Extravasation and fluid collection on computed tomography imaging in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those in whom it is unnecessary for spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. METHODS:This study involved 132 patients in whom diverticular bleeding was diagnosed on lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. We evaluated the rate of identification of the bleeding diverticulum during endoscopy and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. RESULTS:In 26 patients (20%), bleeding diverticulum was identified during endoscopy. Extravasation or fluid collection on CT imaging was an important factor of successful identification of the bleeding source on endoscopy. Of the 104 patients in the conservative treatment group, 91 (87%) were able to be discharged after spontaneous hemostasis. Univariate analysis revealed a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis in patients without extravasation and fluid collection on CT imaging, those without adhesion of blood during endoscopy, those without diabetes, and those with a hemoglobin level ?10 g/dL. CONCLUSION:In patients with colonic diverticular bleeding, extravasation or fluid collection on CT is an important factor related to the identification of the bleeding diverticulum. Patients without characteristic CT findings had a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis after conservative treatment. BACKGROUND:Diverticular bleeding is the most frequent cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding accounting for 20%-40% of all cases in Japan and 20%-48% of all those in the Western countries[1, 2]. The prevalence of colonic diverticula tends to increase with age; thus, the overall prevalence of diverticular bleeding is expected to increase in the future. In Japan, the Japanese Gastroenterological Association published guidelines on colonic diverticulitis in 2017; these guidelines recommend the performance of lower gastrointestinal endoscopic examination within 24 h in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding suspected to be diverticular bleeding. It has been reported that, for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, urgent endoscopy helps avoid embolotherapy, colectomy, massive blood transfusion, and repeat bleeding[1, 4, 5]. However, it is often difficult to identify the bleeding point ; further, there are many challenging cases wherein it is difficult to decide whether urgent endoscopy should be performed in situations where there is insufficient medical staff, such as during nighttime and on holidays. Bleeding is reported to stop spontaneously with conservative treatment alone in 70% of diverticular bleeding cases[7, 8]. In particular, when determining the treatment policy for diverticular bleeding and in the case of patients at high risk of complications following endoscopy, such as older patients, those with poor performance status or cardiovascular disease, and those in whom spontaneous hemostasis can be expected, urgent endoscopy should be avoided, and elective endoscopy should be selected. Therefore, the type of cases wherein urgent endoscopy is effective and the type wherein it is unnecessary need to be clarified. Thus far, there have been very few reports of the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom spontaneous hemostasis was achieved. We aimed to assess the characteristics of patients in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those for whom it is unnecessary. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the identification rate for the responsible diverticulum in patients with diverticular bleeding and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment.
Project description:Diverticular bleeding of the small bowel is rare and occurs primarily in adults aged more than 60 years. In younger adults, Meckel's diverticulum, a true diverticulum that congenitally occurs in the distal ileum, is the most common cause of diverticular bleeding of the small bowel. Unlike Meckel's diverticula, other kinds of small bowel diverticula are not congenital and their incidence is related to age. Furthermore, congenital true diverticular bleeding of the jejunum in adults is very rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old man with subepithelial tumor-like lesion accompanied with obscure overt gastrointestinal bleeding. This lesion was initially suspected to be a subepithelial tumor based on radiologic tests and capsule endoscopy. He was finally diagnosed with a congenital true diverticulum in the jejunum with the appearance of a Meckel's diverticulum after surgical resection.
Project description:In hemostasis for colonic diverticular bleeding, the incidence of recurrent bleeding is higher in deep colonic diverticulum than in shallow. We aimed to improve and evaluate barium impaction therapy using an enteroscopic overtube with balloon.We performed barium impaction therapy in three patients with a diagnosis of deep colonic diverticular bleeding. The tip of the overtube was inserted to reach the cecum using the conventional method. After deflating the colon, the enteroscope was removed. The balloon in the tube was inflated, followed by barium filling via the tube. Sufficient pressure was applied by ensuring no regurgitation into the small intestine side. The entire colon was continuously filled with barium in stages.Post-treatment bleeding was controllable without adverse events in all three patients.This novel barium impaction therapy using an enteroscopic overtube with balloon was effectively performed without adverse events.
