Gla-Rich Protein (GRP) as an Early and Novel Marker of Vascular Calcification and Kidney Dysfunction in Diabetic Patients with CKD: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study.
ABSTRACT: Vascular calcification (VC) is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. New diagnostic/prognostic tools are required for early detection of VC allowing interventional strategies. Gla-rich protein (GRP) is a cardiovascular calcification inhibitor, whose clinical utility is here highlighted. The present study explores, for the first time, correlations between levels of GRP in serum with CKD developmental stage, mineral metabolism markers, VC and pulse pressure (PP), in a cohort of 80 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD (stages 2-4). Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive association of GRP serum levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ?-Klotho, while a negative correlation with phosphate (P), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), vascular calcification score (VCS), PP, calcium (x) phosphate (CaxP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Serum GRP levels were found to progressively decrease from stage 2 to stage 4 CKD. Multivariate analysis identified low levels of eGFR and GRP, and high levels of FGF-23 associated with both the VCS and PP. These results indicate an association between GRP, renal dysfunction and CKD-mineral and bone disorder. The relationship between low levels of GRP and vascular calcifications suggests a future, potential utility for GRP as an early marker of vascular damage in CKD.
Project description:Vascular calcification (VC) involves the deposition of calcium apatite in vascular intima or media. Individuals of advanced age, having diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD) are particularly at risk. The pathogenesis of CKD-associated VC evolves considerably. The core driver is the phenotypic change involving vascular wall constituent cells toward manifestations similar to that undergone by osteoblasts. Gender-related differences are observed regarding the expressions of osteogenesis-regulating effectors, and presumably the prevalence/risk of CKD-associated VC exhibits gender-related differences as well. Despite the wealth of data focusing on gender-related differences in the risk of atherosclerosis, few report whether gender modifies the risk of VC, especially CKD-associated cases. We systematically identified studies of CKD-associated VC or its regulators/modifiers reporting data about gender distributions, and extracted results from 167 articles. A significantly higher risk of CKD-associated VC was observed in males among the majority of original investigations. However, substantial heterogeneity exists, since multiple large-scale studies yielded neutral findings. Differences in gender-related VC risk may result from variations in VC assessment methods, the anatomical segments of interest, study sample size, and even the ethnic origins of participants. From a biological perspective, plausible mediators of gender-related VC differences include body composition discrepancies, alterations involving lipid profiles, inflammatory severity, diversities in matrix Gla protein (MGP), soluble Klotho, vitamin D, sclerostin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and osteoprotegerin levels. Based on our findings, it may be inappropriate to monotonously assume that male patients with CKD are at risk of VC compared to females, and we should consider more background in context before result interpretation.
Project description:Vascular calcification (VC) is the process of deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the blood vessel wall, with a central role for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VC is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and thought, in part, to be induced by phosphate imbalance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate VC are not fully known. Here we propose a novel role for the mineralisation regulator Ucma/GRP (Upper zone of growth plate and Cartilage Matrix Associated protein/Gla Rich Protein) in phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. We show that Ucma/GRP is present in calcified atherosclerotic plaques and highly expressed in calcifying VSMCs in vitro. VSMCs from Ucma/GRP-/- mice showed increased mineralisation and expression of osteo/chondrogenic markers (BMP-2, Runx2, ?-catenin, p-SMAD1/5/8, ALP, OCN), and decreased expression of mineralisation inhibitor MGP, suggesting that Ucma/GRP is an inhibitor of mineralisation. Using BMP signalling inhibitor noggin and SMAD1/5/8 signalling inhibitor dorsomorphin we showed that Ucma/GRP is involved in inhibiting the BMP-2-SMAD1/5/8 osteo/chondrogenic signalling pathway in VSMCs treated with elevated phosphate concentrations. Additionally, we showed for the first time evidence of a direct interaction between Ucma/GRP and BMP-2. These results demonstrate an important role of Ucma/GRP in regulating osteo/chondrogenic differentiation and phosphate-induced mineralisation of VSMCs.