Evaluation of personal protection afforded by repellent-treated sandals against mosquito bites in south-eastern Tanzania.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Outdoor and early evening mosquito biting needs to be addressed if malaria elimination is to be achieved. While indoor-targeted interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, remain essential, complementary approaches that tackle persisting outdoor transmission are urgently required to maximize the impact. Major malaria vectors principally bite human hosts around the feet and ankles. Consequently, this study investigated whether sandals treated with efficacious spatial repellents can protect against outdoor biting mosquitoes. METHODOLOGY:Sandals affixed with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 treated with 0.06 g, 0.10 g and 0.15 g of transfluthrin were tested in large cage semi-field and full field experiments. Sandals affixed with hessian bands measuring 240 cm2 and treated with 0.10 g and 0.15 g of transfluthrin were also tested semi field experiments. Human landing catches (HLC) were used to assess reduction in biting exposure by comparing proportions of mosquitoes landing on volunteers wearing treated and untreated sandals. Sandals were tested against insectary reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in semi-field experiments and against wild mosquito species in rural Tanzania. RESULTS:In semi-field tests, sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g, 0.10 g and 0.06 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 45.9%, (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 28-59%), 61.1% (48-71%), and 25.9% (9-40%), respectively compared to untreated sandals. Sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 240 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g and 0.10 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 59% (43-71%) and 64% (48-74%), respectively. In field experiments, sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 70% (60-76%) against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, and 66.0% (59-71%) against all mosquito species combined. CONCLUSION:Transfluthrin-treated sandals conferred significant protection against mosquito bites in semi-field and field settings. Further evaluation is recommended for this tool as a potential complementary intervention against malaria. This intervention could be particularly useful for protecting against outdoor exposure to mosquito bites. Additional studies are necessary to optimize treatment techniques and substrates, establish safety profiles and determine epidemiological impact in different settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eave ribbons treated with spatial repellents effectively prevent human exposure to outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria mosquitoes, and could constitute a scalable and low-cost supplement to current interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study measured protection afforded by transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons to users (personal and communal protection) and non-users (only communal protection), and whether introducing mosquito traps as additional intervention influenced these benefits. METHODS:Five experimental huts were constructed inside a 110 m long, screened tunnel, in which 1000 Anopheles arabiensis were released nightly. Eave ribbons treated with 0.25 g/m2 transfluthrin were fitted to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 huts, achieving 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% coverage, respectively. Volunteers sat near each hut and collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them from 6 to 10 p.m. (outdoor-biting), then went indoors to sleep under untreated bed nets, beside which CDC-light traps collected mosquitoes from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. (indoor-biting). Caged mosquitoes kept inside the huts were monitored for 24 h-mortality. Separately, eave ribbons, UV-LED mosquito traps (Mosclean) or both the ribbons and traps were fitted, each time leaving the central hut unfitted to represent non-user households and assess communal protection. Biting risk was measured concurrently in all huts, before and after introducing interventions. RESULTS:Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons provided 83% and 62% protection indoors and outdoors respectively to users, plus 57% and 48% protection indoors and outdoors to the non-user. Protection for users remained constant, but protection for non-users increased with eave ribbons coverage, peaking once 80% of huts were fitted. Mortality of mosquitoes caged inside huts with eave ribbons was 100%. The UV-LED traps increased indoor exposure to users and non-users, but marginally reduced outdoor-biting. Combining the traps and eave ribbons did not improve user protection relative to eave ribbons alone. CONCLUSION:Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons protect both users and non-users against malaria mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. The mosquito-killing property of transfluthrin can magnify the communal benefits by limiting unwanted diversion to non-users, but should be validated in field trials against pyrethroid-resistant vectors. Benefits of the UV-LED traps as an intervention alone or alongside eave ribbons were however undetectable in this study. These findings extend the evidence that transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons could complement ITNs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many subsistence farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania regularly relocate to distant farms in river valleys to tend to crops for several weeks or months each year. While there, they live in makeshift semi-open structures, usually far from organized health systems and where insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) do not provide adequate protection. This study evaluated the potential of a recently developed technology, eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent transfluthrin, for protecting migratory rice farmers in rural southeastern Tanzania against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes. METHODS:In the first test, eave ribbons (0.1 m?×?24 m each) treated with 1.5% transfluthrin solution were compared to untreated ribbons in 24 randomly selected huts in three migratory communities over 48 nights. Host-seeking mosquitoes indoors and outdoors were monitored nightly (18.00-07.00 h) using CDC light traps and CO2-baited BG malaria traps, respectively. The second test compared efficacies of eave ribbons treated with 1.5% or 2.5% transfluthrin in 12 huts over 21 nights. Finally, 286 farmers were interviewed to assess perceptions about eave ribbons, and their willingness to pay for them. RESULTS:In the two experiments, when treated eave ribbons were applied, the reduction in indoor densities ranged from 56 to 77% for Anopheles arabiensis, 36 to 60% for Anopheles funestus, 72 to 84% for Culex, and 80 to 98% for Mansonia compared to untreated ribbons. Reduction in outdoor densities was 38 to 77% against An. arabiensis, 36 to 64% against An. funestus, 63 to 88% against Culex, and 47 to 98% against Mansonia. There was no difference in protection between the two transfluthrin doses. In the survey, 58% of participants perceived the ribbons to be effective in reducing mosquito bites. Ninety per cent were willing to pay for the ribbons, the majority of whom were willing to pay but less than US$2.17 (5000 TZS), one-third of the current prototype cost. CONCLUSIONS:Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons can protect migratory rice farmers, living in semi-open makeshift houses in remote farms, against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting mosquitoes. The technology is acceptable to users and could potentially complement ITNs. Further studies should investigate durability and epidemiological impact of eave ribbons, and the opportunities for improving affordability to users.
