Stress Erythropoiesis is a Key Inflammatory Response.
ABSTRACT: Bone marrow medullary erythropoiesis is primarily homeostatic. It produces new erythrocytes at a constant rate, which is balanced by the turnover of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages in the spleen. Despite the enormous capacity of the bone marrow to produce erythrocytes, there are times when it is unable to keep pace with erythroid demand. At these times stress erythropoiesis predominates. Stress erythropoiesis generates a large bolus of new erythrocytes to maintain homeostasis until steady state erythropoiesis can resume. In this review, we outline the mechanistic differences between stress erythropoiesis and steady state erythropoiesis and show that their responses to inflammation are complementary. We propose a new hypothesis that stress erythropoiesis is induced by inflammation and plays a key role in maintaining erythroid homeostasis during inflammatory responses.
Project description:Inflammation alters bone marrow hematopoiesis to favor the production of innate immune effector cells at the expense of lymphoid cells and erythrocytes. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines inhibit steady-state erythropoiesis, which leads to the development of anemia in diseases with chronic inflammation. Acute anemia or hypoxic stress induces stress erythropoiesis, which generates a wave of new erythrocytes to maintain erythroid homeostasis until steady-state erythropoiesis can resume. Although hypoxia-dependent signaling is a key component of stress erythropoiesis, we found that inflammation also induced stress erythropoiesis in the absence of hypoxia. Using a mouse model of sterile inflammation, we demonstrated that signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) paradoxically increased the phagocytosis of erythrocytes (erythrophagocytosis) by macrophages in the spleen, which enabled expression of the heme-responsive gene encoding the transcription factor SPI-C. Increased amounts of SPI-C coupled with TLR signaling promoted the expression of Gdf15 and Bmp4, both of which encode ligands that initiate the expansion of stress erythroid progenitors (SEPs) in the spleen. Furthermore, despite their inhibition of steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? promoted the expansion and differentiation of SEPs in the spleen. These data suggest that inflammatory signals induce stress erythropoiesis to maintain erythroid homeostasis when inflammation inhibits steady-state erythropoiesis.
Project description:The rapid growth of the embryo places severe demands on the ability of the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to cells. To meet this need, erythroid progenitors rapidly expand in the fetal liver microenvironment such that by E14.5, erythropoiesis predominates in the fetal liver. In this report we show that the BMP4/Smad5 dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway plays a key role in the expansion of erythroid progenitors in the fetal liver. These data show that the fetal liver contains two populations of erythroid progenitors. One population resembles the steady state erythroid progenitors found in the adult bone marrow. While the second population exhibits the properties of stress erythroid progenitors found in adult spleen. Here we demonstrate that defects in BMP4/Smad5 signaling preferentially affect the expansion of the stress erythroid progenitors in the fetal liver leading to fetal anemia. These data suggest that steady state erythropoiesis is unable to generate sufficient erythrocytes to maintain the rapid growth of the embryo leading to the induction of the BMP4 dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway. These observations underscore the similarities between fetal erythropoiesis and stress erythropoiesis.
Project description:Bone marrow erythropoiesis is mainly homeostatic and a demand of oxygen in tissues activates stress erythropoiesis in the spleen. Here, we show an increase in the number of circulating erythrocytes in apolipoprotein E-/- mice fed a Western high-fat diet, with similar number of circulating leukocytes and CD41+ events (platelets). Atherogenic conditions increase spleen erythropoiesis with no variations of this cell lineage in the bone marrow. Spleens from atherogenic mice show augmented number of late-stage erythroblasts and biased differentiation of progenitor cells towards the erythroid cell lineage, with an increase of CD71+CD41CD34-CD117+Sca1-Lin- cells (erythroid-primed megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors), which is consistent with the way in which atherogenesis modifies the expression of pro-erythroid and pro-megakaryocytic genes in megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors. These data explain the transiently improved response to an acute severe hemolytic anemia insult found in atherogenic mice in comparison to control mice, as well as the higher burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony forming unit-erythroid capacity of splenocytes from atherogenic mice. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that, along with the well stablished enhancement of monocytosis during atherogenesis, stress erythropoiesis in apolipoprotein E-/- mice fed a Western high fat diet results in increased numbers of circulating red blood cells.
