Recent Advances in Metabolic Pathways of Sulfate Reduction in Intestinal Bacteria.
ABSTRACT: Sulfate is present in foods, beverages, and drinking water. Its reduction and concentration in the gut depend on the intestinal microbiome activity, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which can be involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Assimilatory sulfate reduction (ASR) is present in all living organisms. In this process, sulfate is reduced to hydrogen sulfide and then included in cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. In contrast to assimilatory sulfate reduction, the dissimilatory process is typical for SRB. A terminal product of this metabolism pathway is hydrogen sulfide, which can be involved in gut inflammation and also causes problems in industries (due to corrosion effects). The aim of the review was to compare assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR). These processes occur in some species of intestinal bacteria (e.g., Escherichia and Desulfovibrio genera). The main attention was focused on the description of genes and their location in selected strains. Their coding expression of the enzymes is associated with anabolic processes in various intestinal bacteria. These analyzed recent advances can be important factors for proposing possibilities of metabolic pathway extension from hydrogen sulfide to cysteine in intestinal SRB. The switch from the DSR metabolic pathway to the ASR metabolic pathway is important since toxic sulfide is not produced as a final product.
Project description:Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F(420))-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F(420)H(2) dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe(4)-S(4)] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe(4)-S(4)] cluster and an additional [Fe(4)-S(4)] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs with group I features and a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe(4)-S(4)] cluster were proposed as evolutionary intermediates. Group III is the precursor of Fsr-C. The freestanding Fsr-N homologs serve as F(420)H(2) dehydrogenase unit of a putative novel glutamate synthase, previously described membrane-bound electron transport system in methanogens and of assimilatory type sulfite reductases in certain haloarchaea. Among archaea, only methanogens carried Dsr-LPs. They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source of the oldest (3.47-Gyr ago) biologically produced sulfide deposit.
Project description:The small-large intestine axis in hydrogen sulfide accumulation and testing of sulfate and lactate in the gut-gut axis of the intestinal environment has not been well described. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) of the Desulfovibrio genus reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide and can be involved in ulcerative colitis development. The background of the research was to find correlations between hydrogen sulfide production under the effect of an electron acceptor (sulfate) and donor (lactate) at different concentrations and Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 growth, as well as their dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the intestinal small-large intestinal environment. METHODS:Microbiological, biochemical, and biophysical methods, and statistical processing of the results (principal component and cross-correlation analyses) were used. RESULTS:D. piger Vib-7 showed increased intensity of bacterial growth and hydrogen sulfide production under the following concentrations of sulfate and lactate: 17.4 mM and 35.6 mM, respectively. The study showed in what kind of intestinal environment D. piger Vib-7 grows at the highest level and produces the highest amount of hydrogen sulfide. CONCLUSIONS:The optimum intestinal environment of D. piger Vib-7 can serve as a good indicator of the occurrence of inflammatory bowel diseases; meaning that these findings can be broadly used in medicine practice dealing with the monitoring and diagnosis of intestinal ailments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are multifactorial illnesses of the intestine, to which microorganisms are contributing. Among the contributing microorganisms, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are suggested to be involved in the process of bowel inflammation due to the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by dissimilatory sulfate reduction. The aims of our research were to physiologically examine SRB in fecal samples of patients with IBD and a control group, their identification, the study of the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction (sulfate consumption and H2S production) and biomass accumulation. Determination of biogenic elements of the SRB and evaluation of obtained parameters by using statistical methods were also included in the research. The material for the research consisted of 14 fecal samples, which was obtained from patients and control subjects. METHODS:Microscopic techniques, microbiological, biochemical, biophysical methods and statistical analysis were included. RESULTS:Colonies of SRB were isolated from all the fecal samples, and subsequently, 35 strains were obtained. Vibrio-shaped cells stained Gram-negative were dominant in all purified studied strains. All strains had a high percentage of similarity by the 16S rRNA gene with deposited sequences in GenBank of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Cluster analysis of sulfate reduction parameters allowed the grouping of SRB strains. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were not observed between healthy individuals and patients with IBD with regard to sulfate reduction parameters (sulfate consumption, H2S and biomass accumulation). Moreover, we found that manganese and iron contents in the cell extracts are higher among healthy individuals in comparison to unhealthy individuals that have an intestinal bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS:The observations obtained from studying SRB emphasize differences in the intestinal microbial processes of healthy and unhealthy people.
