Enhanced Adipose Expression of Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-5 Associates with the Signatures of Metabolic Inflammation in Diabetic Obese Patients.
ABSTRACT: : Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are emerging as the metabolic transcriptional regulators in obesity/type-2 diabetes (T2D). IRF5 is implicated with macrophage polarization toward the inflammatory M1-phenotype, nonetheless, changes in the adipose expression of IRF5 in T2D and relationship of these changes with other markers of adipose inflammation remain unclear. Therefore, we determined the IRF5 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from 46 T2D patients including 35 obese (Body Mass Index/BMI 33.83 ± 0.42kg/m2) and 11 lean/overweight individuals (BMI 27.55 ± 0.46kg/m2) using real-time qRT-PCR. IRF5 protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL/HDL), and triglycerides were measured using commercial kits. IRF5 gene expression was compared with that of signature inflammatory markers and several clinico-metabolic indicators. The data (mean ± SEM) show the enhanced adipose IRF5 gene (p = 0.03) and protein (p = 0.05) expression in obese compared to lean/overweight diabetic patients. Adipose IRF5 transcripts in diabetic obese individuals associated positively with those of TNF-?, IL-18, IL-23A, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL7, CCR1/5, CD11c, CD68, CD86, TLR4/7/10, Dectin-1, FGL-2, MyD88, NF-?B, IRF3, and AML1 (p < 0.05). In diabetic lean/overweight subjects, IRF5 expression associated with BMI, body fat %age, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-5, and IL-1RL1 expression; while in all T2D patients, IRF5 expression correlated with that of IRF4, TLR2/8, and CD163. In conclusion, upregulated adipose tissue IRF5 expression in diabetic obese patients concurs with the inflammatory signatures and it may represent a potential marker for metabolic inflammation in obesity/T2D.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 is involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. While the changes in IL-18 are known, IL-18R expression and relationship with IL-18 and other inflammatory markers in the adipose tissue in obesity/type-2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear.We, therefore, determined the adipose tissue expression of IL-18R and IL-18 mRNA/protein in lean, overweight, and obese individuals with and without T2D, 15 each, using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Data (mean?±?SEM) were analyzed using unpaired t-test and Pearson's correlation (r); all P values ?0.05 were considered statistically significant.We found the upregulated gene/protein expression of IL-18R and IL-18 in non-diabetic obese/overweight as compared with lean individuals (P?<?0.05). BMI correlated positively (P?<?0.05) with the adipose tissue expression of IL-18R (mRNA: r?=?0.90 protein: r?=?0.84) and IL-18 (mRNA: r?=?0.84 protein: r?=?0.80). Similarly, in T2D individuals, gene and protein expression of IL-18R/IL-18 was significantly higher in obese as compared with overweight/lean individuals. The BMI was associated with the changes in both IL-18R (mRNA: r?=?0.55 protein: r?=?0.50) and IL-18 (mRNA: r?=?0.53 protein: r?=?0.57) expression. IL-18R/IL-18 gene expression in the adipose tissue was positively associated (P?<?0.05) with local gene expression of other inflammatory markers including CD11c, CD86, CD68, CD163, TNF-?, and CCL5. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher in diabetic/non-diabetic obese and it correlated with BMI (P?<?0.05). IL-18R and IL-18 mRNA/protein expression in obesity was associated with HOMA-IR only in non-diabetics.The adipose tissue IL-18R/IL-18 expression is enhanced in obesity which associates with proinflammatory gene signature and insulin resistance in these individuals.
Project description:Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-5 is known to be involved in M1 macrophage polarization, however, changes in the adipose expression of IRF5 in obesity and their relationship with the local expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines are unknown. Therefore, IRF5 gene expression was determined in the subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from 53 non-diabetic individuals (6 lean, 18 overweight, and 29 obese), using real-time RT-PCR. IRF5 protein expression was also assessed using immunohistochemistry and/or confocal microscopy. Adipose gene expression of signature immune metabolic markers was also determined and compared with adipose IRF5 gene expression. Systemic levels of C-reactive protein and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. The data show that adipose IRF5 gene (P = 0.008) and protein (P = 0.004) expression was upregulated in obese compared with lean individuals. IRF5 expression changes correlated positively with body mass index (BMI; r = 0.37/P = 0.008) and body fat percentage (r = 0.51/P = 0.0004). In obese, IRF5 changes associated positively with HbA1c (r = 0.41/P = 0.02). A good agreement was found between gene and protein expression of IRF5 in obese subjects (r = 0.65/P = 0.001). IRF5 gene expression associated positively with adipose inflammatory signatures including local expression of TNF-?, IL-6, CXCL8, CCL-2/5, IL-1?, IL-18, CXCL-9/10, CCL7, CCR-1/2/5, TLR-2/7/8/9, IRF3, MyD88, IRAK-1, and inflammatory macrophage markers (P < 0.05). Interestingly, IRF5 gene expression correlated positively with CRP (r = 0.37, P = 0.03) and negatively with adiponectin levels (r = -0.43, P = 0.009). In conclusion, elevated adipose IRF5 expression in obesity concurs with the typical inflammatory signatures, locally and systemically. Hence, the IRF5 upregulation may represent a novel adipose tissue marker for metabolic inflammation.
