The omentum, a niche for premetastatic ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT: The work by Etzerodt et al. in this issue of JEM (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191869) identifies a distinct omentum-resident macrophage population of embryonic origin and demonstrates that these cells provide a niche for ovarian cancer metastasis and cancer stemness. This research opens up for many questions and therapeutic prospects.
Project description:Ovarian cancer preferentially metastasizes to the omentum, a fatty tissue characterized by immune structures called milky spots, but the cellular dynamics that direct this tropism are unknown. Here, we identified that neutrophil influx into the omentum is a prerequisite premetastatic step in orthotopic ovarian cancer models. Ovarian tumor-derived inflammatory factors stimulated neutrophils to mobilize and extrude chromatin webs called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs were detected in the omentum of ovarian tumor-bearing mice before metastasis and of women with early-stage ovarian cancer. NETs, in turn, bound ovarian cancer cells and promoted metastasis. Omental metastasis was decreased in mice with neutrophil-specific deficiency of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), an enzyme that is essential for NET formation. Blockade of NET formation using a PAD4 pharmacologic inhibitor also decreased omental colonization. Our findings implicate NET formation in rendering the premetastatic omental niche conducive for implantation of ovarian cancer cells and raise the possibility that blockade of NET formation prevents omental metastasis.
Project description:The omentum is the most common site of ovarian cancer metastasis. Immune cell clusters called milky spots are found throughout the omentum. It is however unknown if these immune cells contribute to ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we report that omental macrophages promote the migration and colonization of ovarian cancer cells to the omentum through the secretion of chemokine ligands that interact with chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1). We found that depletion of macrophages reduces ovarian cancer colonization of the omentum. RNA-sequencing of macrophages isolated from mouse omentum and mesenteric adipose tissue revealed a specific enrichment of chemokine ligand CCL6 in omental macrophages. CCL6 and the human homolog CCL23 were both necessary and sufficient to promote ovarian cancer migration by activating ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways. Importantly, inhibition of CCR1 reduced ovarian cancer colonization. These findings demonstrate a critical mechanism of omental macrophage induced colonization by ovarian cancer cells via CCR1 signaling.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the mechanism of liver regeneration induced by fusing the omentum to a small traumatic injury created in the liver. We studied three groups of rats. In one group the rats were omentectomized; in another group the omentum was left in situ and was not activated, and in the third group the omentum was activated by polydextran particles. METHODS:We pre-activated the omentum by injecting polydextran particles and then made a small wedge wound in the rat liver to allow the omentum to fuse to the wound. We monitored the regeneration of the liver by determining the ratio of liver weight/body weight, by histological evaluation (including immune staining for cytokeratin-19, an oval cell marker), and by testing for developmental gene activation using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS:There was no liver regeneration in the omentectomized rats, nor was there significant regeneration when the omentum was not activated, even though in this instance the omentum had fused with the liver. In contrast, the liver in the rats with the activated omentum expanded to a size 50% greater than the original, and there was histologically an interlying tissue between the wounded liver and the activated omentum in which bile ducts, containing cytokeratin-19 positive oval cells, extended from the wound edge. In this interlying tissue, oval cells were abundant and appeared to proliferate to form new liver tissue. In rats pre-treated with drugs that inhibited hepatocyte growth, liver proliferation was ongoing, indicating that regeneration of the liver was the result of oval cell expansion. CONCLUSION:Activated omentum facilitates liver regeneration following injury by a mechanism that depends largely on oval cell proliferation.
Project description:Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play important roles in cancer progression. Here, we have characterized the ontogeny and function of TAM subsets in a mouse model of metastatic ovarian cancer that is representative for visceral peritoneal metastasis. We show that the omentum is a critical premetastatic niche for development of invasive disease in this model and define a unique subset of CD163+ Tim4+ resident omental macrophages responsible for metastatic spread of ovarian cancer cells. Transcriptomic analysis showed that resident CD163+ Tim4+ omental macrophages were phenotypically distinct and maintained their resident identity during tumor growth. Selective depletion of CD163+ Tim4+ macrophages in omentum using genetic and pharmacological tools prevented tumor progression and metastatic spread of disease. These studies describe a specific role for tissue-resident macrophages in the invasive progression of metastatic ovarian cancer. The molecular pathways of cross-talk between tissue-resident macrophages and disseminated cancer cells may represent new targets to prevent metastasis and disease recurrence.
