Arteriovenous malformation that caused prolapse of the colon and was treated surgically in an infant: a case report.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Various terms have been used to describe vascular lesions in the intestine, including angiodysplasia, arteriovenous malformation, and telangiectasia. Such lesions are common in adults and are typified by angiodysplasia, a type of arteriovenous malformation. In contrast, these lesions are rarely seen in the pediatric population. Angiodysplasia may cause gastrointestinal bleeding, which is sometimes an indication for treatment. Considering the high rate of recurrence after surgical treatment, conservative treatments are mainly chosen. We herein report an extremely rare case of a prolapsed colon due to an arteriovenous malformation successfully treated by resection in a 1-year-old girl. We also highlight the differences between pediatric and adult cases. CASE PRESENTATION:A girl developed bloody stools at 7?months of age. She visited another hospital at 1?year of age because of continuing moderate hematochezia and recent onset of rectal prolapse. Colonoscopy showed a protruding lesion located 15?cm from the anal verge, suggesting a submucosal vascular abnormality. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging at our hospital revealed the localized lesion with dilated blood vessels in part of the sigmoid colon; no other lesions were present in the gastrointestinal tract. Laparoscopic-assisted sigmoidectomy was performed. A subserosal vascular lesion was visualized and resected using end-to-end anastomosis. Pathologic examination of the 2.2 × 2.7-cm segment revealed several abnormally enlarged and ectatic blood vessels in the submucosa extending into the subserosa. The lesion was diagnosed as an arteriovenous malformation. The patient had a good clinical course without recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:An arteriovenous malformation in the sigmoid colon may rarely cause intussusception and prolapse of the colon. Complete resection is a radical and potentially effective treatment. Computed tomography and colonoscopy were useful for evaluation of the lesion in the present case.
Project description:A 27-year-old man developed an unruptured anterior-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) feeding aneurysm from a transverse-sigmoid dural arteriovenous malformation. The patient, with a known history of left transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis, presented with pulse-synchronous tinnitus. Angiography revealed an extensive dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), with feeders from both the extracranial and intracranial circulations, involving the right transverse sinus, the torcula, and the left transverse/sigmoid sinuses. Multimodal endovascular and open surgical therapy was used to manage the lesion. Before a planned second-stage treatment for the left sigmoid sinus component, the dural AVF improved significantly. During this interval, however, a small flow-related aneurysm developed on the left AICA feeding the petrous dural region. The aneurysm resolved after resection of the involved sigmoid sinus. This is the first reported case of an unruptured feeding-artery aneurysm in an intracranial dural AVF that resolved spontaneously with treatment of the dural AVF. Until more is known about the natural history, the decisions of when and whether to treat an unruptured dural AVF feeding-artery aneurysm must be made on an individual basis.
Project description:An 80-year-old man underwent colonoscopy for proctorrhagia. Conventional white-light imaging showed a superficially flat and elevated lesion that appeared to be a submucosal tumor of the sigmoid colon. Chromoendoscopy with Indigo Carmine showed that the margin of the tumor was covered with normal epithelium but that there was a slight depression on its surface. Magnification endoscopy with Crystal Violet staining revealed the amorphous surface structure of the depressed lesion, but the surrounding mucosa showed a normal pit pattern. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated that a hypoechoic mass was located in the submucosal layer, and a biopsy specimen obtained from the surface of the lesion showed evidence of adenocarcinoma. We then performed sigmoidectomy on the patient. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for two mismatch repair proteins (MLH1 and MSH2), but in situ hybridization revealed that the specimen was negative for the Epstein - Barr virus. We finally diagnosed the lesion as adenocarcinoma with a dome-like phenotype of the sigmoid colon.