Project description:The role of IL-6R/IL-6 axis in metabolic inflammation remains controversial. We determined the changes in adipose tissue expression of IL-6R and IL-6 in obese, overweight, and lean non-diabetic individuals. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from 33 obese, 22 overweight, and 10 lean individuals and the expression of IL-6R, IL-6, TNF-?, MCP-1, IP-10, CD11b, CD163, and CD68 was detected by immunohistochemistry; results were also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and confocal microscopy. The data were compared using unpaired t-test and the dependence between two variables was assessed by Pearson's correlation test. Obese individuals showed higher IL-6R expression (103.8±4.807) in the adipose tissue as compared with lean/overweight (68.06±4.179) subjects (P<0.0001). The elevated IL-6R expression correlated positively with body mass index (BMI) (r=0.80 P<0.0001) and percent body fat (r=0.69 P=0.003). The increased IL-6R expression in obesity was also confirmed by RT-PCR (Obese: 3.921±0.712 fold; Lean/Overweight: 2.191±0.445 fold; P=0.0453) and confocal microscopy. IL-6 expression was also enhanced in obese adipose tissue (127.0±15.91) as compared with lean/overweight (86.69±5.25) individuals (P=0.03) which correlated positively with BMI (r=0.58 P=0.008). IL-6 mRNA expression was concordantly higher in obese (16.60±2.214 fold) versus lean/overweight (9.376±1.656 fold) individuals (P=0.0108). These changes in the IL-6R/IL-6 expression correlated positively with the adipose tissue expression of CD11b (IL-6R r=0.44 P=0.063; IL-6 r=0.77 P<0.0001), CD163 (IL-6R r=0.45 P=0.045; IL-6 r=0.55 P=0.013), TNF-? (IL-6R r=0.73 P=0.0003; IL-6 r=0.60 P=0.008), MCP-1 (IL-6R r=0.61 P=0.005; IL-6 r=0.63 P=0.004) and IP-10 (IL-6R r=0.41 P=0.08; IL-6 r=0.50 P=0.026). It was, therefore, concluded that obesity was a positive modulator of IL-6R and IL-6 expression in the adipose tissue which might be a contributory mechanism to induce metabolic inflammation.
Project description:Adipose tissue (AT) associated cytokines are involved in the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in obese individuals. IL-2, a pleiotropic cytokine, contributes to immune alterations during inflammation. However, the interaction between AT-IL-2 and other inflammatory biomolecules in obesity remains elusive. We investigated whether AT-IL-2 expression was associated with markers of inflammation and insulin resistance in overweight/obese individuals. Subcutaneous fat tissues were collected from 56 individuals (lean/overweight/obese) for RNA extraction. IL-2 and inflammatory mediators were quantified by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. CRP was measured by ELISA. AT-IL-2 expression was higher in obese compared with lean individuals (P?<?0.021) and correlated with BMI. IL-2 correlated with interleukins IL-8 and IL-12A (r?=?0.333–0.481; p?=?0.0001–0.029); as well as with chemokines and their receptors including CCL5, CCL19, CCR2 and CCR5 (r?=?0.538–0.677; p?<?0.0001). Moreover, IL-2 correlated with toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR8, TLR10), interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and cluster of differentiation CD11c (r?=?0.282–0.357; p?<?0.039). Notably, IL-2 was associated positively with fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, TGL and CRP (r???0.423;P???0.007). In multiple regression analysis, IL-2 is an independent predictor of IL-8, IL-12A, TLR10, TGL and HbA1c. Overall, our data demonstrate that increased expression of the AT-IL-2, in obesity, may represent a novel biomarker for progression of metabolic inflammation and insulin-resistance.
