Continuous positive airway pressure improves respiratory mechanics and efficiency of neural drive in stable COPD: an exploratory study.
ABSTRACT: Background:Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a major treatment strategy for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially with respiratory failure. However, it remains inconclusive whether CPAP affects respiratory mechanics and neural drive in stable COPD patients without respiratory failure. Methods:Twenty-two COPD patients without respiratory failure received CPAP starting from 4 to 10 cmH2O in 1 cmH2O increments. Respiratory pattern, end expiatory lung volume (EELV), dynamic PEEPi (PEEPidyn), airway resistance (Raw), pressure-time product of diaphragmatic pressure (PTPdi) and esophageal pressure (PTPeso), root mean square (RMS) of diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) and ratio of ventilation (Ve) to EMGdi (i.e., Ve/RMS) were measured before and at each level of continue positive airway pressure (CPAP). A subgroup analysis was performed between patients with and without inspiratory muscle weakness. Results:Nineteen patients completed the treatment. The respiratory pattern improved significantly after CPAP. Raw, PTPdi, and Pdi decreased significantly. ?EELV decreased at 4 cmH2O (P<0.05), but increased significantly at >8 cmH2O. PEEPidyn decreased from 2.18±0.98 to 1.37±0.55 cmH2O. RMS increased while Ve/RMS improved significantly after CPAP (P<0.05). Besides, CPAP could significantly improve respiratory mechanics in patients with inspiratory muscle weakness. Conclusions:CPAP improves respiratory pattern, PEEPi, Raw, work of breathing and efficiency of neural drive in COPD patients without respiratory failure, but easily increases dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation. These effects on respiratory mechanics are significant in patients with inspiratory muscle weakness.
Project description:Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a rehabilitation therapy for stable patients with COPD. However, its therapeutic effect remains undefined due to the unclear nature of diaphragmatic mobilization during IMT. Diaphragmatic mobilization, represented by transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), and neural respiratory drive, expressed as the corrected root mean square (RMS) of the diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMGdi), both provide vital information to select the proper IMT device and loads in COPD, therefore contributing to the curative effect of IMT. Pdi and RMS of EMGdi (RMSdi%) were measured and compared during inspiratory resistive training and threshold load training in stable patients with COPD.Pdi and neural respiratory drive were measured continuously during inspiratory resistive training and threshold load training in 12 stable patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s ± SD was 26.1%±10.2% predicted).Pdi was significantly higher during high-intensity threshold load training (91.46±17.24 cmH2O) than during inspiratory resistive training (27.24±6.13 cmH2O) in stable patients with COPD, with P<0.01 for each. Significant difference was also found in RMSdi% between high-intensity threshold load training and inspiratory resistive training (69.98%±16.78% vs 17.26%±14.65%, P<0.01).We concluded that threshold load training shows greater mobilization of Pdi and neural respiratory drive than inspiratory resistive training in stable patients with COPD.
Project description:Conventional lung function parameters, such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and inspiratory capacity (IC) are often used to assess the therapeutic outcomes of bronchodilators, but they lack sensitivity. A novel indicator, namely efficiency of neural respiratory drive (NRD), may objectively evaluate the physiological changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated whether this indicator could be used to more accurately assess the responsiveness to inhaled bronchodilators.Thirty-six subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomized into group A (n=18) and group B (n=18). Participants in group A inhaled 400 µg placebo, 400 µg salbutamol and 80 µg ipratropium in sequence whereas those in group B had the salbutamol and ipratropium reversed. At different time points after administration of placebo or bronchodilators, evaluated indices included FEV1, FVC, IC, root mean square (RMS) of diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi), and efficiency of NRD [herein defined as the ratio of minute ventilation (VE) to RMS, or VE/RMS].FEV1, FVC, IC, RMS, and VE/RMS significantly improved after inhaled bronchodilators and VE/RMS had the largest improvement among five indices. The detection efficiency of VE/RMS was greater than FEV1, FVC, IC (all P<0.05), but not different from RMS. The accuracy and sensitivity of VE/RMS were significantly higher than FEV1, FVC, IC, and RMS (all P<0.05).Efficiency of NRD may be a sensitive tool to evaluate the efficacy of inhaled bronchodilators in COPD.