Project description:A comparative study of the kinetic characteristics (specific activity, initial and maximum rate, and affinity for substrates) of key enzymes of assimilatory sulfate reduction (APS reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase) in cell-free extracts of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from various biotopes was performed. The material for the study represented different strains of SRB from various ecotopes. Microbiological (isolation and cultivation), biochemical (free cell extract preparation) and chemical (enzyme activity determination) methods served in defining kinetic characteristics of SRB enzymes. The determined affinity data for substrates (i.e., sulfite) were 10 times higher for SRB strains isolated from environmental (soil) ecotopes than for strains from the human intestine. The maximum rate of APS reductase reached 0.282-0.862 µmol/min×mg-1 of protein that is only 10 to 28% higher than similar initial values. The maximum rate of sulfite reductase for corrosive relevant collection strains and SRB strains isolated from heating systems were increased by 3 to 10 times. A completely different picture was found for the intestinal SRB Vmax in the strains Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 (0.67 µmol/min × mg-1 protein) and Desulfomicrobium orale Rod-9 (0.45 µmol/min × mg-1 protein). The determinant in the cluster distribution of SRB strains is the activity of the terminal enzyme of dissimilatory sulfate reduction-sulfite reductase, but not APS reductase. The data obtained from the activity of sulfate reduction enzymes indicated the adaptive plasticity of SRB strains that is manifested in the change in enzymatic activity.
Project description:This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR). Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase.IMPORTANCE Sulfide oxidation and sulfate reduction, the two major branches of the sulfur cycle, are usually ascribed to distinct sets of microbes with distinct diagnostic genes. Here we show a more complex picture, as D. alkaliphilus, with the genomic setup of a sulfate reducer, grows by sulfide oxidation. The high expression of genes typically involved in the sulfate reduction pathway suggests that these genes, including the reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductases, are also involved in as-yet-unresolved sulfide oxidation pathways. Finally, D. alkaliphilus is closely related to cable bacteria, which grow by electrogenic sulfide oxidation. Since there are no pure cultures of cable bacteria, D. alkaliphilus may represent an exciting model organism in which to study the physiology of this process.
Project description:Intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and resultant hydrogen sulfide production may damage the gastrointestinal epithelium and thereby contribute to chronic intestinal disorders. However, the ecology and phylogenetic diversity of intestinal dissimilatory SRB populations are poorly understood, and endogenous or exogenous sources of available sulfate are not well defined. The succession of intestinal SRB was therefore compared in inbred C57BL/6J mice using a PCR-based metabolic molecular ecology (MME) approach that targets a conserved region of subunit A of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene. The APS reductase-based MME strategy revealed intestinal SRB in the stomach and small intestine of 1-, 4-, and 7-day-old mice and throughout the gastrointestinal tract of 14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day-old mice. Phylogenetic analysis of APS reductase amplicons obtained from the stomach, middle small intestine, and cecum of neonatal mice revealed that Desulfotomaculum spp. may be a predominant SRB group in the neonatal mouse intestine. Dot blot hybridizations with SRB-specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes demonstrated SRB colonization of the cecum and colon pre- and postweaning and colonization of the stomach and small intestine of mature mice only. The 16S rDNA hybridization data further demonstrated that SRB populations were most numerous in intestinal regions harboring sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, regardless of age. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis demonstrated APS reductase mRNA expression in all intestinal segments of 30-day-old mice, including the stomach. These results demonstrate for the first time widespread colonization of the mouse intestine by dissimilatory SRB and evidence of spatial-specific SRB populations and sulfomucin patterns along the gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Increased numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often found in the feces of people and animals with inflammatory bowel disease. The final products of their metabolism are hydrogen sulfide and acetate, which are produced during dissimilatory sulfate reduction process.<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim of the study was to monitor processes concerning sulfate reduction microbial metabolisms, including: the main microbial genera monitoring and their hydrogen sulfide production in the intestines of healthy and not healthy individuals, phylogenetic analysis of SRB isolates, cluster analysis of SRB physiological and biochemical parameters, SRB growth kinetic parameters calculation, same as the application of the two-factor dispersion analysis for finding relationship between SRB biomass accumulation, temperature and pH. Feces samples from healthy people and patients with colitis were used for isolation of sulfate-reducing microbial communities.<h4>Methods</h4>Microbiological, biochemical, biophysical, molecular biology methods, and statistical processing of the results have been used for making an evaluation of gained results.<h4>Results</h4>Two dominant SRB morphotypes differed in colony size and quantitative ratio in the feces of healthy and colitis patients were observed and identified. In the feces of healthy people, 93% of SRB of morphotype I prevailed <i>(Desulfovibrio)</i> while morphotype II made only 7% <i>(Desulfomicrobium)</i>; in the feces of patients with colitis, the ratio of these morphotypes was 99:1, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations are also higher in the feces of people with colitis and certain synergy effects exist among acetate produced by SRB.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study results brought important findings concerning colony environments with developed colitis and these findings can lead to the development of possible risk indicators of ulcerative colitis prevalence.
