Indole-3-acetic acid improves drought tolerance of white clover via activating auxin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid related genes and inhibiting senescence genes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Auxin may have a positive effect on plants under drought stress. White clover is widely cultivated and often prone to water shortages. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous indole -?3-acetic acid (IAA) on growth and physiological changes of white clover under drought stress condition. The contents of endogenous IAA and other hormones including ABA, CTK, JA, GA, IAA, and SA were assayed. Moreover, expressions of auxin-responsive genes, drought-responsive genes and leaf senescence-associated genes were detected in response to exogenous IAA. RESULTS:Compared to control, drought stress alone significantly diminished stem dry weigh, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll content (Chl). Exogenous IAA treatment significantly increased RWC and Chl, whereas L-AOPP treatment drastically decreased stem dry weight, RWC and Chl under drought stress condition. Additionally, exogenous IAA treatment significantly increased ABA content and JA content, up-regulated expression of auxin responsive genes (GH3.1, GH3.9, IAA8), drought stress responsive genes (bZIP11, DREB2, MYB14, MYB48, WRKY2, WRKY56, WRKY108715 and RD22), and down-regulated expressions of auxin-responding genes (GH3.3, GH3.6, IAA27) and leaf senescence genes (SAG101 and SAG102) in the presence of PEG. Contrarily, L-AOPP treatment significantly reduced contents of ABA, GA3 and JA, down-regulated expressions of GH3.1, GH3.9, IAA8, bZIP11, DREB2, MYB14, MYB48, WRKY2, WRKY56, WRKY108715, ERD and RD22, and up-regulated SAG101 and SAG102. CONCLUSIONS:Exogenous IAA improved drought tolerance of white clover possibly due to endogenous plant hormone concentration changes and modulation of genes involving in drought stress response and leaf senescence. These results provided useful information to understand mechanisms of IAA improved drought tolerance in white clover.
Project description:Oil palm parthenocarpic fruits, which are produced without fertilization, can be targeted to increase oil content because the majority of the fruit is occupied by mesocarp, the part in which palm oil is stored. Consequently, gaining an understanding of the parthenocarpic mechanism would be instrumental for producing parthenocarpic oil palm. This study aims to determine effects of auxin treatment and analyze differentially expressed genes in oil palm pistils at the pollination/anthesis stage, using an RNA sequencing (RNA seq) approach. The auxin treatment caused 100% parthenocarpy when auxin was sprayed before stigmas opened. The parthenocarpy decreased to 55%, 8% and 5% when the auxin was sprayed 1, 2 and 3 days after the opening of stigmas, respectively. Oil palm plants used for RNA seq were plants untreated with auxin as controls and auxin-treated plants on the day before pollination and 1 day after pollination. The number of raw reads ranged from 8,425,859 to 11,811,166 reads, with an average size ranging from 99 to 137 base pairs (bp). When compared with the oil palm transcriptome, the mapped reads ranged from 8,179,948 to 11,320,799 reads, representing 95.85-98.01% of the oil palm matching. Based on five comparisons between RNA seq of treatments and controls, and confirmation using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression, five candidate genes, including probable indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetase GH3.8 (EgGH3.8), IAA-amido synthetase GH3.1 (EgGH3.1), IAA induced ARG7 like (EgARG7), tryptophan amino transferase-related protein 3-like (EgTAA3) and flavin-containing monooxygenase 1 (EgFMO1), were differentially expressed between auxin-treated and untreated samples. This evidence suggests a pathway of parthenocarpic fruit development at the beginning of fruit development. However, more research is needed to identify which genes are definitely involved in parthenocarpy.
