Genetic Analysis and Fine Mapping of a Spontaneously Mutated Male Sterility Gene in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.
ABSTRACT: Male sterility has been widely used in hybrid seed production in Brassica, but not in B. rapa ssp. chinensis, and genetic models of male sterility for this subspecies are unclear. We discovered a spontaneous mutant in B. rapa ssp. chinensis A series of progeny tests indicated that male sterility in B. rapa ssp. chinensis follows a three-allele model with BrMsa , BrMsb , and BrMsc The male sterility locus has been mapped to chromosome A07 in BC1 and F2 populations through genotyping by sequencing. Fine mapping in a total of 1,590 F2 plants narrowed the male sterility gene BrMs to a 400 kb region, with two SNP markers only 0.3 cM from the gene. Comparative gene mapping shows that the Ms gene in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis is different from the BrMs gene of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, despite that both genes are located on chromosome A07. Interestingly, the DNA sequence orthologous to a male sterile gene in Brassica napus, BnRf, is within 400 kb of the BrMs locus. The BnRf orthologs of B. rapa ssp. chinensis were sequenced, and one KASP marker (BrMs_indel) was developed for genotyping based on a 14 bp indel at intron 4. Cosegregation of male sterility and BrMs_indel genotypes in the F2 population indicated that BnRf from B. napus and BrMs from B. rapa are likely to be orthologs. The BrMs_indel marker developed in this study will be useful in marker-assisted selection for the male sterility trait.
Project description:In oilseed crops, carpel and stamen development play vital roles in pollination and rapeseed yield, but the genetic mechanisms underlying carpel and stamen development remain unclear. Herein, a male- and female-sterile mutant was obtained in offspring of a (Brassica napus cv. Qingyou 14) × (Qingyou 14 × B. rapa landrace Dahuang) cross. Subsequently, F2-F9 populations were generated through selfing of the heterozygote plants among the progeny of each generation. The male- and female-sterility exhibited stable inheritance in successive generations and was controlled by a recessive gene. The mutant kept the same chromosome number (2n = 38) as B. napus parent but showed abnormal meiosis for male and female. One candidate gene for the sterility was identified by simple sequence repeat (SSR) and insertion deletion length polymorphism (InDel) markers in F7-F9 plants, and whole-genome resequencing with F8 pools and RNA sequencing with F9 pools. Whole-genome resequencing found three candidate intervals (35.40-35.68, 35.74-35.75, and 45.34-46.45 Mb) on chromosome C3 in B. napus and candidate region for Bnmfs was narrowed to approximately 1.11-Mb (45.34-46.45 M) by combining SSR and InDel marker analyses with whole-genome resequencing. From transcriptome profiling in 0-2 mm buds, all of the genes in the candidate interval were detected, and only two genes with significant differences (BnaC03g56670D and BnaC03g56870D) were revealed. BnaC03g56870D was a candidate gene that shared homology with the CYP86C4 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis showed that Bnmfs primarily functioned in flower buds. Thus, sequencing and expression analyses provided evidence that BnaC03g56870D was the candidate gene for male and female sterility in the B. napus mutant.
Project description:Male-sterile plants provide an important breeding tool for the heterosis of hybrid crops, such as Brassicaceae. In the last decade, circular RNAs (circRNAs), as a novel class of covalently closed and single-stranded endogenous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), have received much attention because of their functions as "microRNA (miRNA) sponges" and "competing endogenous RNAs" (ceRNAs). However, the information about circRNAs in the regulation of male-sterility and anther development is limited. In this study, we established the Polima cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) line "Bcpol97-05A", and the fertile line, "Bcajh97-01B", in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis, and performed RNA expression profiling comparisons between the flower buds of the sterile line and fertile line by whole-transcriptome sequencing. A total of 31 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs, 47 DE miRNAs, and 4779 DE mRNAs were identified. By using Cytoscape, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network and ceRNA network were constructed, and the circRNA A02:23507399|23531438 was hypothesized to be an important circRNA regulating anther development at the post-transcriptional level. The gene ontology (GO) analysis demonstrated that miRNAs and circRNAs could regulate the orderly secretion and deposition of cellulose, sporopollenin, pectin, and tryphine; the timely degradation of lipids; and the programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetum cells, which play key roles in anther development. Our study revealed a new circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network, which is involved in the anther development of B. campestris, which enriched the understanding of CMS in flowering plants, and laid a foundation for further study on the functions of circRNAs and miRNAs during anther development.
