Age effect on in vitro fertilization pregnancy mediated by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and modified by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) are widely used to assess the ovarian reserve in women for in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, studies also showed that both AMH and FSH are significantly associated with age: as age increases, AMH decreases and FSH increases. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of age effect on IVF live birth rate, particularly through mediation and interaction by AMH and FSH. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 13970 IVF cycles collected by eIVF from 2010 to 2016. A series of logistic mixed models were used to estimate the association of live birth and AMH (or FSH). The mediation effects and proportion mediated, were quantified by our previously proposed mediation analyses. We further investigated the FSH-modified mediation effects on live birth rate through AMH, accounting for the nonlinear age effect. RESULTS:Our analyses showed that age effect on live birth was mediated more by AMH than by FSH (18 vs. 6%). The mediation effect through AMH can be further modified by FSH level regardless of women's age. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, mediation model provides a new perspective elucidating the mechanism of IVF successful rate by age. The majority of the age effect on live birth rate remained unexplained by AMH and FSH, suggesting its importance and independent role in IVF.
Project description:This study sought to clarify the roles of Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in predicting live birth, especially in patients with discordant AMH and FSH. A large IVF data set provided by eIVF®, consisting of 13,964 cycles with AMH, FSH, age, BMI, and birth outcomes were evaluated. Patients were categorized into four groups: Good prognosis group (AMH ?1 ng/ml; FSH?<?10 mIU/ml), Poor prognosis group (AMH <?1 ng/ml; FSH ?10 mIU/ml), Reassuring AMH group (AMH ?1 ng/ml; FSH ?10 mIU/ml), and Reassuring FSH group (AMH <?1 ng/ml; FSH?<?10 mIU/ml). The interaction between AMH, FSH, and their impact on live birth rate among these four groups was evaluated using Generalized Additive Mixed Modeling (GAMM).Analysis revealed a nonlinear relationship of AMH and FSH with live birth rate among all ages. Among the four groups, the good prognosis group had the highest live birth rate while the poor prognosis group had the lowest live birth rate (29.3% vs 13.1%, p?<?0.005). In the discordant groups, the live birth rate of the reassuring AMH group was significantly higher than the reassuring FSH group (22.8% vs 15.6%, p?<?0.005).Although both FSH and AMH are widely use to assess the ovarian reserve in women undergoing evaluation for infertility, AMH appears to be superior to FSH among all age groups. This is particularly important for patients with discordant AMH and FSH where reassuring AMH is a better clinical predictor of cycle success.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study determined for the first time the role of baseline antral follicle count (AFC) and serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in the first in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle in predicting cumulative live birth from one stimulation cycle. METHODS: We studied 1,156 women (median age 35 years) undergoing the first IVF cycle. Baseline AFC and AMH level on the day before ovarian stimulation were analysed. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers after the same stimulation cycle. RESULTS: Serum AMH was significantly correlated with AFC. Both AMH and AFC showed significant correlation with age and ovarian response in the stimulated cycle and total number of transferrable embryos. Baseline AFC and serum AMH were significantly higher in subjects attaining a live birth than those who did not in the fresh stimulated cycle, as well as those attaining cumulative live birth. There was a significant trend of higher cumulative live birth rate in women with higher AMH or AFC. However, logistic regression revealed that both AMH and AFC were not significant predictors of cumulative live birth after adjusting for age and number of embryos available for transfer. Considering only one single predictor, the areas under the ROC curves for AMH (0.646, 95% CI 0.616-0.675) and age (0.648, 95% CI 0.618-0.677) were slightly higher than that for AFC (0.617, 95% CI 0.587-0.647) in predicting cumulative live birth. However, a model combining AMH (with or without AFC) and age of the women only classified an addition of less than 2% of subjects correctly compared to the model with age alone. CONCLUSION: Baseline AFC and serum AMH have only modest predictive performance on the occurrence of cumulative live birth, and may not give additional value on top of the women's age.