Project description:Roof greening is an important national policy for maintaining the hydrological balance in China; however, plant growth is limited by drought stress. This study aims to identify strong drought resistant plant species for roof greening from ten common species: Paeonia lactiflora, Hemerocallis dumortieri, Meehania urticifolia, Iris lactea var. chinensis, Hylotelephium erythrostictum, Sedum lineare, Iris germanica, Cosmos bipinnata, Hosta plantaginea, and Dianthus barbatus. By controlling the soil relative water content (RWC), we designed three treatments: moderate drought stress (40±2% < RWC < 45±2%), severe drought stress (RWC < 30±2%) and well-watered control (RWC > 75±2%). After the seedlings were provided different levels of water, their membrane permeability (MP), chlorophyll concentration (Chl), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were measured. Finally, the membership function method was used to assess the drought resistance of these species. The results showed that C. bipinnata and M. urticifolia were not suitable for moderate or severe drought stress and did not survive. The other species presented variations in physiological and biochemical parameters. The MP of He. dumortieri, I. lactea and Ho. plantaginea showed minor changes between the well-watered control and drought stress. Most of the species showed reduced SOD activity under moderate drought stress but increased activity under severe stress. All of the plant species showed decreases in the protective enzymes POD and APX with increasing drought stress. The membership function method was applied to calculate the plant species' drought resistance, and the following order of priority of the roof-greening plant species was suggested: He. dumortieri > I. germanica > I. lactea > D. barbatus > Hy. erythrostictum > S. lineare > Ho. plantaginea > P. lactiflora.
Project description:Auxin and strigolactone (SL) are two important phytohormones involved in shoot branching and morphology. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a member of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most popular food crops with high economic value in the world. To seek a better understanding of the responses to exogenous hormones, transcriptome analyses of the tomato shoots treated with exogenous auxin and SL, separately or together, were performed. A total of 2326, 260 and 1379 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified under the IAA, GR24 and IAA+GR24 treatments, respectively. Network analysis pointed out two enriched interaction clusters, including "ethylene biosynthesis" and "photosynthesis". Several ethylene biosynthesis and metabolism-related genes were up-regulated under both IAA and IAA+GR24 treatments, suggesting their involvement in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. Besides, auxin-SLs-triggered the expression of several CAB genes may lead to systemic increases in the induction of photosynthesis. Several auxin-activated metabolic pathways could be reduced by the GR24 treatment, indicated that the crosstalk between auxin and SLs may be involved in the metabolic regulation of tomato. Further analysis showed that SLs affect the responses of tomato shoots to auxin by inducing the expression of a series of auxin downstream genes. On the other hand, auxin regulated the biosynthesis of SLs by affecting the genes in the "Carotenoid biosynthesis" pathway. Our data will give us an opportunity to reveal the crosstalk between auxin and SLs in the shoots of tomato.
Project description:Genetic control of parthenocarpy, a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds, has been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanism of parthenocarpic fruit development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is still unclear. To provide insights into eggplant parthenocarpy, the transcriptomic profiles of a natural parthenocarpic (PP05) and two non-parthenocarpic (PnP05 and GnP05) eggplant lines were analyzed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. These sequences were assembled into 38925 unigenes, of which 22683 had an annotated function and 3419 were predicted as novel genes or from alternative splicing. 4864 and 1592 unigenes that were identified as DEGs between comparison groups PP05 vs PnP05 and PP05 vs GnP05, respectively. 506 common DEGs were found contained in both comparison groups, including 258 up-regulated and 248 down-regulated genes. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene set potentially associated with plant development. The most pronounced findings are that differentially regulated genes potentially-related with auxin signaling between parthenocarpic and non-parthenocarpic eggplants, e.g. calcium-binding protein PBP1 and transcription factor E2FB, which mediate the auxin distribution and auxin-dependent cell division, respectively, are up-regulated in the PP05; whereas homologs of GH3.1 and AUX/IAA, which are involved in inactivation of IAA and interference of auxin signaling, respectively, are down-regulated in PP05. Furthermore, gibberellin and cytokinin signaling genes and genes related to flower development were found differentially regulated between these eggplant lines. The present study provides comprehensive transcriptomic profiles of eggplants with or without parthenocarpic capacity. The information will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of eggplant parthenocarpy. The DEGs, especially these filtered from PP05 vs PnP05 + GnP05, will be valuable for further investigation of key genes involved in the parthenocarpic fruit development and genomics-assisted breeding.