Project description:Background: Despite high coverage of indoor interventions like insecticide-treated nets, mosquito-borne infections persist, partly because of outdoor-biting, early-biting and insecticide-resistant vectors. Push-pull systems, where mosquitoes are repelled from humans and attracted to nearby lethal targets, may constitute effective complementary interventions. Methods: A partially randomized cross-over design was used to test efficacy of push-pull in four experimental huts and four local houses, in an area with high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania. The push-pull system consisted of 1.1% or 2.2% w/v transfluthrin repellent dispensers and an outdoor lure-and-kill device (odour-baited mosquito landing box). Matching controls were set up without push-pull. Adult male volunteers collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them outdoors, but collections were also done indoors using exit traps in experimental huts and by volunteers in the local houses. The collections were done hourly (1830hrs-0730hrs) and mosquito catches compared between push-pull and controls. An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus s.l. were assessed by PCR to identify sibling species, and ELISA to detect Plasmodium falciparum and blood meal sources. Results: Push-pull in experimental huts reduced outdoor-biting for An. arabiensis and Mansonia species by 30% and 41.5% respectively. However, the reductions were marginal and insignificant for An. funestus (12.2%; p>0.05) and Culex (5%; p>0.05). Highest protection against all species occurred before 2200hrs. There was no significant difference in number of mosquitoes inside exit traps in huts with or without push-pull. In local households, push-pull significantly reduced indoor and outdoor-biting of An. arabiensis by 48% and 25% respectively, but had no effect on other species. Conclusion: This push-pull system offered modest protection against outdoor-biting An. arabiensis, without increasing indoor mosquito densities. Additional experimentation is required to assess how transfluthrin-based products affect mosquito blood-feeding and mortality in push-pull contexts. This approach, if optimised, could potentially complement existing malaria interventions even in areas with high pyrethroid resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mosquito strains that exhibit increased tolerance to the chemical class of compounds with a sodium channel modulator mode of action (pyrethroids and pyrethrins) are typically described as "pyrethroid resistant". Resistance to pyrethroids is an increasingly important challenge in the control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria or dengue, because one of the main interventions (the distribution of large numbers of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets) currently relies entirely on long-lasting pyrethroids. Increasing tolerance of target insects against this class of insecticides lowers their impact in vector control. The current study suggests that the level of metabolic resistance depends on the structure of the molecule and that structurally different compounds may still be effective because detoxifying enzymes are unable to bind to these uncommon structures. METHODS:Treated surface contact bioassays were performed on susceptible Aedes aegypti, East African knockdown resistance (kdr) Anopheles gambiae (strain RSP-H) and metabolically resistant Anopheles funestus (strain FUMOZ-R) with different pyrethroids, such as cypermethrin, ß-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and transfluthrin (alone and in combination with the synergist piperonyl butoxide). The nonfluorinated form of transfluthrin was also assessed as a single agent and in combination with piperonyl butoxide. RESULTS:Although the dosages for pyrethroids containing a phenoxybenzyl moiety have exhibited differences in terms of effectiveness among the three tested mosquito species, the structurally different transfluthrin with a polyfluorobenzyl moiety remained active in mosquitoes with upregulated P450 levels. In trials with transfluthrin mixed with piperonyl butoxide, the added synergist exhibited no efficacy-enhancing effect. CONCLUSION:The results of this study suggest that transfluthrin has the potential to control P450-mediated metabolically resistant mosquitoes because the structural formula of transfluthrin differs from that of the tested pyrethroids, which are used in vector control. The P450-detoxifying enzymes of the Anopheles funestus FUMOZ-R mosquitoes seem to bind preferably at the phenoxybenzyl moiety and appear to be unable to degrade transfluthrin with its tetrafluorobenzyl moiety. Inhibition of the class of monooxygenases by piperonyl butoxide revealed no increase of efficacy of the pure transfluthrin compound, which also indicates that the P450 enzymes potentially do not impact the efficacy of transfluthrin.
