Compound Characterization and Metabolic Profile Elucidation after In Vitro Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Biotransformation of an Herniaria hirsuta Extract Using Unbiased Dynamic Metabolomic Data Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Herniaria hirsuta L. (Caryophyllaceae) is used for treatment of urinary stones and as a diuretic. Little is known about the active compounds and the mechanism of action. The phytochemical composition of H. hirsuta was comprehensively characterized using UHPLC-UV-HRMS (Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) data. An in vitro gastrointestinal model was used to simulate biotransformation, which allowed the monitoring of the relative abundances of individual compounds over time. To analyze the longitudinal multiclass LC-MS data, XCMS, a platform that enables online metabolomics data processing and interpretation, and EDGE, a statistical method for time series data, were used to extract significant differential profiles from the raw data. An interactive Shiny app in R was used to rate the quality of the resulting features. These ratings were used to train a random forest model. The most abundant aglycone after gastrointestinal biotransformation was subjected to hepatic biotransformation using human S9 fractions. A diversity of compounds was detected, mainly saponins and flavonoids. Besides the known saponins, 15 new saponins were tentatively identified as glycosides of medicagenic acid, acetylated medicagenic acid and zanhic acid. It is suggested that metabolites of phytochemicals present in H. hirsuta, most likely saponins, are responsible for the pharmaceutical effects. It was observed that the relative abundance of saponin aglycones increased, indicating loss of sugar moieties during colonic biotransformation, with medicagenic acid as the most abundant aglycone. Hepatic biotransformation of this aglycone resulted in different metabolites formed by phase I and II reactions.
Project description:Recently the number of studies investigating triterpenoid saponins has drastically increased due to their diverse and potentially attractive biological activities. Currently the literature contains chemical structures of few hundreds of triterpenoid saponins of plant and animal origin. Triterpenoid saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using hyphenated analytical platforms, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-SPE-NMR/MS, in the example of two different phenotypes of the model plant Barbarea vulgaris (winter cress), glabrous (G) and pubescent (P) type that are known to differ by their insect resistance. The proposed methodology allows for detailed comparison of saponin profiles from intact plant extracts as well as saponin aglycone profiles from hydrolysed samples. Continuously measured 1D proton NMR data during LC separation along with mass spectrometry data revealed significant differences, including contents of saponins, types of aglycones and numbers of sugar moieties attached to the aglycone. A total of 49 peaks were tentatively identified as saponins from both plants; they are derived from eight types of aglycones and with 2-5 sugar moieties. Identification of two previously known insect-deterrent saponins, hederagenin cellobioside and oleanolic acid cellobioside, demonstrated the applicability of the methodology for relatively rapid screening of bioactive compounds.
Project description:Sea cucumbers produce numerous compounds with a wide range of chemical structural diversity. Among these, saponins are the most diverse and include sulfated, non-sulfated, acetylated and methylated congeners with different aglycone and sugar moieties. In this study, MALDI and ESI tandem mass spectrometry, in the positive ion mode, were used to elucidate the structure of new saponins extracted from the viscera of H. lessoni. Fragmentation of the aglycone provided structural information on the presence of the acetyl group. The presence of the O-acetyl group was confirmed by observing the mass transition of 60 u corresponding to the loss of a molecule of acetic acid. Ion fingerprints from the glycosidic cleavage provided information on the mass of the aglycone (core), and the sequence and type of monosaccharides that constitute the sugar moiety. The tandem mass spectra of the saponin precursor ions [M + Na]+ provided a wealth of detailed structural information on the glycosidic bond cleavages. As a result, and in conjunction with existing literature, we characterized the structure of five new acetylated saponins, Lessoniosides A-E, along with two non-acetylated saponins Lessoniosides F and G at m/z 1477.7, which are promising candidates for future drug development. The presented strategy allows a rapid, reliable and complete analysis of native saponins.
Project description:The draft genome sequence of the type strain Saccharopolyspora hirsuta subsp. hirsuta VKM Ac-666 was sequenced. This moderately thermophilic actinobacterial strain of sugarcane bagasse origin is able to transform different steroid substrates.
Project description:Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) have attracted special attention in research aimed at modifying natural products by partial removal of sugar moieties to manipulate their solubility and efficacy. However, these modifications are challenging to control because the low substrate specificity of most GHs often generates undesired by-products. We previously identified a GH2-type fungal β-glucuronidase from Aspergillus oryzae (PGUS) exhibiting promiscuous substrate specificity in hydrolysis of triterpenoid saponins. Here, we present the PGUS structure, representing the first structure of a fungal β-glucuronidase, and that of an inactive PGUS mutant in complex with the native substrate glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-mono-β-glucuronide (GAMG). PGUS displayed a homotetramer structure with each monomer comprising three distinct domains: a sugar-binding, an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich, and a TIM barrel domain. Two catalytic residues, Glu414 and Glu505, acted as acid/base and nucleophile, respectively. Structural and mutational analyses indicated that the GAMG glycan moiety is recognized by polar interactions with nine residues (Asp162, His332, Asp414, Tyr469, Tyr473, Asp505, Arg563, Asn567, and Lys569) and that the aglycone moiety is recognized by aromatic stacking and by a π interaction with the four aromatic residues Tyr469, Phe470, Trp472, and Tyr473 Finally, structure-guided mutagenesis to precisely manipulate PGUS substrate specificity in the biotransformation of glycyrrhizin into GAMG revealed that two amino acids, Ala365 and Arg563, are critical for substrate specificity. Moreover, we obtained several mutants with dramatically improved GAMG yield (>95%). Structural analysis suggested that modulating the interaction of β-glucuronidase simultaneously toward glycan and aglycone moieties is critical for tuning its substrate specificity toward triterpenoid saponins.