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The conditions of diminished ovarian reserve and primary ovarian insufficiency, characterized by poor fertility outcomes, currently comprise a major challenge in reproductive medicine, particularly in vitro fertilization. Currently in the IVF industry, blastocyst developmental success rate per treatment is routinely overlooked when a live birth results from treatment. Limited data are available on this significant and actionable variable of blastocyst development optimization, which contributes to improvement of treatment success Women with elevated basal FSH concentration are reported to still achieve reasonable pregnancy rates, although only a few studies report correlations with blastocysts development. Diagnostic values of AMH/basal FSH concentrations can be useful for determining the optimal stimulation protocol as well as identification of individuals who will not benefit from IVF due to poor prognosis. The objective of this study is to identify actionable clinical and culture characteristics of IVF treatment that influence blastocyst developmental rate, with the goal of acquiring optimal success. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A retrospective observational study was performed, based on 106 women undergoing IVF, regardless of prognosis, over a six-month period from January 1, 2015 to June 31, 2015. Rate of high-quality blastocyst production, which can be used for embryo transfer or vitrification, per normally fertilized oocyte, was evaluated. Treatment was determined successful when outcome was ? 40% high-quality blastocysts. The data were initially evaluated with the Evtree algorithm, a statistical computational analysis which is inspired by natural Darwinian evolution incorporating concepts such as mutation and natural selection (see Supplementary Material). The analysis processes all variables simultaneously against the outcome, aiming to maximize discrimination of each variable to then create a "branch" of the tree which can be used as a decision in treatment. The final model results in only those variables which are significant to outcomes. Generalized linear model (GLM) employing logistic regression and survival analysis with R software was used and the final fitting of the model was determined through the use of random forest and evolutionary tree algorithms. Individuals presenting with an [AMH] of >3.15 ng/ml and a good prognosis had a lower success per treatment (n = 11, 0% success) when total gonadotropin doses were greater than 3325 IU. Individuals that presented with an [AMH] of <1.78 ng/ml and a poor prognosis exhibited a greater success per treatment (n = 11, 80% success). AMH emerged as a superior indicator of blastocyst development compared to basal FSH. The accuracy of the prediction model, our statistical analysis using decision tree, evtree methodology is 86.5% in correctly predicting outcome based on the significant variables. The likelihood that the outcome with be incorrect of the model, or the error rate is 13.5%. CONCLUSIONS:[AMH] is a superior indicator of ovarian stimulation response and an actionable variable for stimulation dose management for optimizing blastocyst development in culture. Women whose [AMH] is ?3.2 mg/ml, having a good prognosis, and developing >12 mature follicles result in <40% blastocysts when gonadotropin doses exceed 3325 IU per treatment. IVF treatments for poor responders that present with infertility due to diminished ovarian reserve, if managed appropriately, can produce more usable blastocyst per IVF treatment, thus increasing rate of blastocyst developmental success and ultimately increasing live birth rates. Future studies are needed to investigate the intra-follicular and the intra-cellular mechanisms that lead to the inverse relationship of blastocysts development and total gonadotropin doses in good responders in contrast to poor responders.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment who had discordant baseline serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level and antral follicle count (AFC). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study on 1,046 women undergoing the first IVF cycle in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects receiving standard IVF treatment with the GnRH agonist long protocol were classified according to their quartiles of baseline AMH and AFC measurements after GnRH agonist down-regulation and before commencing ovarian stimulation. The number of retrieved oocytes, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and cumulative live-birth rate for each classification category were compared. RESULTS: Among our studied subjects, 32.2% were discordant in their AMH and AFC quartiles. Among them, those having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate. Subjects discordant in AMH and AFC had intermediate OSI which differed significantly compared to those concordant in AMH and AFC on either end. OSI of those discordant in AMH and AFC did not differ significantly whether either AMH or AFC quartile was higher than the other. CONCLUSIONS: When AMH and AFC are discordant, the ovarian responsiveness is intermediate between that when both are concordant on either end. Women having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate.