Project description:BackgroundThe complexity of mosquito-borne diseases poses a major challenge to global health efforts to mitigate their impact on people residing in sub-tropical and tropical regions, to travellers and deployed military personnel. To supplement drug- and vaccine-based disease control programmes, other strategies are urgently needed, including the direct control of disease vectors. Modern vector control research generally focuses on identifying novel active ingredients and/or innovative methods to reduce human-mosquito interactions. These efforts include the evaluation of spatial repellents, which are compounds capable of altering mosquito feeding behaviour without direct contact with the chemical source.MethodsThis project examined the impact of airborne transfluthrin from impregnated textile materials on two important malaria vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus. Repellency was measured by movement within taxis cages within a semi-field environment at the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Hanoi, Vietnam. Knockdown and mortality were measured in adult mosquito bioassay cages. Metered-volume air samples were collected at a sub-set of points in the mosquito exposure trial.ResultsSignificant differences in knockdown/mortality were observed along a gradient from the exposure source with higher rates of knockdown/mortality at 2 m and 4 m when compared with the furthest distance (16 m). Knockdown/mortality was also greater at floor level and 1.5 m when compared to 3 m above the floor. Repellency was not significantly different except when comparing 2 m and 16 m taxis cages. Importantly, the two species reacted differently to transfluthrin, with An. minimus being more susceptible to knockdown and mortality. The measured concentrations of airborne transfluthrin ranged from below the limit of detection to 1.32 ng/L, however there were a limited number of evaluable samples complicating interpretation of these results.ConclusionsThis study, measuring repellency, knockdown and mortality in two malaria vectors in Vietnam demonstrates that both species are sensitive to airborne transfluthrin. The differences in magnitude of response between the two species requires further study before use in large-scale vector control programmes to delineate how spatial repellency would impact the development of insecticide resistance and the disruption of biting behaviour.
Project description:New vector control paradigms expanding the use of spatial repellents are promising, but there are many gaps in our knowledge about how repellents work and how their long-term use might affect vector populations over time. Reported here are findings from a series of in vitro studies that investigated the plasticity and heritability of spatial repellent (SR) behaviors in Aedes aegypti exposed to airborne transfluthrin, including results that indicate a possible link between repellent insensitivity and insecticide resistance.A dual-choice chamber system was used to observe directional flight behaviors in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes exposed to passively emanating transfluthrin vapors (1.35 mg/m3). Individual SR responder and SR non-responder mosquitoes were identified, collected and maintained separately according to their observed phenotype. Subsequent testing included re-evaluation of behavioral responses in some mosquito cohorts as well as testing the progeny of selectively bred responder and non-responder mosquito strains through nine generations. At baseline (F0 generation), transfluthrin actively repelled mosquitoes in the assay system. F0 mosquitoes repelled upon initial exposure to transfluthrin vapors were no more likely to be repelled again by subsequent exposure 24 h later, but repelled mosquitoes allowed to rest for 48 h were subsequently repelled at a higher proportion than was observed at baseline. Selective breeding of SR responders for nine generations did not change the proportion of mosquitoes repelled in any generation. However, selective breeding of SR non-responders did produce, after four generations, a strain of mosquitoes that was insensitive to the SR activity of transfluthrin. Compared to the SR responder strain, the SR insensitive strain also demonstrated decreased susceptibility to transfluthrin toxicity in CDC bottle bioassays and a higher frequency of the V1016Ikdr mutation.SR responses to volatile transfluthrin are complex behaviors with multiple determinants in Ae. aegypti. Results indicate a role for neurotoxic irritation of mosquitoes by sub-lethal doses of airborne chemical as a mechanism by which transfluthrin can produce SR behaviors in mosquitoes. Accordingly, how prolonged exposure to sub-lethal doses of volatile pyrethroids might impact insecticide resistance in natural vector populations, and how already resistant populations might respond to a given repellent in the field, are important considerations that warrant further monitoring and study. Results also highlight the critical need to develop new repellent active ingredients with novel mechanisms of action.