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>There is no report on the reproducibility of the ultrasound-navigated MANTA deployment (US-MANTA) technique and little is known about predictors for US-MANTA-related vascular complication (VC). This study aimed to assess the incidence and predictors of access-site VC using the US-MANTA technique and report insights of MANTA-related VC from consecutive cases following large-bore arteriotomy.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Consecutive patients who underwent transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the US-MANTA technique from November 2018 to February 2020 were evaluated. MANTA-related VC was defined as access-site complications leading to major or minor VCs based on Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria.<h4>Results</h4>Among 378 patients, 23 cases (6.1%) of MANTA-related VC (major VC: n=7 [1.9%], minor VC: n=16 [4.2%]) were identified. No significant difference was observed in the incidence of MANTA-related VC over the observational period (first quartile: 5.3%, second: 5.4%, third: 7.4%, and fourth: 6.3%, p>.50). In 7 patients with MANTA-related major VC, 4 (57.1%) of complications resulted from incomplete apposition of the toggle due to anterior wall calcification of the common femoral artery (CFA). Anterior calcification of the CFA determined by computed tomography was identified as an independent predictor of MANTA-related VCs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The US-MANTA technique sustainably provides a low rate of access-site VCs following large-bore arteriotomy. Incomplete apposition of the toggle due to anterior calcification of the CFA may lead to ongoing vascular and bleeding complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is a systemic disorder that leads to vascular calcification and accelerated atherosclerosis. Uric acid has been shown to associate with vascular calcification and with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to suppress the 1 ?-hydroxylase enzyme leading to lower 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. We hypothesized that lowering serum uric acid would reduce CIMT, calcification propensity, and circulating markers of CKD-MBD in CKD. METHODS:This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind study of 80 patients with stage 3 CKD and hyperuricemia who received allopurinol or placebo for 12 weeks. CIMT and T50 were measured as markers of vascular disease and serum calcification propensity, respectively. The following markers of CKD-MBD were measured: serum calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D metabolites, iPTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Expression of extra-renal 1?-hydroxylase was evaluated in endothelial cells of study participants. FINDINGS:Allopurinol successfully lowered serum uric acid levels compared to placebo with an estimate of -3.3 mg/dL (95% C.I. -4.1,-2.5; p < 0.0001). After 12 weeks, however, we found no significant change in CIMT or serum T50. There was not a significant change in vitamin D metabolites, iPTH, FGF-23, or the expression of endothelial 1?-hydroxylase. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that factors other than uric acid may play a more important role in the regulation of CKD- MBD including vascular calcification and vitamin D metabolism in patients with CKD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vascular calcification (VC) is a common finding in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and predicts subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population. Vascular calcification is linked to disordered mineral metabolism and has been associated with bone histomorphometry changes in CKD. However, data on predialysis patients is scarce.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of 56 CKD patients not yet on dialysis, who underwent a transiliac bone biopsy for histomorphometric evaluation after double tetracycline labeling. Patients had no previous exposure to calcium salts, vitamin D agents, steroids or bisphosphonates. Vascular calcification was assessed at the time of biopsy, using Kauppila (plain X-ray of the lateral lumbar spine) and Adragão (plain X-ray of the pelvis and hands) scores.<h4>Results</h4>Vascular calcification was seen in two-thirds of the cohort. Subjects with VC were more likely to be male and have diabetes, and had significantly higher sclerostin and osteoprotegerin circulating levels than those without VC. The histomorphometric analysis showed that bone formation rate was significantly lower in VC compared to non-VC patients. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, bone formation rate was independently associated with the presence of VC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in predialysis patients, especially in those with diabetes. The independent association between bone formation rate and VC provides evidence of an important interaction between bone and vessel in CKD. Our results suggest that low bone turnover is a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease in predialysis patients.