Project description:A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.
Project description:Anthocyanins have strong antioxidant activity and are believed to be healthy for human beings. The Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. purpurea "Zicaitai" is rich in anthocyanins. We constructed an F2 population of Zicaitai and "Caixin" (Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis) and it shows clear segregation of the purple phenotype (i.e., variation in anthocyanin enrichment). Here, quantitative trait locus (QTL)-Seq was performed with two sample groups from the F2 population: one exhibiting an intense purple phenotype and the other showed a completely green phenotype. The results showed that the QTL-Seq and linkage analysis located different major loci. This indicates that there are two major genetic factors that plays different roles in regulating anthocyanin enrichment in Zicaitai. This was further supported by the data simulation of an in silico F2 population that QTL-Seq and linkage analysis can locate different major loci. Furthermore, the draft genomes of the two parents (Zicaitai and Caixin) were assembled and utilized to search for mutations in candidate genes. A ~100-bp insertion was found in the third exon of gene BrMYBL2.1 in Zicaitai. BrMYBL2.1 is a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while BrEGL3.2-previously located by linkage mapping-is a positive regulator. For these populations with multiple genes contributing large effects to a trait, a strategy of low depth re-sequencing of F2 individuals followed by QTL-Seq analysis with the free combination of sample groups is proposed. Furthermore, draft-sequence assembly of parental genomes together with QTL mapping is suggested as an efficient means for fine-mapping genes rapidly in segregating populations.
Project description:The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the world. However, the global distribution and complex evolutionary history of the species has made investigating its genetic population structure difficult. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption, and fodder for livestock. These subspecies include the oilseed morphotypes. oleifera (turnip rape), ssp. dichotoma (brown sarson/toria), ssp. trilocularis (yellow sarson); ssp. rapa (turnip); and Asian leafy vegetables ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage), ssp. chinensis (bok choy), ssp. nipposinica (mizuna/mibuna), ssp. rapifera (rapini/broccoli rabe), ssp. narinosa (tatsoi), ssp parachinensis (choy sum), and ssp. perviridis (komatsuna). To date, studies have had insufficient sampling to determine the relationship of all morphotypes, especially oilseed morphotypes, and questions remain over the contribution of morphotype and geographic origin to population structure. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to score 18,272 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in a globally diverse panel of 333 B. rapa National Plant Germplasm System accessions that included 10 recognized subspecies. Our population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were broadly congruent and revealed five subpopulations that were largely reflective of morphotype and geography. These subpopulations were 1. European turnips/oilseed, 2. Asian turnips/oilseed, 3. yellow/brown sarson (ssp. trilocularis and ssp. dichotoma), 4. Chinese cabbage (ssp. pekinensis), and 5. bok choy, choy sum, and tatsoi (ssp. chinensis, ssp. parachinensis, ssp. narinosa). Additionally, we found evidence of polyphyly and/or paraphyly, particularly for oilseed morphotypes (ssp. oleifera and ssp. dichotoma) and turnips. The results of this study have provided improved resolution to the genetic and phylogenetic relationships of subspecies within the species B. rapa. Understanding of these relationships is key to the future genetic study and improvement of this globally important crop species.
Project description:A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B. napus, but flowering was available in the greenhouse without low temperature treatment to young plant, similar to the transgenic B. napus. It is because the BrAGL20 gene has been transferred from transgenic B. napus to F1 hybrid. The size of F1 hybrid seeds was intermediate between those of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and ~40% of F1 pollen exhibited abnormal size and morphology. The form of the F1 stomata was also intermediate between that of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and the number of stomata was close to the parental mean. Among various fatty acids, the content of erucic acid exhibited the greatest change, owing to the polymorphism of parental FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 alleles. Furthermore, F2 hybrids could not be obtained. However, BC1 progeny were obtained by hand pollination of B. rapa with F1 hybrid pollen, with an outcrossing rate of 50%.