Project description:Colonic perforation during colonoscopy is a rare but lethal complication. Recently, it is usually managed with laparoscopic approach. Here we present our experience of single incision laparoscopic repair for sigmoid colon perforation during colonoscopy. A 57-year-old male patient presented with an acute sigmoid colon perforation event during diagnostic colonoscopy. Emergency operation was performed with transumbilical single incision laparoscopic exploration. The perforated site of sigmoid colon was primarily repaired with the curved endoscopic linear stapler. The patient was discharged after 5 days uneventfully. Single port laparoscopic repair is a safe and feasible method for the management of acute colonoscopic perforation during diagnostic colonoscopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unknown whether narrow-band imaging (NBI) could be more effective than high-definition white-light endoscopy (HD-WLE) in detecting serrated lesions in patients with prior serrated lesions >?5?mm not completely fulfilling serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) criteria. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial in consecutive patients with prior detection of at least one serrated polyp ?10?mm or???3 serrated polyps larger than 5?mm, both proximal to the sigmoid colon. Five experienced endoscopists performed same-day tandem colonoscopies, with the order being randomized 1:1 to NBI-HD-WLE or HD-WLE-NBI. All tandem colonoscopies were performed by the same endoscopist. RESULTS:We included 41 patients. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two cohorts: NBI-HD-WLE (n?=?21) and HD-WLE-NBI (n?=?20). No differences were observed in the serrated lesion detection rate of NBI versus HD-WLE: 47.4% versus 51.9% (OR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.37-1.91) for the first and second withdrawal, respectively. Equally, no differences were found in the polyp miss rate of NBI versus HD-WLE: 21.3% versus 26.1% (OR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.43-1.38). Follow-up colonoscopy in nine patients (22%) allowed them to be reclassified as having SPS. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with previous serrated lesions, the serrated lesion detection rate was similar with NBI and HD-WLE. A shorter surveillance colonoscopy interval increases the detection of missed serrated polyps and could change the diagnosis of SPS in approximately one in every five patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02406547, registered on April 2, 2015.
Project description:Measures shown to improve the adenoma detection during colonoscopy (excellent bowel preparation, cecal intubation, cap fitted colonoscope to examine behind folds, patient position change to optimize colon distention, trained endoscopy team focusing on detection of subtle flat lesions, and incorporation of optimum endoscopic examination with adequate withdrawal time) are applicable to clinical practice and, if incorporated are projected to facilitate comprehensive colonoscopy screening program for colon cancer prevention. To determine adenoma and serrated polyp detection rate under conditions designed to optimize quality parameters for comprehensive screening colonoscopy. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a comprehensive colon cancer screening program designed to optimize quality parameters. Academic medical center. Three hundred and forty-three patients between the ages of 50 years and 75 years who underwent first screening colonoscopy between 2009 and 2011 among 535 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. Comprehensive colonoscopy screening program was utilized to screen all patients. Cecal intubation was successful in 98.8% of patients. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale for quality of colonoscopy was 8.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 8.94, 9.00). The rate of adenoma detection was 60% and serrated lesion (defined as serrated adenomas or hyperplastic polyps proximal to the splenic flexure) detection was 23%. The rate of precancerous lesion detection (adenomas and serrated lesions) was 66%. The mean number of adenomas per screening procedure was 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) and the mean number of precancerous lesions (adenomas or serrated lesions) per screening procedure was 1.6 (1.4, 1.8). Retrospective study and single endoscopist experience. A comprehensive colonoscopy screening program results in high-quality screening with high detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas, serrated adenomas, and multiple adenomas.