Project description:To evaluate the compatibility and correlation between noninvasive surface respiratory electromyography and invasive transesophageal diaphragmatic electromyography measurements as facilitating indicators of neural respiratory drive (NRD) evaluation during treadmill exercise.Transesophageal diaphragmatic electromyogram activity (EMGdi,es) and surface inspiratory electromyogram (EMG) activity, including surface diaphragmatic EMG activity (EMGdi,sur), surface parasternal intercostal muscle EMG activity (EMGpara), and surface sternocleidomastoid EMG activity (EMGsc), were detected simultaneously during increasing exercise capacity in 20 stable patients with COPD. EMGdi,es, EMGdi,sur, EMGpara, and EMGsc were quantified using the root mean square (RMS) and were represented as RMSdi,es, RMSdi,sur, RMSpara, and RMSsc, respectively.There was a significant association between EMGdi,es and EMGdi,sur (r=0.966, p<0.01), EMGpara (r=0.967, p<0.01), and EMGsc (r=0.956, p<0.01) in the COPD patients during exercise. Bland-Altman plots showed that the lowest mean bias value was between EMGdi,es and EMGpara compared with the bias values between EMGdi,es and the other two EMG parameters. In comparing the estimation of EMGdi,es, we observed the lowest bias values (-1%) and the lowest limits of agreement values (-10% to -12%). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between EMGdi,es and EMGdi,sur was 0.978 (p<0.01), between EMGdi,es and EMGpara was 0.980 (p<0.01), and between EMGdi,es and EMGsc was 0.868 (p<0.01).RMSdi,sur, RMSpara, and RMSsc could provide useful physiological markers of NRD in COPD. RMSpara shows the best compatibility and correlation with transesophageal diaphragmatic electromyography during treadmill exercise in stable patients with COPD.
Project description:We tested the hypothesis that abdominal binding (AB) would reduce breathlessness and improve exercise tolerance by enhancing neuromuscular efficiency of the diaphragm during exercise in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 20 adults with COPD (mean ± SD FEV1, 60 ± 16% predicted) completed a symptom-limited constant-load cycle endurance exercise test at 75% of their peak incremental power output with concomitant measures of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) and respiratory pressures without (CTRL) vs. with AB sufficient to increase end-expiratory gastric pressure (Pga,ee) by 6.7 ± 0.3 cmH2O at rest. Compared to CTRL, AB enhanced diaphragmatic neuromuscular efficiency during exercise (p < 0.05), as evidenced by a 25% increase in the quotient of EMGdi to tidal transdiaphragmatic pressure swing. By contrast, AB had no demonstrable effect on exertional breathlessness and exercise tolerance; spirometry and plethysmography-derived pulmonary function test parameters at rest; and cardiac, metabolic, breathing pattern, inspiratory reserve volume and EMGdi responses during exercise (all p > 0.05 vs. CTRL). In conclusion, enhanced neuromuscular efficiency of the diaphragm during exercise with AB was not associated with relief of exertional breathlessness and improved exercise tolerance in adults with COPD. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01852006.
Project description:To optimize long-term nocturnal non-invasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, surface diaphragm electromyography (EMGdi) might be helpful to detect patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, visual analysis is labor-intensive and EMGdi is heavily corrupted by electrocardiographic (ECG) activity. Therefore, we developed an automatic method to detect inspiratory onset from EMGdi envelope using fixed sample entropy (fSE) and a dynamic threshold based on kernel density estimation (KDE). Moreover, we combined fSE with adaptive filtering techniques to reduce ECG interference and improve onset detection. The performance of EMGdi envelopes extracted by applying fSE and fSE with adaptive filtering was compared to the root mean square (RMS)-based envelope provided by the EMG acquisition device. Automatic onset detection accuracy, using these three envelopes, was evaluated through the root mean square error (RMSE) between the automatic and mean visual onsets (made by two observers). The fSE-based method provided lower RMSE, which was reduced from 298 ms to 264 ms when combined with adaptive filtering, compared to 301 ms provided by the RMS-based method. The RMSE was negatively correlated with the proposed EMGdi quality indices. Following further validation, fSE with KDE, combined with adaptive filtering when dealing with low quality EMGdi, indicates promise for detecting the neural onset of respiratory drive.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Lung-protective ventilation aims at using low tidal volumes (VT) at optimum positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP). Optimum PEEP should recruit atelectatic lung regions and avoid tidal recruitment and end-inspiratory overinflation. We examined the effect of VT and PEEP on ventilation distribution, regional respiratory system compliance (C(RS)), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) and patients with ARDS by using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with the aim to assess tidal recruitment and overinflation. METHODS: EIT examinations were performed in 10 anaesthetized pigs with normal lungs ventilated at 5 and 10 ml/kg body weight VT and 5 cmH2O PEEP. After ALI induction, 10 ml/kg VT and 10 cmH2O PEEP were applied. Afterwards, PEEP was set according to the pressure-volume curve. Animals were randomized to either low or high VT ventilation