Project description:Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. EDS type IV, or vascular EDS, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the type III pro-collagen gene (COL3A1). Common complications of EDS type IV include gastrointestinal bleeding and bowel perforations, posing diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas for both surgeons and gastroenterologists. Here, we describe a complicated case of EDS type IV in a 35-year-old caucasian female who presented with overt gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had a prior history of spontaneous colonic perforation, and an uncomplicated upper endoscopy was performed. A careful ileoscopy was terminated early due to tachycardia and severe abdominal pain, and a subsequent computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of ileal perforation. The patient was managed conservatively, and demonstrated daily improvement. At the time of hospital discharge, no further episodes of gastrointestinal blood loss had occurred. This case highlights the benefit of conservative management for EDS patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It is recommended that surgical treatment should be reserved for patients who fail conservative treatment or in cases of hemodynamic instability. Finally, this case demonstrates the necessity for a higher threshold of operative or endoscopic interventions in EDS type IV patients.
Project description:Tumor bleeding is not a rare complication in patients with inoperable gastric cancer. Endoscopy has important roles in the diagnosis and primary treatment of tumor bleeding, similar to its roles in other non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases. Although limited studies have been performed, endoscopic therapy has been highly successful in achieving initial hemostasis. One or a combination of endoscopic therapy modalities, such as injection therapy, mechanical therapy, or ablative therapy, can be used for hemostasis in patients with endoscopic stigmata of recent hemorrhage. However, rebleeding after successful hemostasis with endoscopic therapy frequently occurs. Endoscopic therapy may be a treatment option for successfully controlling this rebleeding. Transarterial embolization or palliative surgery should be considered when endoscopic therapy fails. For primary and secondary prevention of tumor bleeding, proton pump inhibitors can be prescribed, although their effectiveness to prevent bleeding remains to be investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A gastrointestinal endoscopy unit is frequently exposed to gastrointestinal gas expelled from patients and electrocoagulated tissue through carbonation for the treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms or hemostasis of gastrointestinal bleeding. This can be potentially harmful to the health of not only the healthcare personnel but also patients who undergo endoscopic examinations. However, there has been scarce data on air quality in the endoscopy unit. This study aimed to measure the air quality in the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. METHODS:This is a prospective study using conventional portable passive air quality monitoring sensors in the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. We will check the 6 main indoor air quality indices, as well as the atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity in the endoscopy unit of a single hospital in Korea. These indices are as follows: carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter that has a diameter of <2.5 μm, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone. The indices will be checked in the endoscopy unit, including the procedural area, recovery area, and area for disinfection and cleansing of equipment, at 1-minute intervals for at least 1 week, and the type and number of endoscopic procedures will also be recorded. The primary outcome of this study is to determine whether the air quality indices exceed safety thresholds and whether there is any association between ambient air pollution and the type and number of endoscopic procedures. CONCLUSION:The results of this study will provide evidence for health-related protective strategies for medical practitioners and patients in the endoscopy unit.
Project description:Patients with gastric variceal bleeding require a multidisciplinary team approach including hepatologists, endoscopists, diagnostic radiologists, and interventional radiologists. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the first-line diagnostic and management tool for bleeding gastric varices, as it is in all upper gastrointestinal bleeding scenarios. In the United States when endoscopy fails to control gastric variceal bleeding, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) traditionally is performed along the classic teachings of decompressing the portal circulation. However, TIPS has not shown the same effectiveness in controlling gastric variceal bleeding that it has with esophageal variceal bleeding. For the past 2 decades, the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) procedure has become common practice in Asia for the management of gastric varices. BRTO is gaining popularity in the United States. It has been shown to be effective in controlling gastric variceal bleeding with low rebleed rates. BRTO has many advantages over TIPS in that it is less invasive and can be performed on patients with poor hepatic reserve and those with encephalopathy (and may even improve both). However, its by-product is occlusion of a spontaneous hepatofugal (TIPS equivalent) shunt, and thus it is contradictory to the traditional American doctrine of portal decompression. Indeed, BRTO causes an increase in portal hypertension, with potential aggravation of esophageal varices and ascites. This article discusses the concept, technique, and outcomes of BRTO within the broader management of gastric varices.