Project description:Vascular calcification (VC) predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). To date, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We detected leukocyte DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) levels in patients with CKD with or without aortic arch calcification. We used arteries from CKD mice infected with vascular smooth muscle cell-targeted (VSMC-targeted) adeno-associated virus encoding alkB homolog 1 (Alkbh1) gene or Alkbh1 shRNA to evaluate features of calcification. We identified that leukocyte 6mA levels were significantly reduced as the severity of VC increased in patients with CKD. Decreased 6mA demethylation resulted from the upregulation of ALKBH1. Here, ALKBH1 overexpression aggravated whereas its depletion blunted VC progression and osteogenic reprogramming in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, ALKBH1-demethylated DNA 6mA modification could facilitate the binding of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) promoter and activate BMP2 transcription. This resulted in osteogenic reprogramming of VSMCs and subsequent VC progression. Either BMP2 or Oct4 depletion alleviated the procalcifying effects of ALKBH1. This suggests that targeting ALKBH1 might be a therapeutic method to reduce the burden of VC in CKD.
Project description:Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification (VC) and requires carboxylation by vitamin K to exert calcification inhibition. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergo early vascular aging often involving extensive VC. The present cross-sectional study investigated the association between circulating dp-ucMGP levels, MGP expression in vascular tissue and MGP polymorphisms. In 141 CKD stage 5 patients, CAC score was significantly increased in the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP (p?=?0.002), and a high medial VC score was associated with elevated dp-ucMGP levels. MGP vascular expression was associated with increased circulating dp-ucMGP and CAC scores. MGP SNP analysis revealed that patients homozygous for the C allele of the rs1800801 variant had a higher CAC score (median 15 [range 0-1312]) compared to patients carrying a T allele (median 0 [range 0-966] AU). These results indicate that plasma levels of dp-ucMGP are an independent predictor of increased VC in CKD5 patients and correlate with both higher CAC scores and degree of medial calcification. Additionally, high vascular expression of MGP was associated with higher CAC scores and plasma dp-ucMGP levels. Taken together, our results support that MGP is involved in the pathogenesis of VC.
Project description:Vascular calcification (VC) is a life-threatening state in chronic kidney disease (CKD). ?High cardiovascular mortality and morbidity of CKD cases may root from medial VC promoted by hyperphosphatemia. Vascular calcification is an active, highly regulated, and complex biological process that is mediated by genetics, epigenetics, dysregulated form of matrix mineral metabolism, hormones, and the activation of cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, gut microbiome as a source of uremic toxins (eg, phosphate, advanced glycation end products and indoxyl-sulfate) can be regarded as a potential contributor to VC in CKD. Here, an update on different cellular and molecular processes involved in VC in CKD is discussed to elucidate the probable therapeutic pathways in the future.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of CKD-MBD.We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months.There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23, Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2- to 3-fold at baseline, but were not affected by LaCO3.Twelve months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of CKD-MBD.
Project description:Vascular calcification (VC) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), where cardiovascular mortality remains the leading cause of death. Here, we examined the role of high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1), a nuclear DNA-binding protein involved in inflammation, in aortic calcification and renal dysfunction induced by high phosphate in a mouse model of CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. HMGB1 and kidney function markers were measured by ELISA in the serum of CKD patients and in CKD mice. Sections of the aortas of mice were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Alizarin red staining, and protein lysates were generated to analyze the expression of related proteins in response to silencing of HMGB1 or ?-catenin by western blotting. Our results showed that serum HMGB1 levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls and related to disease stage. High phosphate promoted the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol and aortic calcification in CKD mice <i>in vivo</i>, whereas HMGB1 knockdown ameliorated part of renal and vascular function. ?-catenin silencing reversed high phosphate-induced calcification and restored renal marker levels. Taken together, our results suggest that HMGB1 is involved in VC associated with CKD via a mechanism involving the ?-catenin.