changed after 30 minutes in a crossover design. Ventilation distribution, regional C(RS) and changes in EELV were analyzed. The same measures were determined in five ARDS patients examined during low and high VT ventilation (6 and 10 (8) ml/kg) at three PEEP levels. RESULTS: In healthy animals, high compared to low VT increased C(RS) and ventilation in dependent lung regions implying tidal recruitment. ALI reduced C(RS) and EELV in all regions without changing ventilation distribution. Pressure-volume curve-derived PEEP of 21±4 cmH2O (mean±SD) resulted in comparable increase in C(RS) in dependent and decrease in non-dependent regions at both VT. This implied that tidal recruitment was avoided but end-inspiratory overinflation was present irrespective of VT. In patients, regional C(RS) differences between low and high VT revealed high degree of tidal recruitment and low overinflation at 3±1 cmH2O PEEP. Tidal recruitment decreased at 10±1 cmH2O and was further reduced at 15±2 cmH(2)O PEEP. CONCLUSIONS: Tidal recruitment and end-inspiratory overinflation can be assessed by EIT-based analysis of regional C(RS).
Project description:Background:Although non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is the gold standard treatment for patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) developing respiratory acidosis, failure rates still range from 5% to 40%. Recent studies have shown that the onset of severe diaphragmatic dysfunction (DD) during AECOPD increases risk of NIV failure and mortality in this subset of patients. Although the imbalance between the load and the contractile capacity of inspiratory muscles seems the main cause of AECOPD-induced hypercapnic respiratory failure, data regarding the influence of mechanical derangement on DD in this acute phase are lacking. With this study, we investigate the impact of respiratory mechanics on diaphragm function in AECOPD patients experiencing NIV failure. Methods:Twelve AECOPD patients with respiratory acidosis admitted to the Respiratory ICU of the University Hospital of Modena from 2017 to 2018 undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) due to NIV failure were enrolled. Static respiratory mechanics and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) were measured after 30 mins of volume control mode MV. Subsequently, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) was calculated by means of a sniff maneuver (Pdisniff) after 30 mins of spontaneous breathing trial. Linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient served to assess associations. Results:Average Pdisniff was 23.3 cmH2O (standard deviation 29 cmH2O) with 3 patients presenting bilateral diaphragm palsy. Pdisniff was directly correlated with static lung elastance (r=0.69, p=0.001) while inverse correlation was found with dynamic intrinsic PEEP (r=-0.73, p=0.007). No significant correlation was found with static intrinsic PEEP (r=-0.55, p=0.06), EELV (r=-0.4, p=0.3), airway resistance (r=-0.2, p=0.54), chest wall, and total elastance (r=-0-01, p=0.96 and r=0.3, p=0.36, respectively). Significant linear inverse correlation was found between Pdisniff and the ratio between Pdi assessed at tidal volume and Pdi sniff (r=-0.82, p=0.02). Conclusion:The causes of extreme DD in AECOPD patients who experienced NIV failure might be predominantly mechanical, driven by a severe dynamic hyperinflation that overlaps on an elastic lung substrate favoring volume overload.
Project description:Intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) is a "threshold" load that must be overcome to trigger conventional pneumatically-controlled pressure support (PSP) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Application of extrinsic PEEP (PEEPe) reduces trigger delays and mechanical inspiratory efforts. Using the diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) could hypothetically eliminate asynchrony and reduce mechanical inspiratory effort, hence substituting the need for PEEPe. The primary objective of this study was to show that PSN can reduce the need for PEEPe to improve patient-ventilator interaction and to reduce both the "pre-trigger" and "total inspiratory" neural and mechanical efforts in COPD patients with PEEPi. A secondary objective was to evaluate the impact of applying PSN on breathing pattern.Twelve intubated and mechanically ventilated COPD patients with PEEPi ? 5 cm H2O underwent comparisons of PSP and PSN at different levels of PEEPe (at 0 %, 40 %, 80 %, and 120 % of static PEEPi, for 12 minutes at each level on average), at matching peak airway pressure. We measured flow, airway pressure, esophageal pressure, and EAdi, and analyzed neural and mechanical efforts for triggering and total inspiration. Patient-ventilator interaction was analyzed with the NeuroSync index.Mean airway pressure and PEEPe were comparable for PSP and PSN at same target levels. During PSP, the NeuroSync index was 29 % at zero PEEPe and improved to 21 % at optimal PEEPe (P < 0.05). During PSN, the NeuroSync index was lower (<7 %, P < 0.05) regardless of PEEPe. Both pre-trigger (P < 0.05) and total inspiratory mechanical efforts (P < 0.05) were consistently higher during PSP compared to PSN at same PEEPe. The change in total mechanical efforts between PSP at PEEPe0% and PSN at PEEPe0% was not different from the change between PSP at PEEPe0% and PSP at PEEPe80%.PSN abolishes the need for PEEPe in COPD patients, improves patient-ventilator interaction, and reduces the inspiratory mechanical effort to breathe.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02114567 . Registered 04 November 2013.
