Anatomical Connectivity-Based Strategy for Targeting Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as Antidepressant Therapy.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:Abnormal activity of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is implicated in depression, suggesting the sACC as a potentially effective target for therapeutic modulation in cases resistant to conventional treatments (treatment-resistant depression, TRD). We hypothesized that areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) with direct fiber connections to the sACC may be particularly effective sites for treatment using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The aim of this study was to identify PFC sites most strongly connected to the sACC. Methods:Two neuroimaging data sets were used to construct anatomic and functional connectivity maps using sACC as the seed region. Data set 1 included magnetic resonance (MR) images from 20 healthy controls and Data set 2 included MR images from 15 TRD patients and 15 additional healthy controls. PFC voxels with maximum values in the mean anatomic connection probability maps were identified as optimal sites for TMS. Results:Both right and left PFC contained sites strongly connected to the sACC, but the coordinates (in Montreal Neurological Institute space) of peak anatomic connectivity differed slightly between hemispheres. The left PFC site connected directly to the sACC both anatomically and functionally, while the right PFC site was functionally connected to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions:Both left and right PFC are functionally connected to regions implicated in depression, the sACC and PCC, respectively. These bilateral PFC sites may be effective TMS targets to treat TRD.
Project description:Neuroimaging studies of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have reported abnormalities in the frontal and temporal regions. We sought to determine whether metabolism in these regions might be related to response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with TRD. Magnetic resonance images and baseline resting-state cerebral glucose uptake index (gluMI) obtained using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were analyzed in TRD patients who had participated in a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial of prefrontal 10 Hz TMS. Among the patients randomized to active TMS, 17 responders, defined as having 50% depression score decrease, and 14 nonresponders were investigated for prestimulation glucose metabolism and compared with 39 healthy subjects using a voxel-based analysis. In nonresponders relative to responders, gluMI was lower in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and higher in left amygdala and uncinate fasciculus. OFC and amygdala gluMI negatively correlated in nonresponders, positively correlated in responders, and did not correlate in healthy subjects. Relative to healthy subjects, both responders and nonresponders displayed lower gluMI in right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), right anterior cingulate (ACC), and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. Additionally, nonresponders had lower gluMI in left DLPFC, ACC, left and right insula, and higher gluMI in left amygdala and uncus. Hypometabolisms were partly explained by gray matter reductions, whereas hypermetabolisms were unrelated to structural changes. The findings suggest that different patterns of frontal-temporal-limbic abnormalities may distinguish responders and nonresponders to prefrontal magnetic stimulation. Both preserved OFC volume and amygdala metabolism might precondition response to TMS.
Project description:Aberrant connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the subgenual cingulate cortex (SGC) has been linked to the pathophysiology of depression. Indirect evidence also links hippocampal activation to the cognitive side effects of seizure treatments. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel treatment for patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). Here we combine transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to evaluate the effects of MST on connectivity and activation between the DLPFC, the SGC and hippocampus (Hipp) in patients with TRD. The TMS-EEG was collected from 31 TRD patients prior to and after an MST treatment trial. Through TMS-EEG methodology we evaluated significant current scattering (SCS) as an index of effective connectivity between the SGC and left DLPFC. Significant current density (SCD) was used to assess activity at the level of the Hipp. The SCS between the SGC and DLPFC was reduced after the course of MST (p?<?0.036). The DLPFC-SGC effective connectivity reduction correlated with the changes in Hamilton depression score pre-to-post treatment (R?=?0.46; p?<?0.031). The SCD localized to the Hipp was reduced after the course of MST (p?<?0.015), and the SCD change was correlated with montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) scores pre-post the course of MST (R?=?-0.59; p?<?0.026). Our findings suggest that MST treatment is associated with SGC-DLPFC connectivity reduction and that changes to cognition are associated with Hipp activation reduction. These findings demonstrate two distinct processes which drive efficacy and side effects separately, and might eventually aid in delineating physiological TRD targets in clinical settings.
Project description:Introduction:The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become increasingly prevalent in psychiatry. A growing body of literature supports its use with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and this indication has gained FDA approval. However, new psychiatry residents often have little exposure to or understanding of TMS. Methods:This animated, fully narrated, self-learning module (SLM) introduces learners to TMS and its use in TRD and can be completed within 30 minutes. The goal is for viewers to be proficient with the basic science, indications, contraindications, side effects, and treatment process for TMS in TRD. Self-assessment questions throughout the module highlight and reinforce key learning points falling under the educational objectives. Results:This SLM was deployed with PGY 1-4 training residents at the University of Minnesota during the 2016-2017 academic year as part of a study aimed at improving TMS education within our residency program. Fourteen residents participated in the study and offered feedback on the SLM's efficacy using 5-point Likert-scale surveys. Prior to the SLM's completion, the percentage of participants who disagreed or strongly disagreed with having met individual educational objectives ranged from 64% to 86%. Following completion, the percentage who agreed or strongly agreed with having met individual objectives ranged from 79% to 93%. Discussion:This SLM provides an introductory curriculum on TMS for TRD to medical students and psychiatry residents who otherwise might not be adequately exposed to this treatment modality. As institutions adopt TMS, the module can serve as a primer for trainees prior to hands-on experience with the technology.