Project description:Mouse models are widely used to study human erythropoiesis in vivo. One important caveat using mouse models is that mice often develop significant extramedullary erythropoiesis with anemia, which could mask important phenotypes. To overcome this drawback in mice, here we established in vitro and in vivo rat models for the studies of stress erythropoiesis. Using flow cytometry-based assays, we can monitor terminal erythropoiesis in rats during fetal and adult erythropoiesis under steady state and stress conditions. We used this system to test rat erythropoiesis under phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced hemolytic stress. In contrast to mice, rats did not have an increased proportion of early-stage erythroid precursors during terminal differentiation in the spleen or bone marrow. This could be explained by the abundant bone marrow spaces in rats that allow sufficient erythroid proliferation under stress. Consistently, the extent of splenomegaly in rats after PHZ treatment was significantly lower than that in mice. The level of BMP4, which was significantly increased in mouse spleen after PHZ treatment, remained unchanged in rat spleen. We further demonstrated that the bone marrow c-Kit positive progenitor population underwent a phenotype shift and became more CD71 positive and erythroid skewed with the expression of maturing erythroid markers under stress in rats and humans. In contrast, the phenotype shift to an erythroid-skewed progenitor population in mice occurred mainly in the spleen. Our study establishes rat in vitro and in vivo erythropoiesis models that are more appropriate and superior for the study of human stress erythropoiesis than mouse models.
Project description:In response to anemia, the heightened production of erythropoietin (EPO) can sharply promote erythroid progenitor cell (EPC) formation. Specific mediators of such EPO- accelerated erythropoiesis, however, are not well understood. Presently, we first report that the expression of Trib3 in adult bone marrow EPCs in vivo is nominal at steady state, but strongly activated on EPO challenge. In a knockout mouse model, Trib3 disruption modestly increased steady-state erythrocyte numbers and decreased mean corpuscular volume. Following 5-fluorouracil myeloablation, however, rebound red blood cell production and hemoglobin levels were substantially (and selectively) compromised in Trib3-/- mice versus Trib3+/+ congenic controls. Erythrocytes from 5-fluorouracil-treated Trib3-/- mice additionally were more prone to lysis and exhibited elevated peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species. Ex vivo, the development of CD71posTer119pos erythroblasts from Trib3-/- bone marrow progenitors was attenuated, and this was associated with heightened EPO-dependent Erk1/2 activation and moderately increased Akt activation. For developmentally staged EPCs, gene profiling provided further initial insight into candidate mediators of EPO-induced Trib3 gene expression, including Cebp-beta, Atf4, Egr-1, and Nab1. Overall, Trib3 is indicated to act as a novel EPC-intrinsic governor of stress erythropoiesis.
Project description:Anemic stress induces the proliferation of stress erythroid progenitors in the murine spleen that subsequently differentiate to generate erythrocytes to maintain homeostasis. This process relies on the interaction between stress erythroid progenitors and the signals generated in the splenic erythroid niche. In this study, we demonstrate that although growth-differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15) is not required for steady-state erythropoiesis, it plays an essential role in stress erythropoiesis. Gdf15 acts at 2 levels. In the splenic niche, Gdf15-/- mice exhibit defects in the monocyte-derived expansion of the splenic niche, resulting in impaired proliferation of stress erythroid progenitors and production of stress burst forming unit-erythroid cells. Furthermore, Gdf15 signaling maintains the hypoxia-dependent expression of the niche signal, Bmp4, whereas in stress erythroid progenitors, Gdf15 signaling regulates the expression of metabolic enzymes, which contribute to the rapid proliferation of stress erythroid progenitors. Thus, Gdf15 functions as a comprehensive regulator that coordinates the stress erythroid microenvironment with the metabolic status of progenitors to promote stress erythropoiesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) are expressed in hematopoietic tissues. The roles of the three receptors in hematopoiesis are, however, largely unknown. We investigated the role of TAM receptors in regulating erythropoiesis.<h4>Design and methods</h4>Single and double mutant mice for Axl and Mer were used in the study. Cellularity of bone marrow and spleen, hematologic parameters, flow cytometry analysis of erythroid cell maturation, erythropoietic response to acute hemolytic anemia, bone marrow transplantation and the expression of erythropoisis were analyzed to evaluate the function of Axl and Mer in erythropoiesis.<h4>Results</h4>Axl and Mer, but not Tyro3, were constitutively expressed in developing erythroid cells. Mice lacking Axl and Mer (Axl(-/-)Me(-/-)) had impaired erythropoiesis in bone marrow and expanded splenic erythropoiesis. We found an inhibition of differentiation at the transition from erythroid progenitors to proerythroblasts in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. These mice exhibited a low rate of erythropoietic response to acute anemia induced by phenylhydrazine. Bone marrow transplantation studies showed that the impaired erythropoiesis in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice is erythroid cell-autonomous. TAM receptors may influence erythropoiesis through the regulation of GATA-1 erythropoietin receptor and EpoR expression in erythroid progenitors. Notably, mice lacking single Axl or Mer exhibited normal erythropoiesis in steady-state conditions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Axl and Mer play an important role in regulating erythropoiesis. This finding provides a novel insight into the mechanism of erythropoiesis.