Project description:To investigate the acute effects of EPAP on the activity of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), parasternal muscles and ventilatory parameters in COPD patients.Twenty-four patients with COPD were studied using surface electromyography (sEMG) and a ventilometer. Patients were randomly assigned to EPAP 10 cmH2O-EPAP10 or 15 cmH2O-EPAP15 for 20 minutes.The parasternal muscle sEMG activity increased during EPAP10 and EPAP15; however, a greater and significant increase was observed with EPAP10 (mean between-group difference: 12.5% RMS, 95% CI: 9.5 to 15.4, p<0.001). In relation to the baseline, at 10 and 20 minutes and upon recovery, respectively parasternal activity increased by 23.9%, 28.9% and 19.1% during EPAP10 and by 10.7% at 10 and 20 minutes and upon recovery, respectively, 11.4% and 6.9% during EPAP15 at 10 and 20 minutes and upon recovery, respectively. The sEMG activity of SCM muscle showed an opposite pattern, increasing with EPAP15 and decreasing with EPAP10 (mean between-group difference: 15.5% RMS, 95% CI: 12.6 to 18.4, p<0.001). SCM muscle activity during EPAP15, increased by 4.8% and 6.1% at 10 and 20 minutes and decreased by -4.0% upon recovery compared to decreases of -5.6%, -20.6% and -21.3% during EPAP10 at 10, 20 minutes, and recovery. Ventilation at both EPAP intensities promoted significant reductions in respiratory rate (RR) and dyspnea, more pronounced in EPAP15: RR (mean between-group difference: -3,8bpm, 95%CI: -7,5 to -0,2, p=0,015) and dyspnea (mean between-group difference: -1.01, 95%CI: -1.4 to -0.53, p=0.028) .In COPD patients, the use of EPAP10 was more effective in reducing accessory inspiratory activity and increasing parasternal activity, which was accompanied by an improvement in ventilation and a reduction in dyspnea.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a mode of non-invasive ventilation used to treat a variety of respiratory conditions in the emergency department and intensive care unit. In low-resource settings where ventilators are not available, the ability to improvise a CPAP system from locally available equipment would provide a previously unavailable means of respiratory support for patients in respiratory distress. This manuscript details the design of such a system and its performance in healthy volunteers. METHODS:An improvised CPAP system was assembled from standard emergency department equipment and tested in 10 healthy volunteers (6 male, 4 female; ages 29-33). The system utilizes a water seal and high-flow air to create airway pressure; it was set to provide a pressure of 5 cmH2O for the purposes of this pilot study. Subjects used the system in a monitored setting for 30 min. Airway pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and end-tidal CO2 were monitored. Comfort with the device was assessed via questionnaire. RESULTS:The system maintained positive airway pressure for the full trial period in all subjects, with a mean expiratory pressure (EP) of 5.1 cmH2O (SD 0.7) and mean inspiratory pressure (IP) of 3.2 cmH2O (SD 0.8). There was a small decrease in average EP (5.28 vs 4.88 cmH2O, p = 0.03) and a trend toward decreasing IP (3.26 vs 3.07 cmH2O, p = 0.22) during the trial. No significant change in heart rate, O2 saturation, respiratory rate, or end-tidal CO2 was observed. The system was well tolerated, ranked an average of 4.0 on a 1-5 scale for comfort (with 5 = very comfortable). CONCLUSIONS:This improvised CPAP system maintained positive airway pressure for 30 min in healthy volunteers. Use did not cause tachycardia, hypoxia, or hypoventilation and was well tolerated. This system may be a useful adjunctive treatment for respiratory distress in low-resource settings. Further research should test this system in settings where other positive pressure modalities are not available.