Added value of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and a previous 99mTc bone scintigraphy.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To investigate the added value and diagnostic accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT versus bone scintigraphy (BS) for bone metastasis detection at the primary staging of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS:Inclusion criteria involved consecutive patients with newly diagnosed intermediate- to high-risk PCa, who had undergone BS, mostly with supplementary SPECT/low-dose CT, and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT within less than 3 months without therapy initiation between the two investigations. BS was evaluated according to clinical routine and reported as no bone metastases (M0), bone metastases (M1), or equivocal (Me). The 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was blindly evaluated by three specialists as M0, M1, or Me at the patient level. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using a "best valuable comparator" using all available imaging and clinical follow-up as a reference. RESULTS:In total, 112 patients were included; 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.93-0.96, positive predictive value of 0.74-0.81, and negative predictive value of 1.00. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT revealed bone metastases in 8 of 81 patients with M0 disease according to BS. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT confirmed the presence of bone metastases in all patients (n = 9) with M1 disease according to BS. In patients with Me by BS, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT provided a definite result in 20 of 22 patients. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT resulted in a false-positive answer in four patients with solitary rib lesions. CONCLUSION:68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT revealed bone metastases in 10% of patients without bone metastases on BS and in 36% patients with indeterminate BS. However, solitary PSMA-avid lesions in the ribs should be interpreted cautiously as they may represent false-positive findings.
Project description:Our purpose was to determine the relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level categories (<5, 5-10, 10-20, and >20 ng/mL) and the incidence of bone metastases detected by total-body 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-11 PET/CT and to assess if expanding the 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging field to include the vertex and lower extremities (total-body acquisition) affects bone metastasis detection rates and patient management. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 388 prostate cancer patients enrolled in 5 prospective studies (NCT02940262, NCT03368547, NCT03042312, NCT04050215, and NCT03515577). All underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT scans acquired from vertex to toes for primary staging (n = 93/388, 24%), biochemical recurrence (BCR) localization (n = 225/388, 58%), or restaging metastatic disease (M1) before or during systemic therapy (n = 70/388, 18%) between September 2017 and May 2018. Results: In total, 321 of 388 patients (83%) had a positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 study. PSMA-positive bone lesions were found in 105 of 388 (27%) patients, with an incidence that was positively associated with serum PSA level (<10 ng/mL, 21%; 10-20 ng/mL, 41%; ?20 ng/mL, 41%; P < 0.001). This association was maintained for all 3 indications: initial staging, BCR, and restaging M1. Bone metastases occurred most frequently in restaging M1, followed by BCR and initial staging. Bone metastasis incidence was not significantly associated with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk score (P = 0.22). The average number of PSMA-positive regions also increased with serum PSA level (P < 0.001). Eighteen of 388 (5%) and 18 of 388 (5%) had lesions above the superior orbital ridge and below the proximal third of the femur, respectively. There was only 1 of 388 patients (0.26%) in whom the total-body PET acquisition had an impact on management. Conclusion: Bone metastases as assessed with 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT are prevalent even in patients with low serum PSA levels. Therefore, current guidelines for bone assessments in prostate cancer patients should be revisited because 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT may provide additional information for accurate bone staging at low serum PSA levels. Including the total body (from vertex to toes) in 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging revealed additional bone lesions in 6% of patients, but without significantly affecting patient management.
Project description:We evaluated the clinical utility of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for staging and risk stratification of treatment-naïve prostate cancer (PCa) and metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Twenty-two consecutive patients with treatment-naïve PCa and 18 with mCRPC were enrolled. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for the evaluation of primary prostatic lesions, and bone scans were used for evaluation bone metastasis. Among the 40 patients, 37 (92.5% [22 treatment-naïve PCa, 15 mCRPC]) showed PSMA-avid lesions on 68Ga-PSMA-11 images. Only 3 patients with stable mCRPC after chemotherapy were negative for PSMA. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA-11 imaging were 97.3%, 100.0% and 97.5%, respectively. The maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) of prostatic lesions was 17.09 ± 11.08 and 13.33 ± 12.31 in treatment-naïve PCa and mCRPC, respectively. 68Ga-PSMA-11 revealed 105 metastatic lymph nodes in 15 patients; the SUVmax was 16.85 ± 9.70 and 7.54 ± 5.20 in treatment-naïve PCa and mCRPC, respectively. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT also newly detected visceral metastasis in 9 patients (22.5%) and bone metastasis in 29 patients (72.5%). 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT exhibits potential for staging and risk stratification in naïve PCa, as well as improved sensitivity for detection of lymph node and remote metastasis.