Project description:In response to elevated glucocorticoid levels, erythroid progenitors rapidly expand to produce large numbers of young erythrocytes. Previous work demonstrates hematopoietic changes in rodents exposed to various physical and psychological stressors, however, the effects of chronic psychological stress on erythropoiesis has not be delineated. We employed laboratory, clinical and genomic analyses of a murine model of chronic restraint stress (RST) to examine the influence of psychological stress on erythropoiesis. Mice exposed to RST demonstrated markers of early erythroid expansion involving the glucocorticoid receptor. In addition, these RST-exposed mice had increased numbers of circulating reticulocytes and increased erythropoiesis in primary and secondary erythroid tissues. Mice also showed increases in erythroid progenitor populations and elevated expression of the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 in these cells. Together this work reports some of the first evidence of psychological stress affecting erythroid homeostasis through glucocorticoid stimulation.
Project description:ASXL1 mutations are found in a spectrum of myeloid malignancies with poor prognosis. Recently, we reported that Asxl1(+/-) mice develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) overlapping diseases (MDS/MPN). Although defective erythroid maturation and anemia are associated with the prognosis of patients with MDS or MDS/MPN, the role of ASXL1 in erythropoiesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients with ASXL1 mutations exhibited more severe anemia with a significantly increased proportion of bone marrow (BM) early stage erythroblasts and reduced enucleated erythrocytes compared to CMML patients with WT ASXL1. Knockdown of ASXL1 in cord blood CD34(+) cells reduced erythropoiesis and impaired erythrocyte enucleation. Consistently, the BM and spleens of VavCre(+);Asxl1(f/f) (Asxl1(?/?)) mice had less numbers of erythroid progenitors than Asxl1(f/f) controls. Asxl1(?/?) mice also had an increased percentage of erythroblasts and a reduced erythrocyte enucleation in their BM compared to littermate controls. Furthermore, Asxl1(?/?) erythroblasts revealed altered expression of genes involved in erythroid development and homeostasis, which was associated with lower levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3. Our study unveils a key role for ASXL1 in erythropoiesis and indicates that ASXL1 loss hinders erythroid development/maturation, which could be of prognostic value for MDS/MPN patients.
Project description:Patients with mutations of the THRA gene exhibit classical features of hypothyroidism, including erythroid disorders. We previously created a mutant mouse expressing a mutated TR?1 (denoted as PV; Thra1PV/+ mouse) that faithfully reproduces the classical hypothyroidism seen in patients. Using Thra1PV/+ mice, we explored how the TR?1PV mutant acted to cause abnormalities in erythropoiesis. Thra1PV/+ mice exhibited abnormal red blood cell indices similarly as reported for patients. The total bone marrow cells and erythrocytic progenitors were markedly reduced in the bone marrow of Thra1PV/+ mice. In vitro terminal differentiation assays showed a significant reduction of mature erythrocytes in Thra1PV/+ mice. In wild-type mice, the clonogenic potential of progenitors in the erythrocytic lineage was stimulated by thyroid hormone (T3), suggesting that T3 could directly accelerate the differentiation of progenitors to mature erythrocytes. Analysis of gene expression profiles showed that the key regulator of erythropoiesis, the Gata-1 gene, and its regulated genes, such as the Klf1, ?-globin, dematin genes, CAII, band3 and eALAS genes, involved in the maturation of erythrocytes, was decreased in the bone marrow cells of Thra1PV/+ mice. We further elucidated that the Gata-1 gene was a T3-directly regulated gene and that TR?1PV could impair erythropoiesis via repression of the Gata-1 gene and its regulated genes. These results provide new insights into how TR?1 mutants acted to cause erythroid abnormalities in patients with mutations of the THRA gene. Importantly, the Thra1PV/+ mouse could serve as a preclinical mouse model to identify novel molecular targets for treatment of erythroid disorders.