Project description:This review discusses recent research on the genetic, molecular, cellular, and developmental mechanisms underlying the etiology of vascular malformations of the brain (VMBs), including cerebral cavernous malformation, sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation, and the arteriovenous malformations of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Summary of Review- The identification of gene mutations and genetic risk factors associated with cerebral cavernous malformation, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and sporadic arteriovenous malformation has enabled the development of animal models for these diseases and provided new insights into their etiology. All of the genes associated with VMBs to date have known or plausible roles in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Recent work suggests that the angiogenic process most severely disrupted by VMB gene mutation is that of vascular stabilization, the process whereby vascular endothelial cells form capillary tubes, strengthen their intercellular junctions, and recruit smooth muscle cells to the vessel wall. In addition, there is now good evidence that in some cases, cerebral cavernous malformation lesion formation involves a genetic 2-hit mechanism in which a germline mutation in one copy of a cerebral cavernous malformation gene is followed by a somatic mutation in the other copy. There is also increasing evidence that environmental second hits can produce lesions when there is a mutation to a single allele of a VMB gene.Recent findings begin to explain how mutations in VMB genes render vessels vulnerable to rupture when challenged with other inauspicious genetic or environmental factors and have suggested candidate therapeutics. Understanding of the cellular mechanisms of VMB formation and progression in humans has lagged behind that in animal models. New knowledge of lesion biology will spur new translational work. Several well-established clinical and genetic database efforts are already in place, and further progress will be facilitated by collaborative expansion and standardization of these.
Project description:We report a case of a 48-year-old female patient, who presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, and lack of appetite. Ultrasound showed intrahepatic biliary dilatation with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Further magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography detected Klatskin tumor. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the Klatskin tumor with liver metastases and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy from the hepatic lesion identified mucinous adenocarcinoma, likely originating from bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed 3 times with stents placed in the left and right hepatic bile ducts. Later the patient had hematochezia and was referred to colonoscopy. Tubulovillous adenoma with dysplasia was diagnosed with signs of in situ cancer. Preoperative CT was done for further staging: new pulmonary metastases were discovered. Sigmoid colon was resected. Histopathology verified a poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma within the tubulovillous adenoma. Intraoperative biopsies of porta hepatis mass resembled metastatic lymph nodes in hepatoduodenal ligament, mimicking Klatskin tumor. Retrospective analysis of CT data demonstrated presence of sigmoid colon tumor.
Project description:Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the urinary tract are extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three case of AVM of the ureter have been described in the literature so far.We present an additional, fourth case of an AVM of the ureter, clinically presented as asymptomatic haematuria and an obstructive process in the left ureter. Ureteroscopic evaluation revealed a fibroepithelial polypoid-like lesion in the proximal ureter. After biopsy showed a benign lesion, the lesion was treated with the 2-?m continuous wave (cw) thulium laser. Histopathological examination revealed a polypoid laesion caused by a circumscribed arteriovenous malformation. Almost four years after operation the patient remains asymptomatic and free of recurrence.Arteriovenous malformations of the urinary tract are extremely rare. We presented a fourth case of a arteriovenous malformation of the ureter.
Project description:Vascular malformations (VMs) comprise a wide spectrum of lesions that are classified by content and flow characteristics. These lesions, occurring in both focal and diffuse forms, can involve any organ and tissue plane and can cause significant morbidity in both children and adults. Since treatment strategy depends on the type of malformation, correct diagnosis and classification of a vascular lesion are crucial. Slow-flow VMs (venous and lymphatic malformations) are often treated by sclerotherapy, whereas fast-flow lesions (arteriovenous malformations) are generally managed with embolization. In addition, some cases of VMs are best treated surgically. This review will present an overview of VMs in the female pelvis as well as a discussion of endovascular therapeutic techniques.
Project description:A 45-year-old man presented to the emergency ward with features of intestinal obstruction of 2?days duration. On admission, there was abdominal distension and multiple sessile polyps found on digital rectal examination. In addition, a soft tissue swelling near the elbow and a bony swelling over scalp were noted. Abdominal radiography revealed gaseous distension of the small and large bowel, and ultrasound revealed diffuse, gas-filled bowel with sluggish peristalsis. The obstruction failed to resolve with conservative measures and at emergency laparotomy an irregular hard recto-sigmoid junction mass was identified. A defunctioning transverse loop colostomy was undertaken and the abdomen closed. During recovery, a colonoscopy was performed and a malignant appearing lesion was identified 15?cm proximal to the anal verge. Further per-stomal colonoscopy revealed multiple sessile polyps from the ileo-caecal valve to the descending colon. The cutaneous and abdominal findings were consistent with a rare acute presentation of Gardner's syndrome.