Project description:Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-5, together with five known saponins 6-10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21?-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell line, including HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma). The monodesmosidic saponins 6-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity toward all tested cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the 7.25-22.38 ?M range.
Project description:Floral development is remarkably robust in terms of the identity and number of floral organs in each whorl, whereas vegetative development can be quite plastic. This canalization of flower development prevents the phenotypic expression of cryptic genetic variation, even in fluctuating environments. A cruciform perianth with four petals is a hallmark of the Brassicaceae family, typified in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana However, variable petal loss is found in Cardamine hirsuta, a genetically tractable relative of A. thaliana Cardamine hirsuta petal number varies in response to stochastic, genetic and environmental perturbations, which makes it an interesting model to study mechanisms of decanalization and the expression of cryptic variation.Multitrait quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to identify whether the stochastic variation found in C. hirsuta petal number had a genetic basis.Stochastic variation (standard error of the average petal number) was found to be a heritable phenotype, and four QTL that influenced this trait were identified. The sensitivity to detect these QTL effects was increased by accounting for the effect of ageing on petal number variation. All QTL had significant effects on both average petal number and its standard error, indicating that these two traits share a common genetic basis. However, for some QTL, a degree of independence was found between the age of the flowers where allelic effects were significant for each trait.Stochastic variation in C. hirsuta petal number has a genetic basis, and common QTL influence both average petal number and its standard error. Allelic variation at these QTL can, therefore, modify petal number in an age-specific manner via effects on the phenotypic mean and stochastic variation. These results are discussed in the context of trait evolution via a loss of robustness.
Project description:A novel strain of Saccaropolyspora hirsuta was isolated from an insect Tapinoma simrothi for the first time and was morphologically and physiologically characterized. It was genetically identified using 16S rRNA and sequence similarity percentage in genbank with closely related species as strain ess_amA6 of Saccaropolyspora hirsuta. The accession number of strain ess_amA6 is KF996506. Antagonistic activity of strain ess_amA6 against some pathogenic Gram positive and negative bacteria, and unicellular fungus Candida albicans was studied. In addition, star shaped silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized using strain ess_amA6. The silver Nano stars were characterized by UV-us spectrophotometer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conversion of Ag+ ions to Nano silver due to the reduction by capping material of extract. Transmission electron microscopically studies of biosynthesized Nano silver particles showed that they are spherical ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm in size. Silver atoms were checked in Nano sample by Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bioactivity of biosynthesized Nano silver was observed against some pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. These tested microbes were highly sensitive to Nano silver. This study recommended that strain ess_amA6 can be used to effectively biosynthesize bioactive Nano silver compounds.
Project description:A rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the soil in a karst area of Guilin, China and its biotransformation of steroidal saponins in sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine) to tigogenin was presented for the first time. A total of 22 strains for the degradation of steroidal saponins in sisal were isolated from 48 soil samples, and the isolated rod-shaped, bacterial strain ZG-21 was used for the production of tigogenin due to its highest degradation efficiency of steroidal saponins in sisal. The parameters affecting biotransformation by strain ZG-21 were optimized. Under the optimized conditions of temperature (30 °C), pH (6), time (5 days) and substrate concentration (5 mg/mL), a maximum tigogenin yield of 26.7 mg/g was achieved. Compared with the conventional method of acid hydrolysis, the biotransformation method provided a clean and eco-friendly alternative for the production of tigogenin.
Project description:Saponins are widely distributed plant natural products with vast structural and functional diversity. They are typically composed of a hydrophobic aglycone, which is extensively decorated with functional groups prior to the addition of hydrophilic sugar moieties, to result in surface-active amphipathic compounds. The saponins are broadly classified as triterpenoids, steroids or steroidal glycoalkaloids, based on the aglycone structure from which they are derived. The saponins and their biosynthetic intermediates display a variety of biological activities of interest to the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food sectors. Although their relevance in industrial applications has long been recognized, their role in plants is underexplored. Recent research on modulating native pathway flux in saponin biosynthesis has demonstrated the roles of saponins and their biosynthetic intermediates in plant growth and development. Here, we review the literature on the effects of these molecules on plant physiology, which collectively implicate them in plant primary processes. The industrial uses and potential of saponins are discussed with respect to structure and activity, highlighting the undoubted value of these molecules as therapeutics.
Project description:Four new eunicellin-type hirsutalins S-V (1-4), along with a known compound (-)-6?-hydroxy polyanthellin A (5), were isolated from the soft coral Cladiella hirsuta. The structures of the metabolites were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxity of compounds 1-5 against the proliferation of a limited panel of cancer cell lines was measured. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1-5 was evaluated by measuring their ability in suppressing superoxide anion generation and elastase release in fMLP/ CB-induced human neutrophils.