Project description:Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with an H-1 coil was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in adults. Studies assessing the safety and effectiveness of deep TMS in adolescent TRD are lacking. The purpose of this brief report is to provide a case history of an adolescent enrolled in an investigational deep TMS protocol.A case history is described of the first participant of a sham-controlled clinical trial who had a seizure in the course of deep TMS with parameter settings extrapolated from the adult studies that led to US FDA approval (H-1 coil, 120% target stimulation intensity, 18 Hz, 55 trains of 2-second duration, total 1980 pulses).The participant was a 17-year-old unmedicated female, with no significant medical history and no history of seizures or of drug or alcohol use. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural abnormalities. She initially received sham, which was well tolerated. During active treatment sessions, titration began at 85% of motor threshold (MT) and increased by 5% per day. Her weekly MT measurements were stable. On her first day of 120% MT (8th active treatment), during the 48th train, the participant had a generalized, tonic-clonic seizure that lasted 90 seconds and resolved spontaneously. She had an emergency medicine evaluation and was discharged home without anticonvulsant medications. There were no further seizures reported at a 6-month follow-up.We report a deep TMS-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizure in an adolescent with TRD participating in a clinical trial. Given the demonstrated benefits of deep TMS for adult TRD, research investigating its use in adolescents with TRD is an important area. However, in light of this experience, additional precautions for adolescents should be considered. We propose that further dose-finding investigations are needed to refine adolescent-specific parameters that may be safe and effective for treating adolescents with TRD with deep TMS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Low-dose ketamine has been found to have robust and rapid antidepressant effects. A hypoactive prefrontal cortex (PFC) and a hyperactive amygdala have been suggested to be associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, it is unclear whether the rapid antidepressant mechanisms of ketamine on TRD involve changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PFC and the amygdala. METHODS:A group of 48 TRD patients were recruited and equally randomized into three groups (A: 0.5 kg/mg-ketamine; B: 0.2 kg/mg-ketamine; and C: normal saline [NS]). Standardized uptake values (SUV) of glucose metabolism measured by (18) F-FDG positron-emission-tomography before and immediately after a 40-min ketamine or NS infusion were used for subsequent region-of-interest (ROI) analyses (a priori regions: PFC and amygdala) and whole-brain voxel-wise analyses and were correlated with antidepressant responses, as defined by the Hamilton depression rating scale score. The (18) F-FDG signals were used as a proxy measure of glutamate neurotransmission. RESULTS:The ROI analysis indicated that Group A and Group B, but not Group C, had increases in the SUV of the PFC (group-by-time interaction: F?=?7.373, P?=?0.002), whereas decreases in the SUV of the amygdala were observed in all three groups (main effect of time, P?<?0.001). The voxel-wise analysis further confirmed a significant group effect on the PFC (corrected for family-wise errors, P?<?0.05; post hoc analysis: Group A<Group C, Group B<Group C). The SUV differences in the PFC predicted the antidepressant responses at 40 and 240 min post-treatment. The PFC changes did not differ between those with and without side effects. CONCLUSION:Ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects involved the facilitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PFC.
Project description:Therapeutic seizures may work for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) by producing neuroplasticity. We evaluated whether magnetic seizure therapy (MST) produces changes in suicidal ideation and neuroplasticity as indexed through transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-three patients with TRD were treated with MST. Changes in suicidal ideation was assessed through the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI). Before and after the treatment course, neuroplasticity in excitatory and inhibitory circuits was assessed with TMS-EEG measures of cortical-evoked activity (CEA) and long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) from the left DLPFC, and the left motor cortex as a control condition. As in our previous report, the relationship between TMS-EEG measures and suicidal ideation was examined with the SSI. Results show that 44.4% of patients experienced resolution of suicidal ideation. Based on DLPFC assessment, MST produced significant CEA increase over the frontal central electrodes (cluster p?<?0.05), but did not change LICI on a group level. MST also reduced the SSI scores (p?<?0.005) and the amount of reduction correlated with the decrease in LICI over the right frontal central electrodes (cluster p?<?0.05; rho?=?0.73 for Cz). LICI change identified patients who were resolved of suicidal ideation with 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity (AUC?=?0.9, p?=?0.004). There was no significant finding with motor cortex assessment. Overall, MST produced significant rates of resolution of suicidal ideation. MST also produced neuroplasticity in the frontal cortex, likely through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like mechanisms. The largest reduction in suicidal ideation was demonstrated in patients showing concomitant decreases in cortical inhibition-a mechanism linked to enhanced LTP-like plasticity. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms through which patients experience resolution of suicidal ideation following seizure treatments in depression.
