Protected Organic Acids Improved Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Decreased Gas Emission in Broilers.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of a blend of organic acids (OAs) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) supplementation in 800 1-d-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens (42 ± 0.90 g) in a 7-week study. Broiler chicks were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments (16 birds per pen with 10 pens per treatment). Dietary treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal based basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with blend of OAs and MCFAs at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 g, and 1 g per kg of feed. In the current study, during the whole experimental period, the inclusion of the blend of OAs and MCFAs in the basal diet linearly improved (p < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and dry matter digestibility. The increasing inclusion of the blend of OA and MCFA levels in the diets linearly decreased (p = 0.002) feed intake during d 1 to 7. Broilers fed diets containing different levels of the blend of OAs and MCFAs showed a linear increase (p = 0.006) in Lactobacillus concentrations and decrease (p = 0.014) in ammonia (NH3) at the end of the experiment. However, the blend of OAs and MCFAs did not affect carcass quality, E. coli, and Salmonella counts, as well as hydrogen sulfide and total mercaptans gas emission (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the blend of OA and MCFA supplementation positively influenced growth performance, DM digestibility, excreta Lactobacillus counts, as well as NH3 gas emission in broiler chickens.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 60 Ross 308 broilers were treated for two weeks. The three dietary treatments were: (CON) basal diet; (T1) basal diet + 0.1% exogenous emulsifier, and (T2) basal diet + 0.2% exogenous emulsifier. In Period 1 (0-7 days), broilers in the T2 group showed significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) (p < 0.05) and broilers in the T1 and T2 treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion ratios (FCR) (p < 0.05). In Period 2 (8-14 days), broilers in the T2 treatment group had significantly higher feed intake (FI) (p < 0.05). Therefore, in this experiment (from days 0 to 19), BWG and FCR were affected (p < 0.05) by the T1 and T2 treatments. Additionally, the T1 and T2 treatments with added exogenous emulsifier in the broiler feed showed significantly higher energy digestibility (p < 0.05) than the CON treatment. Broilers fed the T2 diet had higher water-holding capacity (WHC) (p < 0.05) and cooking loss than the broilers fed the CON and T1 diets. Moreover, the shearing force in the meat was decreased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed the T2 diet. In conclusion, supplementation with exogenous emulsifier to broiler diets improved growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality. The optimal amount of exogenous emulsifier supplementation requires further investigation.
Project description:The experiment was designed to determine the effect of different levels of chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) powder and a probiotic blend (PrimaLac®) on productive performance, blood biochemical parameters, and ileal microbiota in broiler chickens. A total of 225 one-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were used in a completely randomized design with five experimental diets as follows: 1-basal-diet without supplements (control-group); 2-basal-diet including probiotic blend; 3- basal-diet including 0.10% chicory; 4-basal-diet including 0.15% chicory; 5-basal-diet including 0.20% chicory. At 42 days of age, representative birds per replicate were randomly selected for blood samples and carcass measurements. Results showed that the body weight gain of broilers fed the probiotic blend or 0.10% chicory was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those fed on the other treatments. The abdominal fat pad was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in birds fed diets including chicory compared with control or probiotic. Blood triglycerides and LDL levels were reduced (P < 0.05) and HDL increased (P < 0.05) when fed probiotic or chicory whereas no significant effect on the other serum parameters was found. Broiler ileal microflora from the control group had significantly (P < 0.05) higher count of E. coli and lower Lactobacillus than those from the other groups. From findings, it is possible to conclude that dietary chicory powder supported positively growth performance and improved gut microbiota in broiler chickens. However, more research is needed on this subject to better understand the mode of action of feed additives used.
Project description:During the course of this trial, our team assessed the influence of protease upon the growth performance, the nutrient digestibility, and the expression of growth-related genes and amino acid transporters within the liver, muscle, and small intestines of broilers. During the first step, our team allocated 600 broilers into four dietary treatments for a period of 35 days in order to measure the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of the broilers selected. The separate treatments contained 10 replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatments were composed of: 1) CON, basal diet; 2) T1, basal diet + 0.03% protease; 3) T2, basal diet + 0.06% protease; and 4) T3, basal diet + 0.09% protease. Next, the broiler chick sample tissue was harvested from the CON and T3 groups in order to conduct gene expression analysis following the feeding trials the broilers underwent. Our team discovered that the broilers fed protease diets possessed increased body weight and an average daily gain, but conversely, had lower feed conversion ratios when their dietary protease levels increased from 0% to 0.09% (p < 0.05). Additionally, significant linear improvements were identified among the nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, and amino acids within broilers supplied with protease diets when contrasted and compared with broilers supplied with the basal diet (p < 0.05). In addition, the gene expression of the genes IGF1, IGF2, GH, and LEP in the liver, and the genes MYOD1 and MYOG in the breast muscles, was significantly increased after broilers were fed with a protease diet as compared to broilers that subsisted on a basal diet (p < 0.05). Protease supplementation also raised the expression levels within these amino acid transporters: SCL6A19, SLC7A1, SLC7A7, SLC7A2, SLC7A6, SLC7A9, and SLC15A1, located in the small intestine, when compared to the basal diet (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that protease supplementation in their diet improved the growth performance of broilers via an increase in the expression growth-related genes within broiler liver and muscle tissue. In addition, protease supplementation enhanced broiler digestibility via the upregulation of amino acid transporter expression within the small intestine.
Project description:Excessive cardiac long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) metabolism/storage causes cardiomyopathy in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are absorbed and oxidized efficiently. Data in animal models of diabetes suggest MCFAs may benefit the heart.Our objective was to test the effects of an MCFA-rich diet vs an LCFA-rich diet on plasma lipids, cardiac steatosis, and function in patients with type 2 diabetes.This was a double-blind, randomized, 2-week matched-feeding study.The study included ambulatory patients in the general community.Sixteen patients, ages 37-65 years, with type 2 diabetes, an ejection fraction greater than 45%, and no other systemic disease were included.Fourteen days of a diet rich in MCFAs or LCFAs, containing 38% as fat in total, was undertaken.Cardiac steatosis and function were the main outcome measures, with lipidomic changes considered a secondary outcome.The relatively load-independent measure of cardiac contractility, S', improved in the MCFA group (P < .05). Weight-adjusted stroke volume and cardiac output decreased in the LCFA group (both P < .05). The MCFA, but not the LCFA, diet decreased several plasma sphingolipids, ceramide, and acylcarnitines implicated in diabetic cardiomyopathy, and changes in several sphingolipids correlated with improved fasting insulins.Although a diet high in MCFAs does not change cardiac steatosis, our findings suggest that the MCFA-rich diet alters the plasma lipidome and may benefit or at least not harm cardiac function and fasting insulin levels in humans with type 2 diabetes. Larger, long-term studies are needed to further evaluate these effects in less-controlled settings.
Project description:The present study evaluated the effect of three feeding methods (dry feed, wet feed or wet feed fermented with <i>Bacillus licheniformis</i>) on the growth performance, intestinal histomorphometry and gene expression of the lipid metabolism- and growth-related genes of broiler chickens. A total of 360 one-day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were randomly allotted into three groups containing four replicates with 30 birds each. The first group (control) was fed a dry mash basal diet. The second and third groups were fed wet feed and fermented wet feed. The final body weight and weight gain were reduced (<i>p</i> < 0.01) in the wet feed group, while they did not differ between the fermented wet feed and dry feed groups. Feed intake was not altered, and feeding on wet feed significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.01) increased the feed-to-gain ratio compared to the remaining groups. No differences between the three feeding methods in carcass characteristics, blood biochemistry and nutrient digestibility were observed except for crude protein digestibility, which was increased (<i>p</i> < 0.01) in the fermented wet feed group. Duodenal and ileal villi heights were elevated in birds fed fermented wet feeds, while crypt depth was not altered. The expression fold of <i>IGF-1</i>, <i>GH</i> and m-<i>TOR</i> genes in the pectoral muscle of birds fed wet feed was decreased (<i>p</i> < 0.05), while myostatin gene expression was elevated. Feeding on wet feed reduced the hepatic gene expression of <i>PPAR?</i> and increased that of <i>FAS</i>. In conclusion, wet feed negatively affected the broiler chickens' efficiency under heat stress; however, fermenting the wet feed with <i>Bacillus licheniformis</i> improved feed utilization and birds' performance compared to the dry feed group.
Project description:This study was conducted to compare the effects of adding sodium butyrate (SB), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) to the diet of sows during late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance and intestinal health of suckling piglets. Twenty-four sows (Landrace × Large-White hybrid; third parity; 200 ± 15 kg) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: basal diet (control group), basal diet + 1 g SB/kg (SB group), basal diet + 7.75 g MCFA/kg (MCFA group), or basal diet + 68.2 g n-3 PUFA/kg (n-3 PUFA group). The experiment began on day 85 of gestation and ended day 22 of lactation. Colostrum samples were collected from each sow. After the experiment, blood and tissue samples were collected from 1 randomly selected piglet. The results showed that the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was shorter than that of sows in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea in suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was lower than that of piglets in the control group (P < 0.05). The fat, protein, IgA, IgG, and IgM concentration in colostrum from sows increased following dietary supplementation with SB, MCFA, or n-3 PUFA (P < 0.05). Comparison with the control group, the mRNA expression of claudin-1, zona occludens 1, and interleukin-10 increased in the jejunum mucosa of suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups, while that of TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Chao1 and ACE indexes of microbial flora in the colon contents of piglets in the SB, MCFA, and MCFA groups increased (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Synergistetes decreased at the phylum level (P < 0.05). In conclusion, during late pregnancy and lactation, dietary SB supplementation had a greater effect on intestinal health and caused a greater decrease in preweaning mortality of suckling piglets than did dietary MCFA or n-3 PUFA supplementation; dietary MCFA supplementation shortened the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows to a greater extent than did dietary SB or n-3 PUFA supplementation; and dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation increased the fat and protein content in the colostrum to the greatest extent.
