risky sex, providing support for the utility of this intervention in patient populations where heavy drinking and risky sex co-occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The literature on whether readiness to change (RTC) alcohol use translates into actual change among college students is both limited and mixed, despite the importance of understanding naturalistic change processes. Few studies have used fine-grained, prospective data to examine the link between RTC and subsequent drinking behavior, and alcohol consequences in particular. The present study involves tests of whether (a) intraindividual changes in RTC are negatively associated with alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences from week to week, (b) the effect of RTC on use and consequences is direct versus mediated by change in alcohol use, and (c) the association between RTC and drinking behavior is moderated by gender. METHOD:Participants were 96 college student drinkers who completed a baseline survey and 10 weekly web-based assessments of RTC, alcohol use, and consequences. RESULTS:Hierarchical linear models indicated that, as hypothesized, reporting greater RTC on a given week (relative to one's average level of RTC) was negatively associated with alcohol use (measured by either drinks per week or frequency of heavy episodic drinking) and alcohol consequences the following week. Changes in use fully mediated the relationship between RTC and consequences. The prospective association between RTC and both alcohol use and consequences did not differ by gender. CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that higher RTC translates into short-term reductions in alcohol use and in turn alcohol consequences, and highlight important avenues for future research.
Project description:Drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. PBS subscales, Limiting/Stopping (LS), Manner of Drinking (MOD), and Serious Harm Reduction (SHR), have been examined in the literature; LS, MOD, and SHR have mixed support as protective factors. Understanding moderators between PBS and alcohol use and related consequences is an important development in PBS research in order to delineate when and for whom PBS use is effective in reducing harm from alcohol use. Perceptions of vulnerability to negative consequences, included in health-risk models, may be one such moderator. The current study examined whether two types of perceived vulnerability (perceived vulnerability when drinking; perceived vulnerability in uncomfortable/unfamiliar situations) moderated the relations between LS, MOD, SHR strategies and alcohol use and related negative consequences. High-risk young adults (N?=?400; 53.75% female) recruited nationally completed measures of PBS, alcohol use and related consequences, and measures of perceived vulnerability. Findings demonstrated that perceived vulnerability when drinking moderated the relations between MOD strategies and alcohol use. The interactions between perceived vulnerability when drinking and PBS did not predict alcohol-related consequences. Perceived vulnerability in unfamiliar/uncomfortable social situations moderated relations between MOD strategies and both alcohol use and related negative consequences; no other significant interactions emerged. Across both perceived vulnerability types and MOD strategies, those with the highest levels of perceived vulnerability and who used MOD strategies the most had the greatest decrements in alcohol use and related negative consequences. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed.