Lysophosphatidylcholines and Chlorophyll-Derived Molecules from the Diatom Cylindrotheca closterium with Anti-Inflammatory Activity.
ABSTRACT: Microalgae have been shown to be excellent producers of lipids, pigments, carbohydrates, and a plethora of secondary metabolites with possible applications in the pharmacological, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical sectors. Recently, various microalgal raw extracts have been found to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we performed the fractionation of raw extracts of the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium, previously shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, obtaining five fractions. Fractions C and D were found to significantly inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) release in LPS-stimulated human monocyte THP-1 cells. A dereplication analysis of these two fractions allowed the identification of their main components. Our data suggest that lysophosphatidylcholines and a breakdown product of chlorophyll, pheophorbide a, were probably responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory activity. Pheophorbide a is known to have anti-inflammatory properties. We tested and confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, the most abundant lysophosphatidylcholine found in fraction C. This study demonstrated the importance of proper dereplication of bioactive extracts and fractions before isolation of compounds is commenced.
Project description:Diatoms are the most diverse and abundant group of phytoplankton species and represent a huge reservoir of marine natural products with possible application for human health. Several diatoms are known to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-microbial properties, but the compounds responsible of these activities are often still unknown. The diatom Cylindrotheca closterium showed anti-inflammatory properties inhibiting TNF? release in human monocytic leukemia cells. In this study, we present the full transcriptome of C. closterium, and used an -omic approach to identify transcripts coding enzymes that can be involved in the synthesis/degradation of anti-inflammatory compounds. This approach allowed to identify phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3, phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit A, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase and violaxanthin de-epoxidase, which are known to be involved in anti-inflammatory compound metabolism. When C. closterium was cultured in silica-starvation conditions, selected as stress condition to potentially trigger the synthesis of bioactive metabolites, anti-inflammatory activity was lost and expression levels of the analyzed transcripts were reduced. These data suggested that the control culturing condition was the most active. This study used for the first time a transcriptomic-guided approach to identify enzymes involved in anti-inflammatory compound metabolism, directing future discoveries of marine natural products in microalgae.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different solvents for extraction, liquid?liquid partition, and concentrations of extracts and fractions of Piper cubeba L. on anticariogenic; antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity against oral bacteria. Furthermore, ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to discriminate between the extracts and fractions and examine the metabolites that correlate to the bioactivities. All tested bacteria were susceptible to Piper cubeba L. extracts and fractions. Different solvents extraction, liquid?liquid partition and concentrations of extracts and fractions have partially influenced the antibacterial activity. MTT assay showed that P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells at selected concentrations. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluated by nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells showed a reduction in NO production in cells treated with P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions, compared to those without treatment. Twelve putative metabolites have been identified, which are (1) cubebin, (2) yatein, (3) hinokinin, (4) dihydrocubebin, (5) dihydroclusin, (6) cubebinin, (7) magnosalin, (8) p-cymene, (9) piperidine, (10) cubebol, (11) d-germacrene and (12) ledol. Different extraction and liquid?liquid partition solvents caused separation in principal component analysis (PCA) models. The partial least squares (PLS) models showed that higher anticariogenic activity was related more to the polar solvents, despite some of the active metabolites also present in the non-polar solvents. Hence, P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions exhibited antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity and have potential to be developed as the anticariogenic agent.
Project description:Coastal waters are expected to undergo severe warming in the coming decades. Very little is known about how diatoms, the dominant primary producers in these habitats, will cope with these changes. We investigated the thermal niche of Cylindrotheca closterium, a widespread benthic marine diatom, using 24 strains collected over a wide latitudinal gradient. A multi-marker phylogeny in combination with a species delimitation approach shows that C. closterium represents a (pseudo)cryptic species complex, and this is reflected in distinct growth response patterns in terms of optimum growth temperature, maximum growth rate, and thermal niche width. Strains from the same clade displayed a similar thermal response, suggesting niche conservation between closely related strains. Due to their lower maximum growth rate and smaller thermal niche width, we expect the polar species to be particularly sensitive to warming, and, in the absence of adaptation, to be replaced with species from lower latitudes.
Project description:Backgroud:Rhododendron przewalskii Maxim. is an evergreen shrub that is used as a traditional medicine in China. However, the modern pharmacology and the chemical components of this plant has not been studied. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and underlying mechanism of its aqueous and ethanol extracts, and analyze their chemical composition and active compounds of R. przewalskii. Methods: The antifungal activity was determined in vitro, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and underlying mechanism of its aqueous and ethanol extracts were evaluated in vitro and in RAW 264.7 cells. The chemical composition were analyzed using UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS, and the contents of six compounds were determined via HPLC. Results: Both extracts of R. przewalskii showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in vitro; decreased the production of four inflammatory cytokines, namely, nitric oxide, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide; and exhibited weak cytotoxicity. The extracts significantly scavenged DPPH radicals, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals to exert antioxidant effects in vitro. The two extracts also exhibited cellular antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase and CAT activities and decreasing malondialdehyde content in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. However, the antifungal activity of the two extracts was weak. Nine flavonoids were identified by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS. Of these, six compounds were analyzed quantitatively, including avicularin, quercetin, azaleatin, astragalin and kaempferol, and five compounds (myricetin 3-O-galactoside, paeoniflorin, astragalin, azaleatin and kaempferol) were found in this species for the first time. These compounds demonstrated antioxidant activities that were similar to those of the R. przewalskii extracts and were thought to be the active compounds in the extracts. Conclusion:R. przewalskii extracts presented promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The extracts contained amounts of valuable flavonoids (8.98 mg/g fresh material) that were likely the active compounds in the extract contributing to the potential antioxidant activity. These results highlight the potential of R. przewalskii as a source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents for the pharmaceutical industry.