Project description:The predictive value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in Chinese women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is data deficient. To determine the attributes of AMH in IVF, oocyte yield, cycle cancellation, and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. All patients initiating their first IVF cycle with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in our center from October 2013 through December 2014 were included, except patients diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Serum samples collected prior to IVF treatment were used to determine serum AMH levels. A total of 4017 continuous cycles were analyzed. The AMH level was positively correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved. Overall, AMH was significantly correlated with risk of cycle cancellation, poor ovarian response (POR, 3, or fewer oocytes retrieved) and high response (>15 oocytes), with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83, 0.89, and 0.82 respectively. An AMH cutoff of 0.6 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 54.0% and a specificity of 90.0% for the prediction of cycle cancellation, and cutoff of 0.8 ng/mL with a sensitivity of 55.0% and a specificity of 94.0% for the prediction of POR. Compared with AMH >2.0 ng/mL, patients with AMH?<?0.6 ng/mL had a 53.6-fold increased risk of cancellation (P?<?0.001), and AMH <0.80 ng/mL were 17.5 times more likely to experience POR (P?<?0.001). However, AMH was less predictive of pregnancy and live birth, with AUCs of 0.55 and 0.53, respectively. Clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and live birth rate per retrieval according to the AMH level (?0.40, 0.41-0.60, 0.61-0.80, 0.81-1.00, 1.01-1.50, 1.51-2.00, and >2.00 ng/mL) showed no significant differences. Even with AMH?0.4 ng/mL, 50.0% of all the patients achieved pregnancy and 34.8% of patients achieved live birth after transfer. Our results suggested that AMH is a fairly robust metric for the prediction of cycle cancellation and oocyte yield for Chinese women, but it is a relatively poor test for prediction of pregnancy outcomes. Patients with low levels of AMH still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and low AMH levels in isolation do not represent an appropriate marker for withholding fertility treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To determine the effects of age and the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, especially among young women with low serum AMH levels and older women with high AMH levels. METHODS:This study was a cohort study in which a total of 9431 women aged 20-51 years who were undergoing their first IVF cycles were recruited. Ovarian response parameters included the number of retrieved oocytes, the number of 2 pronuclear zygotes (2PN), and the frequency of good-quality embryos (GQE). Pregnancy outcomes included the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), live birth rate (LBR), miscarriage rate (MR), and cumulative CPR and LBR (CCPR and CLBR). RESULTS:Among women under 35 years of age, the ovarian response, CPR, CCPR, LBR and CLBR (p < 0.01) were significantly lower in the low-AMH group than in the average-AMH and high-AMH groups. In women above 35 years of age, the ovarian response, CPR, CCPR and CLBR (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in the average-AMH and low-AMH groups. The LBR in the older high-AMH group was significantly higher (37.45% vs 20.34%, p < 0.01) than that in the older low-AMH group, but there was no difference (37.45% vs 32.46%, p = 0.11) compared with the older average-AMH group. When there was a discrepancy between age and the AMH level, the young low-AMH group showed a poorer ovarian response but a better CPR (58.01% vs 49.44%, p < 0.01) and LBR (48.52% vs 37.45%, p < 0.01) than the older high-AMH group. However, the CCPR (65.37% vs 66.11%, p = 0.75) and CLBR (56.35% vs 52.89%, p = 0.15) between the two groups were comparable. The conservative CLBR in the two discrepancy groups increased until the third embryo transfer and reached a plateau thereafter. CONCLUSION(S):Even with a relatively low AMH level, young women still had better pregnancy outcomes following IVF than older women. However, increasing the AMH level improves the cumulative outcomes of the older group to a comparable level through a notable and superior ovarian response.