Project description:Meckel diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital abnormality of gastrointestinal tract. Tough believed to occur in 2% of population, most of them remain veiled because majority are clinically asymptomatic and remain obscure in radiological examination.A 26-year-old male with episodic black colored stool since last 10 years. Tough symptomatic, diagnosis of pathological lesion, and the bleeding site could not be established with any of the sophisticated diagnostic technique. After 10 years, it was finally diagnosed as MD with careful observation of bowel loops on computed tomography enterography (CTE) where remnant of vitelline vessel and hyper-enhancing nodule are seen along the wall of diverticular loop.The patient underwent robot assisted laparoscopic surgery with excision of diverticular loop. To the best of our knowledge, this robot-assistant Meckel diverculectomy is probably the first reported surgical procedure in PubMed. Follow-up for 3 month showed no complication or recurrence.Every case is unique and we must be aware and remain alert in tracing the possible morphological variation of the case. Here, we present one unique but rare feature of MD, which helped us in making diagnosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Temsirolimus has important clinical activity in both untreated and previously treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Targeted therapy-related stomatitis and mucositis have occurred during targeted therapies, but there is no consensus on which strategy is the most effective. We herein report a case in which several sessions of endoscopic hemostasis with argon plasma coagulation (APC) effectively resolved life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that had occurred during targeted therapy. This is the first case report of such an adverse drug reaction in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old female patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma was treated with temsirolimus. Eight weeks after starting targeted therapy, the patient was admitted to our hospital for worsened fatigue, pallor, and hematemesis. A complete blood count showed a marked drop in her hemoglobin level from 10.1 g/dl 4 days earlier to 2.9 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed diffuse mucosal bleeding of the antrum. Endoscopy revealed diffuse reddish spots that resembled gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) extending from the pylorus into the antrum. One month after endoscopic hemostasis with APC and stopping temsirolimus, significant improvement was shown in the gastric erythema and GAVE like lesions. CONCLUSION: Minor hemorrhagic events are relatively common in patients treated with targeted agents. Life-threatening hemorrhagic events are rarer than minor hemorrhagic complications. In the present case, endoscopic hemostasis with APC effectively prevented severe anemia and blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a frequent cause of hospitalization. Its severity may be assessed before endoscopy using the Glasgow-Blatchford Bleeding Score (GBS), a score validated to identify patients requiring clinical intervention. The aim of this study was to assess whether the GBS was effective for shortening hospital stay and reducing costs in patients with an UGI bleeding predicted at low risk of requiring clinical intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Consecutive outpatients presenting with UGI bleeding at our hospital were prospectively included. In the observational study phase, UGI endoscopy was performed in all patients according to routine clinical practice. In the interventional study phase, patients with a GBS of 0 were discharged with an appointment for an outpatient UGI endoscopy. All patients had follow-up at 7 and 30 days. Need for clinical intervention was defined as performance of endoscopic hemostasis, blood transfusion or surgery. Results Two-hundred and eight patients were included, 104 in each study phase; complete follow-up was obtained in 201 patients. GBS varied from 0 to 18, with 15 (14?%) and 11 (11?%) patients having a GBS of 0 in the observational and interventional study phase, respectively. For patients with a GBS of 0, hospital stay was shorter (6 versus 19?h, P?< 0.01), and costs were lower (845 EUR versus 1272 EUR, P?=?0.002) in the interventional versus the observational study phase. For patients with a GBS?>?0, hospital stay duration did not significantly differ between study phases (189 versus 207?h, P?=?0.726). No adverse event was observed in the patients sent home with a GBS of 0 during the interventional study phase. Conclusions Implementing the GBS as a tool for triage of hospital outpatients who present with UGI bleeding allowed us to identify those who could safely be discharged for ambulatory management. Implementing this change in the hospital strategy significantly shortened hospital stay and decreased management costs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:COVID-19 patients have an increased susceptibility to develop thrombotic complications, thus thromboprophylaxis is warranted which may increase risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Our aim was to evaluate incidence of UGIB and use of upper GI endoscopy in COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS:The medical and endoscopic management of UGIB in non-ICU COVID-19 patients has been retrospectively evaluated. Glasgow Blatchford score was calculated at onset of signs of GI bleeding. Timing between onset of signs of GI bleeding and execution, if performed, of upper GI endoscopy was evaluated. Endoscopic characteristics and outcome of patients were evaluated overall or according to the execution or not of an upper GI endoscopy before and after 24h. RESULTS:Out of 4871 COVID-19 positive patients, 23 presented signs of UGIB and were included in the study (incidence 0.47%). The majority (78%) were on anticoagulant therapy or thromboprophylaxis. In 11 patients (48%) upper GI endoscopy was performed within 24h, whereas it was not performed in 5. Peptic ulcer was the most common finding (8/18). Mortality rate was 21.7% for worsening of COVID-19 infection. Mortality and rebleeding were not different between patients having upper GI endoscopy before or after 24h/not performed. Glasgow Blatchford score was similar between the two groups (13;12-16 vs 12;9-15). CONCLUSION:Upper GI bleeding complicated hospital stay in almost 0.5% of COVID-19 patients and peptic ulcer disease is the most common finding. Conservative management could be an option in patients that are at high risk of respiratory complications.