Iron, Zinc and Phytic Acid Retention of Biofortified, Low Phytic Acid, and Conventional Bean Varieties When Preparing Common Household Recipes.
ABSTRACT: Biofortification is an effective method to improve the nutritional content of crops and nutritional intake. Breeding for higher micronutrient mineral content in beans is correlated with an increase in phytic acid, a main inhibitor of mineral absorption in humans. Low phytic acid (lpa) beans have a 90% lower phytic acid content compared to conventional beans. This is the first study to investigate mineral and total phytic acid retention after preparing common household recipes from conventional, biofortified and lpa beans. Mineral retention was determined for two conventional, three biofortified and two lpa bean genotypes. Treatments included soaking, boiling (boiled beans) and refrying (bean paste). The average true retention of iron after boiling was 77.2-91.3%; for zinc 41.2-84.0%; and for phytic acid 49.9-85.9%. Soaking led to a significant decrease in zinc and total phytic acid after boiling and refrying, whereas for iron no significant differences were found. lpa beans did not exhibit a consistent pattern of difference in iron and phytic acid retention compared to the other groups of beans. However, lpa beans had a significantly lower retention of zinc compared to conventional and biofortified varieties (p < 0.05). More research is needed to understand the underlying factors responsible for the differences in retention between the groups of beans, especially the low retention of zinc. Combining the lpa and biofortification traits could further improve the nutritional benefits of biofortified beans, by decreasing the phytic acid:iron and zinc ratio in beans.
Project description:High kernel-zinc maize varieties are available to consumers in several countries in Latin America to contribute to increase the zinc intake of their populations. Minerals, phytic acid and amino acids retention were measured after processing six maize varieties including three high kernel-zinc, one quality protein maize and two conventional maize. Grain for each variety was processed into <i>tortillas</i>, <i>arepas</i> and <i>mazamorra</i>, common maize dishes in the region. To evaluate the effect of processing kernel-zinc maize varieties on zinc retention, varieties were grouped in zinc biofortified maize (ZBM) and non-ZBM. Iron, zinc, phytic acid, tryptophan and lysine concentrations in non-processed maize were 17.1-19.1 μg/g DW, 23.9-33.0 μg/g DW, 9.9-10.0 mg/g DW, 0.06-0.08% and 0.27-0.37%, respectively. In <i>tortillas</i>, the iron, zinc, phytic acid and lysine content did not change (p < 0.05) compared to raw grain, while tryptophan decreased by 32%. True retention of iron in <i>arepas</i> and <i>mazamorra</i> was 43.9 and 60.0%, for zinc 36.8 and 41.3%, and for phytic acid 19.3 and 25.1%. <i>Tortillas</i> had higher zinc retention than <i>arepas</i> and <i>mazamorra</i> due to use of whole grain in the nixtamalization process. Therefore, to contribute to higher zinc intake, nixtamalized tortilla prepared with biofortified zinc maize is recommended. Additionally, promotion of whole grain flour to prepare arepas should be explored to enhance the intake of minerals that are usually confined to aleurone layers and germ.
Project description:Biofortified rice with high Zn concentration could reduce Zn deficiency in South Asia. This population frequently parboils rice. True retention (TR) of Zn, Fe and phytic acid after parboiling and milling was evaluated in biofortified and non-biofortified rice. TR in milled non-parboiled rice was 63.8-89.6% for Zn, 21.1-44.5% for Fe and 16.4-40.3% for phytic acid, whereas in milled parboiled rice TR was 49.8-72.2% for Zn, 23.4-36.7% for Fe and 22.0-33.3% for phytic acid. Milled parboiled rice resulted in lower Zn TR compared to milled non-parboiled. These results suggest that Zn moves from the inner endosperm towards the outer layers during parboiling, regardless of initial Zn concentration, consequently, once milled, the potential impact of Zn intake on Zn deficiency from parboiled rice is less than non-parboiled rice. Despite Zn losses during processing, biofortified rice could provide over 50% of the Zn EAR for children.
Project description:Phytic acid has two main roles in plant tissues: Storage of phosphorus and regulation of different cellular processes. From a nutritional point of view, it is considered an antinutritional compound because, being a cation chelator, its presence reduces mineral bioavailability from the diet. In recent decades, the development of low phytic acid (lpa) mutants has been an important goal for nutritional seed quality improvement, mainly in cereals and legumes. Different lpa mutations affect phytic acid biosynthetic genes. However, other lpa mutations isolated so far, affect genes coding for three classes of transporters: A specific group of ABCC type vacuolar transporters, putative sulfate transporters, and phosphate transporters. In the present review, we summarize advances in the characterization of these transporters in cereals and legumes. Particularly, we describe genes, proteins, and mutants for these different transporters, and we report data of in silico analysis aimed at identifying the putative orthologs in some other cereal and legume species. Finally, we comment on the advantage of using such types of mutants for crop biofortification and on their possible utility to unravel links between phosphorus and sulfur metabolism (phosphate and sulfate homeostasis crosstalk).
Project description:Phytic acid is a ubiquitous compound that chelates the micronutrients in food and hinder their absorption. Hence, breeding for low phytate content for producing stable low phytic acid (<i>lpa</i>) hybrids is essential. Phytic acid content in maize grains has been found to vary across environments and its stable expression has yet to be explored. In a view of this, forty inbreds were screened with two checks viz., CO-6 and CO-H(M)-8 across three locations. Twenty morphological and three quality traits were observed to identify the stable lines for low phytic acid with higher free inorganic phosphorous and starch. Among all the lines, UMI-467, LPA-2-285, LPA-2-395 and UMI-447 recorded a stable performance in both AMMI and GGE biplot analysis for low phytic acid (2.52-3.32 mg/g). These lines also had a higher free inorganic phosphorous, ensuring its bioavailability (1.78-1.88 mg/g). There were perturbations in yield, starch and seed characteristics of the stable low phytic acid lines due to their lower phytic acid concentrations. This stated the role of phytic acid in plant physiology and established the constraints to be faced in breeding for low phytic acid in maize. Among the <i>lpa</i> lines, LPA-2-285 (57.83%) and UMI-447 (55.78%) had the highest average starch content. The lowest stable phytic acid content was observed in UMI-467 (2.52 mg/g) and this line had severe reductions in yield parameters. Considering the seed and yield characteristics, LPA-2-285, LPA-2-395 and UMI-447 performed better than UMI-467. Although these four stable lines were poor in their adaptability among all the genotypes, they could be utilised as promising stable donors to facilitate the development of stable <i>lpa</i> hybrids.
Project description:Most of the phosphorus in seeds is accumulated in the form of phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate, InsP?). This molecule is a strong chelator of cations important for nutrition, such as iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium. For this reason, InsP? is considered an antinutritional factor. In recent years, efforts to biofortify seeds through the generation of low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been noteworthy. Moreover, genes involved in the biosynthesis and accumulation of this molecule have been isolated and characterized in different species. Beyond its role in phosphorus storage, phytic acid is a very important signaling molecule involved in different regulatory processes during plant development and responses to different stimuli. Consequently, many lpa mutants show different negative pleitotropic effects. The strength of these pleiotropic effects depends on the specific mutated gene, possible functional redundancy, the nature of the mutation, and the spatio-temporal expression of the gene. Breeding programs or transgenic approaches aimed at development of new lpa mutants must take into consideration these different aspects in order to maximize the utility of these mutants.
Project description:Trace minerals are extremely important for balanced nutrition, growth, and development in animals and humans. Phytic acid chelation promotes the use of probiotics in nutrition. The phytic acid-degrading strain <i>Lactococcus lactis</i> psm16 was obtained from swine milk by enrichment culture and direct plate methods. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the strain psm16 on mineral element content in a mouse model. Mice were divided into four groups: basal diet, 1% phytic acid, 1% phytic acid + psm16, 1% phytic acid + 500 U/kg commercial phytase. Concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acids were significantly increased in the strain psm16 group compared to the phytic acid group. The concentrations of copper (<i>p</i> = 0.021) and zinc (<i>p</i> = 0.017) in liver, calcium (<i>p</i> = 0.000), manganese (<i>p</i> = 0.000), and zinc (<i>p</i> = 0.000) in plasma and manganese (<i>p</i> = 0.010) and zinc (<i>p</i> = 0.022) in kidney were significantly increased in psm16 group, while copper (<i>p</i> = 0.007) and magnesium (<i>p</i> = 0.001) were significantly reduced. In conclusion, the addition of phytic acid-degrading bacteria psm16 into a diet including phytic acid can affect the content of trace elements in the liver, kidney, and plasma of mice, counteracting the harmful effects of phytic acid.
Project description:Whole grains consumption promotes health benefits, but demonstrates controversial impacts from phytic acid in meeting requirements of good health. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of rice cultivars named "Adan" or "Bario" and deduce the nutritional impact of phytic acid. Majority of the dehusked rice in the collection showed an acceptable level of in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility, but were poor in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility of minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn). The drawbacks identified in the rice cultivars were due to relatively high phytic acid content (2420.6?±?94.6 mg/100 g) and low phenolic content (152.39?±?18.84 ?g GAE/g). The relationship between phytic acid content and mineral bioaccessibility was strongest in calcium (r?=?0.60), followed by iron (r?=?0.40) and zinc (r?=?0.27). Phytic acid content did not significantly correlate with in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility but showed a weak relationship with antioxidant properties. These suggest that phytic acid could significantly impair the mineral bioaccessibility of dehusked rice, and also act as an important antioxidant in non-pigmented rice. Bario rice cultivars offered dehusked rice with wide range of in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein, and also pigmented rice as a good source of antioxidants. However, there is a need to reduce phytic acid content in dehusked rice for improved mineral bioaccessibility among Bario rice cultivars.