Project description:YUCCA (YUC) proteins constitute a family of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), with an important role in auxin (IAA) biosynthesis. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing YUC6 display enhanced IAA-related phenotypes and exhibit improved drought stress tolerance, low rate of water loss and controlled ROS accumulation under drought and oxidative stresses. Co-overexpression of an IAA-conjugating enzyme reduces IAA levels but drought stress tolerance is unaffected, indicating that the stress-related phenotype is not based on IAA overproduction. YUC6 contains a previously unrecognized FAD- and NADPH-dependent thiol-reductase activity (TR) that overlaps with the FMO domain involved in IAA biosynthesis. Mutation of a conserved cysteine residue (Cys-85) preserves FMO but suppresses TR activity and stress tolerance, whereas mutating the FAD- and NADPH-binding sites, that are common to TR and FMO domains, abolishes all outputs. We provide a paradigm for a single protein playing a dual role, regulating plant development and conveying stress defence responses.
Project description:In order to investigate the physiological effects of exogenous ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on drought tolerance in white clover (Trifolium repens), GABA shunt, polyamines (PAs), and proline (Pro) metabolism were examined after plants pretreated with or without GABA (8 mM) and then exposed to water or 15% PEG-induced drought stress in growth chamber. In this study, exogenous application of GABA effectively alleviated drought-induced damage in leaves, as reflected by significantly higher relative water content, lower electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and leaf wilt. Exogenous GABA further promoted drought-induced increases in GABA transaminase and alpha ketone glutarate dehydrogenase activities, but inhibited glutamate decarboxylase activity under both control and drought conditions, resulting in an increase in endogenous glutamate (Glu) and GABA content. Besides, exogenous GABA could well accelerated PAs synthesis and suppressed PAs catabolism, which lead to the extremely enhanced different types of PAs content (free Put and Spd, insoluble bound Spd and Spm, soluble conjugated Spd and Spm, and total Put, Spd and Spm) under drought stress. In addition, exogenous GABA application further activated drought-induced ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and proline dehydrogenase activities, but suppressed drought-facilitated ornithine -?-amino transferase activities, leading to a higher Pro accumulation and metabolism in GABA-pretreated plants in the middle and last period of drought. The results suggested that increased endogenous GABA by exogenous GABA treatment could improve drought tolerance of white clover associated with a positive regulation in the GABA-shunt, PAs and Pro metabolism.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize roots improving plant water status and tolerance to drought. However, it is not clear whether the presence of AM would affect the photosynthesis and antioxidant gene-enzymes response, which help to alleviate drought stress of the host plant. Here, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of Rhizophagus irregularis, an AM fungus, on the tissue water content, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seedlings which were subjected to well-watered or moderate drought stress. Mycorrhizal symbiosis increased relative water content (RWC) of plant roots and leaves, promoted the accumulation of biomass and chlorophyll (Chl) content, and improved photochemistry efficiency, regardless of watering regimes. Mycorrhizal plants had higher SOD, POD, CAT, APX, and GR activities, and the transcript levels of Cu/Zn-SOD. APX and GR, but lower O2-, H2O2 and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots of black locust under drought and well-watered conditions. Results from the present study indicate that AM fungus (R. irregularis) symbiosis can enhance photosynthesis and ROS scavenging capabilities and increase RWC of leaves and roots to alleviate drought stress in black locust. Further research is needed to elucidate the relations among AM fungi and the metabolic pathways of antioxidant enzymes, and the function of antioxidant genes regulated by mycorrhizal symbiosis with the purpose of revealing the mechanisms of mycorrhizal-induced plant tolerance to drought stress.