Project description:Sulfate is the predominant electron acceptor for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments. This process is carried out by a syntrophic consortium of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) through an energy conservation mechanism that is still poorly understood. It was previously hypothesized that ANME alone could couple methane oxidation to dissimilatory sulfate reduction, but a genetic and biochemical basis for this proposal has not been identified. Using comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses, we found the genetic capacity in ANME and related methanogenic archaea for sulfate reduction, including sulfate adenylyltransferase, APS kinase, APS/PAPS reductase and two different sulfite reductases. Based on characterized homologs and the lack of associated energy conserving complexes, the sulfate reduction pathways in ANME are likely used for assimilation but not dissimilation of sulfate. Environmental metaproteomic analysis confirmed the expression of 6 proteins in the sulfate assimilation pathway of ANME. The highest expressed proteins related to sulfate assimilation were two sulfite reductases, namely assimilatory-type low-molecular-weight sulfite reductase (alSir) and a divergent group of coenzyme F420-dependent sulfite reductase (Group II Fsr). In methane seep sediment microcosm experiments, however, sulfite and zero-valent sulfur amendments were inhibitory to ANME-2a/2c while growth in their syntrophic SRB partner was not observed. Combined with our genomic and metaproteomic results, the passage of sulfur species by ANME as metabolic intermediates for their SRB partners is unlikely. Instead, our findings point to a possible niche for ANME to assimilate inorganic sulfur compounds more oxidized than sulfide in anoxic marine environments.
Project description:About a century ago, researchers first recognized a connection between the activity of environmental microorganisms and cases of anaerobic iron corrosion. Since then, such microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has gained prominence and its technical and economic implications are now widely recognized. Under anoxic conditions (e.g., in oil and gas pipelines), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly considered the main culprits of MIC. This perception largely stems from three recurrent observations. First, anoxic sulfate-rich environments (e.g., anoxic seawater) are particularly corrosive. Second, SRB and their characteristic corrosion product iron sulfide are ubiquitously associated with anaerobic corrosion damage, and third, no other physiological group produces comparably severe corrosion damage in laboratory-grown pure cultures. However, there remain many open questions as to the underlying mechanisms and their relative contributions to corrosion. On the one hand, SRB damage iron constructions indirectly through a corrosive chemical agent, hydrogen sulfide, formed by the organisms as a dissimilatory product from sulfate reduction with organic compounds or hydrogen ("chemical microbially influenced corrosion"; CMIC). On the other hand, certain SRB can also attack iron via withdrawal of electrons ("electrical microbially influenced corrosion"; EMIC), viz., directly by metabolic coupling. Corrosion of iron by SRB is typically associated with the formation of iron sulfides (FeS) which, paradoxically, may reduce corrosion in some cases while they increase it in others. This brief review traces the historical twists in the perception of SRB-induced corrosion, considering the presently most plausible explanations as well as possible early misconceptions in the understanding of severe corrosion in anoxic, sulfate-rich environments.
Project description:The diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in brackish sediment was investigated using small-subunit rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene clone libraries and cultivation. The phylogenetic affiliation of the most commonly retrieved clones for both genes was strikingly similar and produced Desulfosarcina variabilis-like sequences from the inoculum but Desulfomicrobium baculatum-like sequences from a high dilution in natural media. Related organisms were subsequently cultivated from the site. PCR bias appear to be limited (or very similar) for the two primersets and target genes. However, the DSR primers showed a much higher phylogenetic specificity. DSR gene analysis is thus a promising and specific approach for investigating SRB diversity in complex habitats.