Project description:Breeding rice varieties with a low phytic acid (LPA) content is an effective strategy to overcome micronutrient deficiency in a population which consume rice as a staple food. An LPA mutant, Pusa LPA Mutant 11 (PLM11), was identified from an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced population of Nagina 22. The present study was carried out to map the loci governing the LPA trait in PLM11 using an F<sub>2:3</sub> population derived from a cross between a high phytic acid rice variety, Pusa Basmati 6, with PLM11. The genotyping of the F<sub>2</sub> population with 78 polymorphic SSR markers followed by the estimation of phytic acid content in the seeds harvested from 176 F<sub>2</sub> plants helped in mapping a major QTL, <i>qLPA8.1</i>, explaining a 22.2% phenotypic variation on Chromosome 8. The QTL was delimited to a 1.96 cM region flanked by the markers RM25 and RM22832. Since there are no previous reports of a QTL/gene governing the LPA content in rice in this region, the QTL <i>qLPA8.1</i> is a novel QTL. <i>In silico</i> analysis based on the annotated physical map of rice suggested the possible involvement of a locus, <i>Os08g0274775</i>, encoding for a protein similar to a phosphatidylinositol 3- and 4-kinase family member. This needs further validation and fine mapping. Since this QTL is currently specific to PLM11, the linked markers can be utilized for the development of rice varieties with reduced phytic acid (PA) content using PLM11 as the donor, thus enhancing the bioavailability of mineral micronutrients in humans.
Project description:Effect of the low phytic acid mutation on gene expression of developing seeds of M955, a low phytic acid barley genotype with >90% reduction in phytic acid in mature seeds. Expression analysis using the Barley1 GeneChip was performed on total RNA from developing seeds (7DAA) of M955 lpa and wt sib-selections. Sib-selections were from BC2 populations of M955 with Harrington as the recurrent parent. Material was grown in field trials in two years 2003 and 2004. In 2003 expression analysis was done from 2 lpa and 3 wt sib-selections, and in 2004 analysis was done from 2 lpa and 2 wt sib-selections. ****[PLEXdb(http://www.plexdb.org) has submitted this series at GEO on behalf of the original contributor, David Bowen. The equivalent experiment is BB22 at PLEXdb.] genotype: M955 LPA sib-selection - year: 2003(2-replications); genotype: M955 LPA sib-selection - year: 2004(2-replications); genotype: M955 WT sib-selection - year: 2003(3-replications); genotype: M955 WT sib-selection - year: 2004(2-replications)
Project description:A dominant loss of function mutation in myo-inositol phosphate synthase gene and recessive loss of function mutations in two multidrug resistant protein type-ABC transporter genes not only reduce the seed phytic acid levels in soybean, but also affect the pathways associated with seed development, ultimately resulting in low emergence. To understand the regulatory mechanisms and identify key genes that intervene in the seed development process in low phytic acid crops, we performed computational inference of gene regulatory networks in low and normal phytic acid soybeans using a time course transcriptomic data and multiple network inference algorithms. We identified several transcription factors and their regulatory interactions with genes that have functions in myo-inositol biosynthesis, auxin-ABA signaling and seed dormancy. We validated the predicted regulatory network by comparing it with published regulatory interactions in Arabidopsis. Some regulatory interactions were found in the low phytic acid mutants but not in non-mutant plants. These findings provide important hypotheses on expression regulation of myo-inositol metabolism, and phytohormone signaling in developing low phytic acid soybeans. The computational pipeline used for unsupervised network learning in this study is provided as open source software and is freely available at https://lilabatvt.github.io/LPANetwork/. Overall design: Four soybean experimental lines designated as: (i) 3mlpa, (ii) 3MWT, (iii) 1mlpa, and (iv) 1MWT were used in this study. The lpa mutant line, ‘3mlpa’, carrying three mutations mips1/mrp-l/mrp-n, and its non-mutant sibling line with normal phytic acid, ‘3MWT’, were derived from crossing of ‘CX-1834’ (lpa line with two mpr-l/mrp-n mutations on soybean chromosomes 19 and 3, respectively) with ‘V99-5089’ (lpa line with single mips1 mutation) (Saghai Maroof et al., 2009). Another lpa line, ‘1mlpa’, carrying a single mips1 mutation on soybean chromosome 11, and its isogenic sibling line with normal phytic acid, ‘1MWT’, were derived from crossing of ‘Essex’ (a normal phytic acid line with no mutations) with V99-5089 (Saghai Maroof and Buss, 2008; Glover, 2011). Developing seeds were sampled in triplicates for each experimental soybean line based on seed lengths corresponding to 2-4 mm (stage1), 4-6 mm (stage2), 6-8 mm (stage3), 8-10 mm (stage4), and 10-12 mm (stage5), respectively. Samples were flash frozen using liquid nitrogen and stored at -70°C. High-quality total RNA (RIN 9-10) was extracted from frozen samples using RNeasy Plant Mini Kit, with on-column DNase digestion (QIAGEN). Total of 60 mRNA libraries were prepared from total RNA samples and sequenced as 100SE using HiSeq2000. This study includes the re-analysis of all samples in GSE75575