Project description:The members of early auxin response gene family, Aux/IAA, encode negative regulators of auxin signaling but play a central role in auxin-mediated plant development. Here we report the interaction of an Aux/IAA protein, AtIAA14, with Drought-induced-19 (Di19-3) protein and its possible role in auxin signaling. The Atdi19-3 mutant seedlings develop short hypocotyl, both in light and dark, and are compromised in temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation. The mutant plants accumulate more IAA and also show altered expression of NIT2, ILL5, and YUCCA genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and homeostasis, along with many auxin responsive genes like AUX1 and MYB77. Atdi19-3 seedlings show enhanced root growth inhibition when grown in the medium supplemented with auxin. Nevertheless, number of lateral roots is low in Atdi19-3 seedlings grown on the basal medium. We have shown that AtIAA14 physically interacts with AtDi19-3 in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and in vitro pull-down assays. However, the auxin-induced degradation of AtIAA14 in the Atdi19-3 seedlings was delayed. By expressing pIAA14::mIAA14-GFP in Atdi19-3 mutant background, it became apparent that both Di19-3 and AtIAA14 work in the same pathway and influence lateral root development in Arabidopsis. Gain-of-function slr-1/iaa14 (slr) mutant, like Atdi19-3, showed tolerance to abiotic stress in seed germination and cotyledon greening assays. The Atdi19-3 seedlings showed enhanced sensitivity to ethylene in triple response assay and AgNO3, an ethylene inhibitor, caused profuse lateral root formation in the mutant seedlings. These observations suggest that AtDi19-3 interacting with AtIAA14, in all probability, serves as a positive regulator of auxin signaling and also plays a role in some ethylene-mediated responses in Arabidopsis. Significance Statement:This study has demonstrated interaction of auxin responsive Aux/IAA with Drought-induced 19 (Di19) protein and its possible implication in abiotic stress response.
Project description:The lack of oxygen and post-anoxic reactions cause significant alterations of plant growth and metabolism. Plant hormones are active participants in these alterations. This study focuses on auxin-a phytohormone with a wide spectrum of effects on plant growth and stress tolerance. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) content in plants was measured by ELISA. The obtained data revealed anoxia-induced accumulation of IAA in wheat and rice seedlings related to their tolerance of oxygen deprivation. The highest IAA accumulation was detected in rice roots. Subsequent reoxygenation was accompanied with a fast auxin reduction to the control level. A major difference was reported for shoots: wheat seedlings contained less than one-third of normoxic level of auxin during post-anoxia, while IAA level in rice seedlings rapidly recovered to normoxic level. It is likely that the mechanisms of auxin dynamics resulted from oxygen-induced shift in auxin degradation and transport. Exogenous IAA treatment enhanced plant survival under anoxia by decreased electrolyte leakage, production of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation. The positive effect of external IAA application coincided with improvement of tolerance to oxygen deprivation in the 35S:iaaM × 35S:iaaH lines of transgene tobacco due to its IAA overproduction.
Project description:Ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle is a major pathway of H2O2 scavenging and an effective mechanism of detoxification in plants. The differences in photosynthesis, chlorophyll content (Chl), relative water content (RWC), antioxidants and antioxidative enzyme activities involved in ASA-GSH metabolism were measured between the flag leaves and spike bracts (glumes and lemmas) during grain filling under drought stress. The expression of APX1, GRC1, DHAR, MDHAR, GPX1, and GS3 in ASA-GSH cycle was also measured. Compared with the flag leaves, the spike bracts exhibited stable net photosynthetic rate (PN) and chlorophyll content (Chl), a lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and more enhanced percentages of antioxidant enzyme activities and key enzymes gene transcription levels involved in ASA-GSH metabolism during the grain-filling stage under drought conditions. This could be the reasonable explanation for the more stable photosynthetic capacity in spikes, and the glumes and lemmas senesced later than the flag leaves at the late grain-filling stage. Also, the function of ASA-GSH cycle could not be ignored in alleviating oxidative damage by scavenging more excess ROS in spikes under drought stress.