Project description:PURPOSE:Based on in vitro studies, it is known that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) increases prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression. Therefore, we hypothesised that ADT improves the performance of PSMA-PET imaging in primary staging of prostate cancer. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the time course effect of ADT on PSMA uptake in different types of metastatic lesions evaluated with 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI. METHODS:Nine men with treatment-naïve prostate cancer were enrolled to a prospective, registered (NCT03313726) clinical trial. A 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI was performed once before and 3 times post-ADT (degarelix, Firmagon). Change of maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax) in prostate, lymph nodes, bone metastases, and physiologically PSMA-avid organs were evaluated in a time frame of 1-8 weeks. RESULTS:All patients reached castration levels within 10 days, and 50% decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration was observed 14 days post-ADT. A heterogeneous increase in PSMA uptake was observed 3 to 4 weeks post-ADT. This phenomenon was definitively more evident in bone metastases: 13 (57%) of the metastasis, with a mean (range) SUVmax increase of 77% (8-238%). In one patient, already having bone metastases at baseline, three new bone metastases were observed post-ADT. Of lesions with reduced SUVmax, none disappeared. CONCLUSIONS:Both in patient and region level, increase in PSMA uptake post-ADT is heterogenous and is seen most evidently in bone metastases. Preliminary results on a small cohort of patients suggest the clinical impact of ADT on improving the performance of 68Ga-PSMA PET in staging seems to be minor. However, the optimal imaging time point might be 3 to 4 weeks post-ADT. Since none of the metastases with decreasing SUVmax disappeared, it seems that short-term usage of ADT does not interfere with the interpretation of 68Ga-PSMA PET. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03313726, registered 18 October 2017; EUDRA-CT, 2017-002345-29.
Project description:Localization of prostate cancer recurrence, particularly in the bones, is a major challenge with standard of care imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence following curatively intended treatment. Gallium-68-labeled prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is a novel and promising method for imaging in prostate cancer. The present study reports two cases of patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, with evidence of bone metastases on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images and low prostate specific antigen PSA levels (<2 ng/ml) and PSA doubling time >6 months. The bone metastases were verified by supplementary imaging with 18F-sodium fluoride PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging as well as biochemical responses to androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT is promising for the restaging of patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, including patients with low PSA levels and low PSA kinetics.
Project description:18F-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligand PET has several principal advantages over 68Ga-PSMA-11. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the frequency of non-tumor-related uptake and the detection efficacy comparing 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer (PC) patients. Methods: The study included 102 patients with biochemically recurrent PC after radical prostatectomy undergoing 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT imaging. On the basis of various clinical variables, patients with corresponding 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT scans were matched. All PET/CT scans (n = 204) were reviewed by 1 nuclear medicine physician. First, all PET-positive lesions were noted. Then, lesions suspected of being recurrent PC were differentiated from lesions attributed to a benign origin on the basis of known pitfalls and information from CT. For each region, the SUVmax of the lesion with the highest PSMA-ligand uptake was noted. Detection rates were determined, and SUVmax was compared separately for 68Ga-PSMA-11 and 18F-PSMA-1007. Results: In total, 18F-PSMA-1007 PET and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET revealed 369 and 178 PSMA-ligand-positive lesions, respectively. 18F-PSMA-1007 PET revealed approximately 5 times more lesions attributed to a benign origin than did 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET (245 vs. 52 lesions, respectively). The benign lesions most frequently observed were ganglia, unspecific lymph node, and bone lesions, at a rate of 43%, 31%, and 24% for 18F-PSMA-1007 PET and 29%, 42%, and 27% for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET, respectively. The SUVmax of lesions attributed to a benign origin was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for 18F-PSMA-1007 PET. Further, a similar number of lesions was attributed to recurrent PC (124/369 for 18F-PSMA-1007 PET and 126/178 for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET). Conclusion: The number of lesions with increased PSMA-ligand uptake attributed to a benign origin is considerably higher for 18F-PSMA-1007 PET than for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET. This finding indicates the need for sophisticated reader training emphasizing known pitfalls and reporting within the clinical context.