Project description:Heat shock response is an essential cellular stress response. Dysregulation of various heat shock proteins (HSPs), within the heat shock response (HSR) pathway, play a vital role in this host-defense mechanism contributing to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, we have reported changes in the expression levels of several HSPs such as HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 in obese compared with lean individuals. DNAJC27 is a member of the HSP40 protein family that was previously identified as a body mass index (BMI) associated locus in genome-wide association (GWAS) studies. However, not much is known about the changes in DNAJC27 expression levels in obesity and T2D. In the present study, we aimed at understanding changes in DNAJC27 expression levels in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and adipose tissue in association with obesity and T2D. A total of 277 individuals enrolled including 160 non-diabetic (96 non-obese and 64 obese) and 117 T2D (45 non-obese and 72 obese) individuals. Plasma level of DNAJC27 was significantly higher in obese individuals (6.28 ± 0.64 ng/mL) compared with non-obese individuals (4.8 ± 0.45 ng/mL) with P = 0.043. Dividing the population based on diabetes status showed that there was a significant increase in the plasma level of DNAJC27 in obese (6.90 ± 1.3 ng/mL) compared with non-obese individuals (3.81 ± 0.43 ng/mL) (P = 0.033) in the non-diabetic group. Similarly, DNAJC27 expression level was also higher in PBMCs and adipose tissue of obese individuals. DNAJC27 was found to be associated with leptin and resistin, adipokines known to be dysregulated in obesity, that stimulate inflammatory processes leading to metabolic disorders. In conclusion, our data show that DNAJC27 is elevated in obese and T2D individuals and was positively associated with obesity biomarkers such as leptin and resistin suggesting that this protein may play a role in the pathophysiology of these disorders.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Circadian mechanisms underlie the physiology of mammals as an adaptation to the earth's rotation on its axis. Highly conserved core circadian regulatory proteins (CCRPs) maintain an oscillatory expression profile in the central and peripheral tissues. The CCRP include both a positive and negative arm, as well as downstream transcriptional regulators. Recent studies in murine models have determined that the mRNAs encoding the CCRP are present in multiple adipose tissue depots and exhibit a robust oscillatory expression profile. This study set out to examine the expression of CCRP mRNAs in human subcutaneous adipose tissues. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis of total RNA isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue. SUBJECTS:A total of 150 healthy female and male lean (body mass index (BMI) <25), overweight (BMI between 25 and 29.99) or obese (BMI >30) subjects of varied ethnic backgrounds undergoing elective liposuction or surgical procedures. RESULTS:The expression of the CCRP mRNAs displayed a significant correlation between each other and mRNAs representative of adipogenic biomarkers. Hierarchical cluster analyses of mRNAs isolated from the cohort of female Caucasian subjects (n=116) identified three major clusters based on expression of downstream CCRP mRNAs. The mRNAs encoding D site of albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP), E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4), PPARgamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) and Rev-erbalpha were negatively correlated with BMI in a lean cluster (n=66), positively correlated with BMI in a younger overweight/obese cluster (n=19), and not significantly correlated with BMI in an older, overweight/obese cluster (n=31). CONCLUSIONS:These data confirm and extend findings that link the CCRP and circadian mechanisms to the risk of obesity.
Project description:Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity-associated chronic diseases. In the first year after bariatric surgery, obese patients significantly improve their metabolic status upon losing weight. We aimed to investigate whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression reflect a restoration of a healthy lean phenotype after bariatric surgery.Thirty-one severely obese patients (BMI ? 40 kg/m2) were examined before and after surgery. subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was collected during and 1 year after bariatric surgery. SAT from 20 matched lean and overweight patients (BMI < 30 kg/m2) was collected during elective abdominal surgery. Baseline characteristics and SAT gene expression relevant to glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and apoptosis were analyzed.After surgery, mean BMI decreased from 46.1 ± 6.3 to 31.1 ± 5.7 kg/m2 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance from 5.4 ± 5.3 to 0.8 ± 0.8. SAT expression of most analyzed inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and metabolic and cell surface markers was greatly downregulated even compared to the lean cohort. In contrast, gene expression of TNF and CASP3 was significantly upregulated. Elastic net regression analysis showed that fasting glucose levels and CASP3 predicted increased TNF expression in the post-obese group.Gene expression patterns in SAT 1 year after bariatric surgery point to a reduced inflammation. The unexpected high TNF expression in SAT of post-obese subjects is most likely not an indicator for inflammation, but rather an indicator for increased lipolysis and adipose tissue catabolism. Notably, after bariatric surgery SAT gene expression reflects a cachexia-like phenotype and differs from the lean state.