Project description:Brassica campestris Male Fertility 2 (BcMF2) is a putative polygalacturonase (PG) gene previously isolated from the flower bud of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis). This gene was found to be expressed specifically in tapetum and pollen after the tetrad stage of anther development. Antisense RNA technology was used to study the function of BcMF2 in Chinese cabbage. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that there were deformities in the transgenic mature pollen grains such as abnormal location of germinal furrows. In addition, the homogeneous pectic exintine layer facing the exterior seemed to be overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, thus reversing the normal proportional distribution of the internal endintine layer and the external exintine layer. Since it is a continuation of the intine layer, the pollen tube wall could not grow normally. This resulted in the formation of a balloon-like swelling structure in the pollen tube tip in nearly 80% of the transgenic pollen grains. Premature degradation of tapetum was also found in these transgenic plants, which displayed decreased expression of the BcMF2 gene. BcMF2 might therefore encode a new PG with an important role in pollen wall development, possibly via regulation of pectin's dynamic metabolism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dense consensus genetic maps based on high-throughput genotyping platforms are valuable for making genetic gains in Brassica napus through quantitative trait locus identification, efficient predictive molecular breeding, and map-based gene cloning. This report describes the construction of the first B. napus consensus map consisting of a 1,359 anchored array based genotyping platform; Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT), and non-DArT markers from six populations originating from Australia, Canada, China and Europe. We aligned the B. napus DArT sequences with genomic scaffolds from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, and identified DArT loci that showed linkage with qualitative and quantitative loci associated with agronomic traits. RESULTS: The integrated consensus map covered a total of 1,987.2 cM and represented all 19 chromosomes of the A and C genomes, with an average map density of one marker per 1.46 cM, corresponding to approximately 0.88 Mbp of the haploid genome. Through in silico physical mapping 2,457 out of 3,072 (80%) DArT clones were assigned to the genomic scaffolds of B. rapa (A genome) and B. oleracea (C genome). These were used to orientate the genetic consensus map with the chromosomal sequences. The DArT markers showed linkage with previously identified non-DArT markers associated with qualitative and quantitative trait loci for plant architecture, phenological components, seed and oil quality attributes, boron efficiency, sucrose transport, male sterility, and race-specific resistance to blackleg disease. CONCLUSIONS: The DArT markers provide increased marker density across the B. napus genome. Most of the DArT markers represented on the current array were sequenced and aligned with the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, providing insight into the Brassica A and C genomes. This information can be utilised for comparative genomics and genomic evolution studies. In summary, this consensus map can be used to (i) integrate new generation markers such as SNP arrays and next generation sequencing data; (ii) anchor physical maps to facilitate assembly of B. napus genome sequences; and (iii) identify candidate genes underlying natural genetic variation for traits of interest.
Project description:The fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans causes blackleg disease on canola and rapeseed (Brassica napus) in many parts of the world. A B. napus cultivar, 'Quinta', has been widely used for the classification of L. maculans into pathogenicity groups. In this study, we confirmed the presence of Rlm1 in a DH line (DH24288) derived from B. napus cultivar 'Quinta'. Rlm1 was located on chromosome A07, between 13.07 to 22.11?Mb, using a BC<sub>1</sub> population made from crosses of F<sub>1</sub> plants of DH16516 (a susceptible line) x DH24288 with bulked segregant RNA Sequencing (BSR-Seq). Rlm1 was further fine mapped in a 100?kb region from 19.92 to 20.03?Mb in the BC<sub>1</sub> population consisting of 1247 plants and a F<sub>2</sub> population consisting of 3000 plants using SNP markers identified from BSR-Seq through Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP). A potential resistance gene, BnA07G27460D, was identified in this Rlm1 region. BnA07G27460D encodes a serine/threonine dual specificity protein kinase, catalytic domain and is homologous to STN7 in predicted genes of B. rapa and B. oleracea, and A. thaliana. Robust SNP markers associated with Rlm1 were developed, which can assist in introgression of Rlm1 and confirm the presence of Rlm1 gene in canola breeding programs.