Project description:Target volume delineations for prostate cancer (PCa) salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy are usually drawn in the absence of visibly recurrent disease. 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA-11) PET/CT detects recurrent PCa with sensitivity superior to standard-of-care imaging at serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values low enough to affect target volume delineations for routine SRT. Our objective was to map the recurrence pattern of PCa early biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy with 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in patients with serum PSA levels of less than 1 ng/mL, determine how often consensus clinical target volumes (CTVs) based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) guidelines cover 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-defined disease, and assess the potential impact of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on SRT. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of an intention-to-treat population of 270 patients who underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT at 4 institutions for BCR after prostatectomy without prior radiotherapy at a PSA level of less than 1 ng/mL. RTOG consensus CTVs that included both the prostate bed and the pelvic lymph nodes were contoured on the CT dataset of the PET/CT image by a radiation oncologist masked to the PET component. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT images were analyzed by a nuclear medicine physician. 68Ga-PSMA-11-positive lesions not covered by planning volumes based on the consensus CTVs were considered to have a potential major impact on treatment planning. Results: The median PSA level at the time of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was 0.48 ng/mL (range, 0.03-1 ng/mL). One hundred thirty-two of 270 patients (49%) had a positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT result. Fifty-two of 270 (19%) had at least one PSMA-11-positive lesion not covered by the consensus CTVs. Thirty-three of 270 (12%) had extrapelvic PSMA-11-positive lesions, and 19 of 270 (7%) had PSMA-11-positive lesions within the pelvis but not covered by the consensus CTVs. The 2 most common 68Ga-PSMA-11-positive lesion locations outside the consensus CTVs were bone (23/52, 44%) and perirectal lymph nodes (16/52, 31%). Conclusion: Post hoc analysis of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT implied a major impact on SRT planning in 52 of 270 patients (19%) with PCa early BCR (PSA < 1.0 ng/mL). This finding justifies a randomized imaging trial of SRT with or without 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT investigating its potential benefit on clinical outcome.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the accuracy of [68Ga]-PSMA-11 PET/CT or [68Ga]-PSMA-11 PET/MRI (PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI)) for lymph node (LN) staging using salvage LN dissection (SLND) in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS:In a prospective study, 65 consecutive patients who developed BCR after RP underwent SLND after PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI) between 2014 and 2018. Extended SLND up to the inferior mesenteric artery was performed in all patients. Regional and template-based correlations between the presence of LN metastases on histopathology and whole-body PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI) results were evaluated. The diagnostic accuracy of PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI) was also evaluated in relation to PSA level at the time of SLND. RESULTS:The median age of the patients at the time of SLND was 65 years (IQR 63-69 years) and the median PSA level was 1.4 ng/ml (IQR 0.8-2.9 ng/ml). Before SLND, 50 patients (77%) had additional therapy after RP (26.2% androgen-deprivation therapy and 50.8% radiotherapy). The median number of LNs removed on SLND was 40 (IQR 33-48) and the median number of positive nodes was 4 (IQR 2-6). LN metastases were seen in 13.8% of resected LNs (317 of 2,292). LNs positive on PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI) had a median diameter of 7.2 mm (IQR 5.3-9 mm). Metastatic LNs in regions negative on PSMA-11 PET had a median diameter of 3.4 mm (IQR 2.1-5.4 mm). In a regional analysis, the sensitivity of PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI) ranged from 72% to 100%, and the specificity from 96% to 100%. Region-specific positive and negative predictive values ranged from 95% to 100% and 93% to 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION:PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI) has a very good performance for the identification of LN metastases in patients with BCR after RP. The high diagnostic accuracy in the regional and subregional analyses demonstrates the potential of this approach to enable a region-directed instead of a complete bilateral therapeutic intervention. The performance of PSMA-11 PET/CT(MRI) is dependent on the PSA level and the size of the metastatic deposit.