Project description:Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m(2); n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2); n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) regulates translation of IGF2, a growth factor that plays a key role in controlling fetal growth and organogenesis including adipogenesis and pancreatic development. In Caucasians, the rs4402960 G>T polymorphism of IGF2BP2 has been shown to predispose to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in multiple populations. In this study, we tested whether rs4402960 G>T and rs11705701 G>A contribute to the development of T2D in a Russian population. METHODS:Both markers were genotyped in Russian diabetic (n = 1,470) and non-diabetic patients (n = 1,447) using a Taqman allele discrimination assay. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of developing T2D was calculated using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, hypertension, obesity, and body mass index (BMI). Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to test genotype-phenotype correlations, and adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, obesity, and BMI. Expression of IGF2BP2 in the visceral adipose tissue was quantified using real-time PCR. The content of IGF2BP2 protein and both its isoforms (p58 and p66) in the adipose tissue was measured using Western blot analysis. RESULTS:There was no significant association between rs4402960 and T2D. Whereas, allele A of rs11705701 was associated with higher T2D risk (OR = 1.19, p < 0.001). Diabetic and non-diabetic carriers of genotype TT (rs4402960) had significantly increased HOMA-IR (p = 0.033 and p = 0.031, respectively). Non-diabetic patients homozygous for AA (rs11705701) had higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.04), lower HOMA-β (p = 0.012), and reduced 2-h insulin levels (p = 0.016). Non-obese individuals (diabetic and non-diabetic) homozygous for either AA (rs11705701) or TT (rs4402960) had higher levels of IGF2BP2 mRNA in the adipose tissue than other IGF2BP2 variants. Also, allele A of rs11705701 was associated with reduced amounts of the short isoform (p58) and increased levels of the long isoform (p66) of the IGF2BP2 protein in adipose tissue of non-obese diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. CONCLUSIONS:IGF2BP2 genetic variants contribute to insulin resistance in Russian T2D patients. The short protein isoform p58 of IGF2BP2 is likely to play an anti-diabetogenic role in non-obese individuals.
Project description:Repetitive intermittent hyperglycemia (RIH) is an independent risk factor for complications associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Glucose fluctuations commonly occur in T2D patients with poor glycemic control or following intensive therapy. Reducing blood glucose as well as glucose fluctuations is critical to the control of T2D and its macro-/microvascular complications. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-5 located downstream of the nutrient sensor toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, is emerging as a key metabolic regulator. It remains unclear how glucose fluctuations may alter the IRF5/TLR4 expression and inflammatory responses in monocytes/macrophages. To investigate this, first, we determined IRF5 gene expression by real-time qRT-PCR in the white adipose tissue samples from 39 T2D and 48 nondiabetic individuals. Next, we cultured THP-1 macrophages in hypo- and hyperglycemic conditions and compared, at the protein and transcription levels, the expressions of IRF5, TLR4, and M1/M2 polarization profile and inflammatory markers against control (normoglycemia). Protein expression was assessed using flow cytometry, ELISA, Western blotting, and/or confocal microscopy. IRF5 silencing was achieved by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. The data show that adipose IRF5 gene expression was higher in T2D than nondiabetic counterparts (P = 0.006), which correlated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (r = 0.47/P < 0.001), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.23/P = 0.03), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? (r = 0.56/P < 0.0001), interleukin (IL)-1? (r = 0.40/P = 0.0009), and C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)-2 (r = 0.49/P < 0.001) expression. IRF5 expression in macrophages was induced/upregulated (P < 0.05) by hypoglycemia (3 mM/L), persistent hyperglycemia (15 mM/L-25 mM/L), and RIH/glucose fluctuations (3-15 mM/L) as compared to normoglycemia (5 mM/L). RIH/glucose fluctuations also induced M1 polarization and an inflammatory profile (CD11c, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1) in macrophages. RIH/glucose fluctuations also drove the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 (P < 0.001), which is a known marker for cardiovascular complication in T2D patients. Notably, all these changes were counteracted by IRF5 silencing in macrophages. In conclusion, RIH/glucose fluctuations promote the M1 polarization and inflammatory responses in macrophages via the mechanism involving TLR4-IRF5 pathway, which may have significance for metabolic inflammation.