Project description:Rhus species are known in traditional medicine for their therapeutic virtue and their extracts showed numerous important properties including antimalarial, antimicrobial, antiviral, and hypoglycemic and anticonvulsant activities. Rhus tripartitum (Ucria) is a medicinal plant widely used in Tunisia folk medicine against chronic diarrhea and gastric ulcer. This study was designed to examine in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of four extracts of Rhus tripartitum root cortex with increasing solvent polarity (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water). HPLC was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds in Rhus extract. Water extract showed the highest antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method) with 8.95 ± 0.47 µmol Trolox/mg and a cell based-assay with 0.28 ± 0.12 µmol Trolox/mg as compared to the other fractions. Moreover, methanol extract displayed the strongest anti-cancer activity against human lung carcinoma (A-549) and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (DLD-1) with an IC50 value of 60.69 ± 2.58 and 39.83 ± 4.56 µg/ml (resazurin test) and 44.52 ± 5.96 and 55.65 ± 6.00 µg/ml (hoechst test), respectively. Besides, the highest anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) release, was exhibited by dichloromethane extract with 31.5 % at 160 µg/ml in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The HPLC analysis showed that catechol and kaempferol were the major phenolics. These data suggest the richness of all fractions of Ucria root on interesting bioactive molecules with different polarity and confirm the known traditional therapeutics virtues of this species for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and gastric ulcer.
Project description:The dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. (Oleaceae) are better known by their herbal name Forsythiae Fructus, and have a bitter taste, slightly pungent smell, and cold habit. FF has been widely used to treat symptoms associated with the lung, heart, and small intestine. Recently, bioactive compounds isolated from hydrophobic solvent fractions of FF have been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. Traditionally, almost all herbal medicines are water extracts, and thus, extraction methods should be developed to optimize the practical efficacies of herbal medicines.In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of FF (FFE) were assessed by measuring NO and PGE2 production by and intracellular ROS and protein levels of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells.FFE inhibited COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.In summary, FFE effectively reduced intracellular ROS and NO levels and inhibited PGE2 production by down-regulating COX-2 levels. Abbreviations: FF, of Forsythiae Fructus; NO, nitric oxide; iNOS, inducible NO synthase; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; ROS, reactive oxygen species; PGE2, prostaglandin E2.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study was aimed at investigating the possible anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of extracts from the flowering stage of C. argentea. This growth stage was chosen because of its high polyphenolic content and high antioxidant capacity. METHODS:Anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous, acetone and methanol extracts of C. argentea was evaluated through the inhibition of nitric oxide production (LPS-induced) on stimulated macrophages (RAW 264.7), while MTT assay was used to assess cell viability with Silymarin as standard. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated on murine preadipocyte cell line (3?T3-L1) using the image-based method of two DNA-binding dyes; Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI) with melphalan as standard. RESULTS:Acetone extract exhibited moderate, dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity with no significant toxicity to activated macrophages, however the aqueous and methanol extracts were unable to inhibit nitric oxide production at both trials. MTT assay and the toxicity assay revealed that the flowering stage extracts of C. argentea were not toxic to the RAW 264.7 macrophages and 3?T3-L1 cells at all the tested concentrations (0, 2, 50, 100 and 200??g/mL). CONCLUSIONS:These findings corroborate the traditional use of C. argentea for painful inflammatory conditions and encourage its possible use as lead for the development of novel, non-toxic, anti-inflammatory agents.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated and compared the chemical composition, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects of four methanol extracts (R1-R4), of Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. in two different sites of Southern Italy obtained by maceration or ultrasound-assisted extraction. Extracts of S. rosmarinus collected on the Ionian coast are indicated with the abbreviations R1 (maceration) and R2 (ultrasound-assisted extraction). Extracts of S. rosmarinus collected on the Tyrrhenian coast are indicated with the abbreviations R3 (maceration) and R4 (ultrasound-assisted extraction). The chemical composition was analyzed using High Pressure liquid chromatography-Diod-Array detection-Electrospray ionization-Quadrupole-Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-MS). The antioxidant activity was analyzed by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-carotene bleaching, and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. Antioxidant features were also assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW-264.7 murine macrophages, evaluating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production; in the same experimental model, the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was investigated. Interestingly, all extracts displayed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They exhibited significative nitrite production inhibitory activity, whith IC50 values ranging from 3.46 to 5.53 µg/mL, without impairing cell viability. The anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated by Western Blotting and immunofluorescence assay, highlighting the R3 and R4 extracts ability to reduce NF-?B translocation, as well as to disrupt the MAPKs signaling pathway. Extracts exhibited both potential anti-proliferative activity on breast cancer cells, inducing apoptosis, without affecting non-tumorigenic cells, and the ability to inhibit MDA-MB-231 cells' motility. Finally, the rosemary extracts treatment significantly reduced the power of conditioned media, from MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cells to induce nitrite production on RAW 264.7 cells, confirming their promising anti-inflammatory activity.