Project description:Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an approved intervention for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but current targeting approaches are only partially successful. Our objectives were (1) to examine the feasibility of MRI-guided TMS in the clinical setting using a recently published surface-based, multimodal parcellation in patients with TRD who failed standard TMS (sdTMS); (2) to examine the neurobiological mechanisms and clinical outcomes underlying MRI-guided TMS compared to that of sdTMS. We used parcel-guided TMS (pgTMS) to target the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex parcel 46. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsfc) was assessed between parcel 46 and predefined nodes within the default mode and visual networks, following both pgTMS and sdTMS. All patients (n?=?10) who had previously failed sdTMS responded to pgTMS. Alterations in rsfc between frontal, default mode, and visual networks differed significantly over time between groups. Improvements in symptoms correlated with alterations in rsfc within each treatment group. The outcome of our study supports the feasibility of pgTMS within the clinical setting. Future prospective, double-blind studies of pgTMS vs. sdTMS appear warranted.
Project description:Humans are adept at switching between goal-directed behaviors quickly and effectively. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role by encoding, updating, and maintaining internal representations of task context in working memory. It has also been hypothesized that the encoding of context representations in PFC is regulated by phasic dopamine gating signals. Here we use multimodal methods to test these hypotheses. First we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify regions of PFC associated with the representation of context in a working memory task. Next we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), guided spatially by our fMRI findings and temporally by previous event-related EEG recordings, to disrupt context encoding while participants performed the same working memory task. We found that TMS pulses to the right dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) immediately after context presentation, and well in advance of the response, adversely impacted context-dependent relative to context-independent responses. This finding causally implicates right DLPFC function in context encoding. Finally, using the same paradigm, we conducted high-resolution fMRI measurements in brainstem dopaminergic nuclei (ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra) and found phasic responses after presentation of context stimuli relative to other stimuli, consistent with the timing of a gating signal that regulates the encoding of representations in PFC. Furthermore, these responses were positively correlated with behavior, as well as with responses in the same region of right DLPFC targeted in the TMS experiment, lending support to the hypothesis that dopamine phasic signals regulate encoding, and thereby the updating, of context representations in PFC.
Project description:Despite novel antidepressant development, 10-30% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have antidepressant treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Although new therapies are needed, lack of knowledge regarding the neural mechanisms underlying TRD hinders development of new therapeutic options. We aimed to identify brain regions in which spontaneous neural activity is not only altered in TRD but also associated with early treatment resistance in MDD. Sixteen patients with TRD, 16 patients with early-phase non-TRD and 26 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. To identify brain region differences in spontaneous neural activity between patients with and without TRD, we assessed fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). We also calculated correlations between the percent change in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) scores and fALFF values in brain regions with differing activity for patients with and without TRD. Patients with TRD had increased right-thalamic fALFF values compared with patients without TRD. The percent change in HRSD17 scores negatively correlated with fALFF values in patients with non-TRD. In addition, patients with TRD showed increased fALFF values in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and vermis, compared with patients with non-TRD and HC subjects. Our results show that spontaneous activity in the right thalamus correlates with antidepressant treatment response. We also demonstrate that spontaneous activity in the right IFG, IPL and vermis may be specifically implicated in the neural pathophysiology of TRD.
Project description:Prefrontal left-right functional imbalance and disrupted prefronto-thalamic circuitry are plausible mechanisms for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Add-on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), effective in treating antidepressant-refractory TRD, was administered to verify the core mechanisms underlying the refractoriness to antidepressants. Thirty TRD patients received a 2-week course of 10-Hz rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Depression scores were evaluated at baseline (W0), and the ends of weeks 1, 2, and 14 (W14). Responders were defined as those who showed an objective improvement in depression scores ?50% after rTMS. Left-right frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) was measured by magnetoencephalography at each time point as a proxy for left-right functional imbalance. Prefronto-thalamic connections at W0 and W14 were assessed by studying couplings between prefrontal alpha waves and thalamic glucose metabolism (PWTMC, reflecting intact thalamo-prefrontal connectivity). A group of healthy control subjects received magnetoencephalography at W0 (N?=?50) to study whether FAA could have a diagnostic value for TRD, or received both magnetoencephalography and positron-emission-tomography at W0 (N?=?10) to confirm the existence of PWTMC in the depression-free state. We found that FAA changes cannot differentiate between TRD and healthy subjects or between responders and non-responders. No PWTMC were found in the TRD group at W0, whereas restitution of the PWTMC was demonstrated only in the sustained responders at W14 and euthymic healthy controls. In conclusion, we affirmed impaired prefronto-thalamic functional connections, but not frontal functional imbalance, as a core deficit in TRD.