Project description:The present study aims to investigate the effects of supplementing broiler diets with a bioactive olive pomace extract (OE) from Olea europaea on growth performance, digestibility, gut microbiota, bile acid composition, and immune response. To this end, three hundred and six 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were housed in floor pens (6 pens/treatment, with 17 birds/pen). Animals were fed with a standard non-medicated starter diet for 21 D, and from 22 to 42 D of age with their respective experimental diet: a negative control with no additives (Control), a positive control with 100 ppm of monensin (Monensin) and the basal diet supplemented with 750 ppm of an OE (Lucta S.A., Spain). Feed intake and growth rate were monitored weekly throughout the trial. From 21 to 42 D of age, no significant differences in feed intake were observed among dietary treatments; however, lower average daily gain and higher feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed the Control compared to Monensin and OE groups. Performance of birds fed OE or Monensin was similar throughout the trial. The apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher in birds fed Monensin than Control treatment (P < 0.05). No significant changes on bacterial composition at a family level were observed in the caeca of birds fed the experimental diets. Moreover, no significant differences on plasma and intestinal bile acid composition were observed among treatments. Birds fed the OE showed a significant decrease of IL-8 expression in the ileum (P < 0.05). Additionally, the expression of TGF-?4, and Bu-1 was significantly upregulated (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the OE and Monensin diets compared to those fed the Control. In conclusion, the inclusion of 750 ppm of a bioactive olive pomace extract from Olea europaea in broiler chicken diets improved animal growth likely as result of its anti-inflammatory properties.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are more lipotoxic than unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in inhibiting hepatic autophagy and promoting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, there have been few studies have investigated the effects of carbon chain length on SFA-induced autophagy impairment and lipotoxicity. To investigate whether SFAs with shorter carbon chain lengths have differential effects on hepatic autophagy and NASH development, we partially replaced lard with coconut oil to elevate the ratio of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) to long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in a mouse high-fat diet (HFD) and fed mice for 16 weeks. In addition, we treated HepG2 cells with different combinations of fatty acids to study the mechanisms of MCFAs-mediated hepatic protections. Our results showed that increasing dietary MCFA/LCFA ratio mitigated HFD-induced Type 2 diabetes and NASH in mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that increased MCFA ratio exerted its protective effects by restoring Rubicon-suppressed autophagy. Our study suggests that the relative amount of LCFAs and MCFAs in the diet, in addition to the amount of SFAs, can significantly contribute to autophagy impairment and hepatic lipotoxicity. Collectively, we propose that increasing dietary MCFAs could be an alternative therapeutic and prevention strategy for Type 2 diabetes and NASH.
Project description:Diminishing the cost of broiler chicken diet is a critical issue in the poultry industry. Numerous studies were performed to achieve this pivotal objective by diet supplementation with alternative feed additives. In the current study, low-energy broiler rations were supplemented with different commercial multienzyme formulations to minimize the cost, and increase the digestibility and absorption of the digested macronutrients. Cobb Avian 48 broiler chicks (mixed sex, 1-d-old, n = 3120) were randomly allocated into six groups, and each group was subdivided into four replicates (130 birds per replicate). The birds were randomly allocated into a control group fed basal diet (CB); control group fed low-energy diet (CL); and birds fed low-energy diets supplemented with different enzyme formulations. The enzyme formulations used were Xylam 500® (CLX group), Hemicell® (CLH group), Avizyme® (CLA group), and Megazyme® (CLM group,) following the doses recommended by the manufacturers. The growth performance of CLA and CLH group birds was significantly improved when compared with CL. In comparison with CB, Avizyme® significantly (p < 0.001) increased the intestinal PEPT1, GLUT2, ACC, and IL-2 expression; PEPT1 facilitates the absorption of micronutrients. In conclusion, exogenous multienzyme complexes may be included in the low-energy diet to enhance the performance of broiler chickens (Avizyme® ? Hemicell® ? Megazyme®), and reduce the diet cost by up-regulating the expression of intestinal nutrient transporter genes, and improving the immunity and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.
Project description:Background:The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata), a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods:The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3) were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1) with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain), rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2) or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3). The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results:MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3) induced anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects with changes in circulating cortisol, immunoglobulin M, leukocyte respiratory burst, and mucosal expression levels of cytokines, lymphocyte markers and immunoglobulin T. Discussion:MCFA supplementation showed positive effects on GSB growth and intestinal architecture acting mainly in the anterior intestine, where absorption takes place. The probiotic B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 exhibited key effects in the regulation of the immune status inducing anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects which can be potentially advantageous upon infection or exposure to other stressors. The potential effects of these feed additives in GSB are very promising to improve health and disease resistance in aquaculture.