Project description:Purpose:To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and potential of using 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in evaluating the function of salivary glands and lacrimal glands in comparison with 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTcO4 -) salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). Methods:A retrospective study was performed in 15 patients with different degrees of xerostomia and suspected salivary gland dysfunction. Each patient underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT first and SGS the next day, and the findings of both scans were compared. Results:The results of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and SGS were consistent in 12/15 patients (80%) and were inconsistent in the remaining patients (20%). For 5 (33.3%) of 15 patients, 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT provided more information than did SGS. Additionally, 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT corrected the misdiagnosis by SGS for 1 patient. Conclusions:68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT is a potentially useful imaging tool for evaluating the function of salivary glands and lacrimal glands. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT can be a promising supplement to SGS, and its clinical value deserves further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Treatment with surgery, radioactive iodine (RAI), and TSH suppression is effective in most patients. Five to 15% of patients become RAI refractory and need alternative therapy; however, treatment options are limited. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT, originally developed for prostate cancer, is also applicable to other malignancies, including thyroid carcinoma. The uptake of PSMA in thyroid carcinoma gives opportunities for imaging and therapy of RAI-refractory DTC. The aim of this study was to analyze imaging on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT and evaluate the response to 177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy in patients with RAI-refractory DTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Five patients with RAI-refractory DTC underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT to determine their eligibility for 177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CTs were analyzed visually and quantitatively. Response to 177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy was evaluated using imaging and thyroglobulin (Tg) values. RESULTS:Tracer uptake suspicious for distant metastases was depicted in all 68Ga-PSMA PET/CTs. Based on tracer uptake, three patients were eligible for 177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy, of whom two were treated. One patient showed disease progression on imaging 1?month later, while her Tg values gradually increased from 18 to 63??g/L in the months after treatment. Another patient showed partial, temporary response of lung and liver metastases. Her Tg levels initially decreased from 17 to 9??g/L. However, 7?months after treatment, there was disease progression on imaging and Tg levels had increased to 14??g/L. Imaging with 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT could be compared to 18FDG PET/CT in three patients. Two patients showed additional lesions on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT, and one patient showed concordant imaging. CONCLUSION:68Ga-PSMA PET/CT appears to have added value in patients with RAI-refractory DTC, as it is able to detect various types of lesions, some of which were not picked up by 18FDG PET/CT. Furthermore, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT might be used to identify patients eligible for treatment with 177Lu-PSMA-617. One of the two patients who underwent 177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy showed a modest, temporary response. To draw conclusions about the effectiveness of this therapy, more research is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand PET/CT has already provided promising results in prostate cancer (PC) imaging, yet simple and reproductible reporting criteria are still lacking. This study aimed at retrospectively evaluating interobserver agreement of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT images interpretation according to PC molecular imaging standardized evaluation (PROMISE) criteria and reproducibility of PSMA reporting and data systems (RADS). METHODS:Forty-three patients with newly diagnosed, histologically proven intermediate- or high-risk PC, eligible for radical prostatectomy and who underwent [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT before surgery were retrospectively included. Three nuclear medicine physicians (2 experienced and 1 resident) independently reviewed PET/CT images. Interpretation of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT images was based on PROMISE criteria including miTNM staging and lesions miPSMA expression score visual estimation and PSMA-RADS version 1.0 for a given scan. Readers' agreement was measured using Krippendorff's coefficients RESULTS: Agreement between observers was almost perfect (coefficient ? 0.81) for miM; it was substantial (coefficient ? 0.61) for the following criteria: miT, miN, PSMA-RADS, and miPSMA expression score of primary PC lesion and metastases. However, agreement was moderate (coefficient = 0.41-0.60) for miPSMA score of positive lymph nodes and for detection of PC primary lesion. CONCLUSION:Visual interpretation of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT images in patients with newly diagnosed PC in a clinical setting leads to at least substantial agreement for PROMISE criteria and PSMA-RADS classification except for PC primary lesion detection and for miPSMA expression scoring of positive lymph nodes that might have been hampered by the interindividual variability of reference organs PSMA expression.