Project description:A 41-year-old Chinese woman was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain. Computed tomography detected a heterogeneous enhancement tumor fed by the left gastroepiploic artery in the left lower quadrant and cholelithiasis. Excision of the tumor in the greater omentum and cholecystectomy were performed laparoscopically. Histological findings confirmed a diagnosis of hemangiopericytoma with low-grade malignancy. To our knowledge, hemangiopericytoma of the greater omentum is very rare, and only 12 cases were reported in English literature. We report a case of hemangiopericytoma arising in the greater omentum and review the literature.
Project description:The omentum is a sheet-like tissue attached to the greater curvature of the stomach and contains secondary lymphoid organs called milky spots. The omentum has been used for its healing potential for over 100 years by transposing the omental pedicle to injured organs (omental transposition), but the mechanism by which omentum helps the healing process of damaged tissues is not well understood. Omental transposition promotes expansion of pancreatic islets, hepatocytes, embryonic kidney, and neurons. Omental cells (OCs) can be activated by foreign bodies in vivo. Once activated, they become a rich source for growth factors and express pluripotent stem cell markers. Moreover, OCs become engrafted in injured tissues suggesting that they might function as stem cells.Omentum consists of a variety of phenotypically and functionally distinctive cells. To understand the mechanism of tissue repair support by the omentum in more detail, we analyzed the cell subsets derived from the omentum on immune and inflammatory responses. Our data demonstrate that the omentum contains at least two groups of cells that support tissue repair, immunomodulatory myeloid derived suppressor cells and omnipotent stem cells that are indistinguishable from mesenchymal stem cells. Based on these data, we propose that the omentum is a designated organ for tissue repair and healing in response to foreign invasion and tissue damage.
Project description:Stem cells show promise in the treatment of AKI but do not survive long term after injection. However, organ repair has been achieved by extending and attaching the omentum, a fatty tissue lying above the stomach containing stem cells, to various organs. To examine whether fusing the omentum to a subtotally nephrectomized kidney could slow the progression of CKD, we used two groups of rats: an experimental group undergoing 5/6 nephrectomy only and a control group undergoing 5/6 nephrectomy and complete omentectomy. Polydextran gel particles were administered intraperitoneally before suture only in the experimental group to facilitate the fusion of the omentum to the injured kidney. After 12 weeks, experimental rats exhibited omentum fused to the remnant kidney and had lower plasma creatinine and urea nitrogen levels; less glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury, and extracellular matrix; and reduced thickening of basement membranes compared with controls. A fusion zone formed between the injured kidney and the omentum contained abundant stem cells expressing stem cell antigen-1, Wilms' tumor 1 (WT-1), and CD34, suggesting active, healing tissue. Furthermore, kidney extracts from experimental rats showed increases in expression levels of growth factors involved in renal repair, the number of proliferating cells, especially at the injured edge, the number of WT-1-positive cells in the glomeruli, and WT-1 gene expression. These results suggest that contact between the omentum and injured kidney slows the progression of CKD in the remnant organ, and this effect appears to be mediated by the presence of omental stem cells and their secretory products.
Project description:The Omentum is a large flat adipose tissue layer nestling on the surface of the intra-peritoneal organs. Besides fat storage, omentum has key biological functions in immune-regulation and tissue regeneration. Omentum biological properties include neovascularization, haemostasis, tissue healing and regeneration and as an in vivo incubator for cells and tissue cultivation. Some of these properties have long been noted in surgical practice and used empirically in several procedures. In this review article, the author tries to highlight the omentum biological properties and their application in regenerative surgery procedures. Further, he has started a process of standardisation of basic biological principles to pave the way for future surgical practice.
Project description:The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays critical roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of ECM proteins to early metastatic onset in the peritoneal cavity remains unexplored. Here, we suggest a new route of metastasis through the interaction of integrin alpha 2 (ITGA2) with collagens enriched in the tumor coinciding with poor outcome in patients with ovarian cancer. Using multiple gene-edited cell lines and patient-derived samples, we demonstrate that ITGA2 triggers cancer cell adhesion to collagen, promotes cell migration, anoikis resistance, mesothelial clearance, and peritoneal metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, phosphoproteomics identify an ITGA2-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway leading to enhanced oncogenic properties. Consequently, specific inhibition of ITGA2-mediated cancer cell-collagen interaction or targeting focal adhesion signaling may present an opportunity for therapeutic intervention of metastatic spread in ovarian cancer.
Project description:In this issue of JEM, Chheda et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20171046) report that a conserved hotspot mutation associated with an aggressive form of brain cancer generates an immunogenic T cell epitope restricted by a common HLA subtype, thereby creating a "public" neoantigen.