Project description:To evaluate the correlation between total gonadotropin dose and live birth rate.Retrospective analysis.Not applicable.A total of 658,519 fresh autologous cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology from 2004 to 2012.None.Logistic regression models were fitted to live birth rates with the use of categorized values for total FSH dose and number of oocytes retrieved as the primary predictor variables. To reduce the effect of the most significant confounders that may lead physicians to prescribe higher doses of FSH, additional analyses were performed limited to good-prognosis patients (<35 years of age, body mass index <30 kg/m(2), and no diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve, endometriosis, or ovulatory disorder) and including duration of gonadotropin treatment.Live birth rate significantly decreased with increasing FSH dose, regardless of the number of oocytes retrieved. The statistically significant decrease in live birth rate with increasing FSH dose remained in patients with good prognosis, and regardless of female age, except for women aged ? 35 years with 1-5 oocytes retrieved.This analysis suggests that physicians may wish to avoid prescribing a high dose of FSH. However, the results of this study do not justify the use of minimal-stimulation or natural-cycle IVF.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between oocyte yield, fertilization, and clinical pregnancy (CP), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in serum and follicular fluid during in vitro fertilization treatment. METHODS:Forty-four infertile women who underwent IVF treatment using multiagonist protocol were included in this study. Baseline level of AMH in serum and follicular fluid was measured on third day of menstrual cycle. AMH level in serum and follicular fluid was then measured again on day of oocyte pick-up. Pearson correlation and binary regression tests were used for statistical analysis. For Type 1 error, p=5% was selected as cut-off value for statistical significance. RESULTS:Serum AMH level was positively correlated with total number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and CP (r=0.397, p=0.008; r=0.401, p=0.007; and r=0.382, p=0.011, respectively). There was significantly negative correlation between serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and fertilization rate (r=-0.320; p=0.034), as well as serum FSH level and CP rate (r=-0.308; p=0.042). There were no significant correlations between AMH level in follicular fluid and IVF treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION:Serum AMH levels may be more reliable for prediction of total number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and CP than AMH levels in follicular fluid.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and the live birth rate at 1-year age increments in women aged ≥40 years undergoing fresh non-donor in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), and to identify predictors of success in these patients.This retrospective study was performed among women ≥40 years of age between 2004 and 2011. Of the 2,362 cycles that were conducted, ET was performed in 1,532 (73.1%).The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in women ≥40 years significantly decreased with each year of increased age (p<0.001). Maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.540-0.769; p<0.001), basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels (OR, 0.950; 95% CI, 0.903-0.999; p=0.047), the number of high-quality embryos (OR, 1.258; 95% CI, 1.005 -1.575; p=0.045), and the number of transferred embryos (OR, 1.291; 95% CI, 1.064 -1.566; p=0.009) were significant predictors of live birth. A statistically significant increase in live birth rates was seen when ≥3 embryos were transferred in patients 40 to 41 years of age, whereas poor pregnancy outcomes were seen in patients ≥43 years of age, regardless of the number of transferred embryos. Moreover, the cumulative live birth rate increased in patients 40 to 42 years of age with repeated IVF cycles, but the follicle-stimulating hormone in those ≥43 years of age rarely showed an increase.IVF-ET has acceptable outcomes in those <43 years of age when a patient's own oocytes are used. Maternal age, basal FSH levels, and the number of high-quality embryos and transferred embryos are useful predictors of live birth.
Project description:Background:Ovarian reserve testing is not routinely performed in the evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The objective of this study was to determine if AMH levels are predictive of live birth rate in RPL patients pursuing expectant management (EM). Methods:Retrospective cohort study of RPL patients. Patients tried to conceive spontaneously for 12 calendar months or until they achieved a live birth, whichever occurred first. All patients with the intent to conceive were included regardless of final outcome. Results:One hundred fifty-five RPL patients treated from 2009 to 2017 were included. In a univariate logistic regression, AMH < 1 ng/mL was associated with decreased likelihood of live birth (OR 0.38; CI 0.16-0.87, p = 0.03) and increasing age (OR 0.91; CI 0.83-0.99, p = 0.04). Likelihood of live birth was not significantly associated with BMI (OR 1.21; CI 0.83-1.77, p = 0.31), three or four or more prior pregnancy losses (OR 0.93; CI 0.40-2.22, p = 0.87 and OR 0.52; CI 0.19-1.42, p = 0.20, respectively) and prior live births (OR 1.00; CI 0.48-2.08, p = 0.99). AMH < 1 ng/mL was shown to be a stronger predictor of live birth than age using a multivariate model adjusting for age, AMH, and time to conception. Conclusions:AMH < 1 ng/mL is associated with decreased likelihood of live birth among RPL patients pursuing EM, and may be a stronger predictor of live birth than age in this population.