Project description:Footwear can have both a positive and negative impact on lower limb health and mobility across the lifespan, influencing the risk of foot pain, ulceration, and falls in those at risk. Choice of footwear can be influenced by disease as well as sociocultural factors, yet few studies have investigated the types of footwear people wear and the profiles of those who wear them. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with outdoor footwear type worn most often in a representative inpatient population.This study was a secondary data analysis of a cohort of 733 inpatients that is highly representative of developed nations' hospitalised populations; 62?±?19 years, 55.8% male, and 23.5% diabetes. Socio-demographic, medical history, peripheral arterial disease, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, foot ulcer history, amputation history and past foot treatment variables were collected. Participants selected the footwear type they mostly wore outside the house in the previous year from 16 types of footwear. Multivariate logistic regression identified independent factors associated with outdoor footwear types selected.The most common outdoor footwear types were: running shoes (20%), thongs/flip flops (14%), walking shoes (14%), sandals (13%) and boots (11%). Several socio-demographic, medical history and foot-related factors were independently associated (Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence Interval)) with different types of footwear. Running shoes were associated with male sex (2.7; 1.8-4.1); thongs with younger age (0.95 for each year; 0.94-0.97), being female (2.0; 1.2-3.1) and socio-economic status (3.1; 1.2-7.6); walking shoes with arthritis (1.9; 1.2-3.0); sandals with female sex (3.8; 2.3-6.2); boots with male sex (9.7; 4.3-21.6) and inner regional (2.6; 1.3-5.1) and remote (3.4; 1.2-9.5) residence (all, p <?0.05).We profiled the types of outdoor footwear worn most in a large diverse inpatient population and the factors associated with wearing them. Sex was the most consistent factor associated with outdoor footwear type. Females were more likely to wear thongs and sandals and males boots and running shoes. Overall, this data gives insights into the socio-demographic, medical and other health factors that are related to footwear choice in a large diverse population primarily of older age.
Project description:Mosquito coils are the most commonly used household insecticidal product in the world with sales exceeding 50 billion coils, used by two billion people worldwide annually. Despite strong evidence that coils prevent mosquito bites a systematic review concluded that there is no evidence that burning mosquito coils prevents malaria acquisition. Therefore, the current trial was designed to measure and compare prevention of malaria infection by mosquito coils or long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) or a combination of the two in Yunnan, China in the Greater Mekong sub-region.A four-arm single blind household-randomized design was chosen as coils emanate insecticide throughout the household. Households enrolled at baseline were randomly allocated by the lottery method to one of the four intervention arms: (i) nothing, (ii) 0.03% transfluthrin coils alone, (iii) deltamethrin long-lasting insecticide treated nets, (LLINs) alone or (iv) a combination of transfluthrin coils and deltamethrin LLINs. All household members were recruited to the study, with only those households excluded with pregnant or breastfeeding mothers, members with chest complaints or allergies or members that regularly slept away from home. The main outcome of interest was Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) during six repeated monthly cross-sectional surveys. The secondary outcome of interest was the effect on Plasmodium vivax prevalence detected in the same way.A total of 2,052 households were recruited into the study, comprising 7,341 individuals The odds ratios of testing positive by RDT with P. falciparum or P. vivax were >75% lower for all intervention arms compared with the control arm. Coils alone provided 77% protection (95% CI: 50%-89%), LLINs provided 91% protection (95% CI: 72%-97%) and the combination of coils and LLINs provided 94% protection (95% CI: 77%-99%) against P. falciparum compared with the control arm. There was no statistically significant difference between the protective efficacies of the different interventions.This is the first robust clinical evaluation of transfluthrin mosquito coils as a means to reduce malaria and the high degree of infection prevented would indicate they represent a potentially highly effective tool, which could be integrated into larger vector control programmes.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00442442, March 2007.
Project description:Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological impact of large scale use of topical repellents on arthropod borne diseases.
Project description:Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection in Sri Lanka causing an enormous social and economic burden in the country. In the absence of therapeutic drugs and the developed vaccines are under investigation, vector control is the best strategy to reduce the disease transmission. Therefore, the development of novel tools to control dengue vector mosquitoes has become the need of the hour. Novaluron is a recently developed Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) which inhibits chitin synthesis in immature stages of insects. The aim of the study was to identify the efficacy of a simple and cost-effective Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap (AGO) developed using Novaluron to control dengue outbreaks in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Laboratory and semifield experiments were performed to identify the activity range, optimum field dosage, and residual effects of Novaluron following the World Health Organization guidelines, and field experiments were performed in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health (MOH) area. Two study areas 800?m apart were selected and assigned as treated and control areas randomly. In each study area, 30 households were selected randomly. Each household was given two ovitraps, one placed indoors and the other placed outdoors. Mortality and survival counts were recorded separately for one-year time period and data were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance model. During the laboratory experiments, the adult emerging inhibition was 100% in all tested concentrations. The optimum field dosage was 2?ppm and the residual effect was 28 days. In the field experiments, significantly higher mortality counts were recorded in treated areas both indoor- and outdoor-placed AGOs. Two-factor repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test confirmed that the mean mortality count is high for the developed AGOs both indoor and outdoor settings. The developed AGO can be deployed to control both indoor and outdoor dengue vector mosquito populations, and in dengue-risk areas, the ovitrap will be supportive to local health authorities to enhance the efficiency of future vector control programs.