Association of Glomerular Hyperfiltration and Cardiovascular Risk in Middle-Aged Healthy Individuals.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in high-risk conditions, but its significance in low-risk individuals is uncertain. Objective:To determine whether glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a prospective population-based cohort study, for which enrollment took place from August 2009 to October 2010, with follow-up available through March 31, 2016. Analysis of the data took place in October 2019. The cohort was composed of 9515 healthy individuals, defined as individuals without hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or statin and/or aspirin use, identified among 20?004 patients aged 40 to 69 years with health information accessed through the CARTaGENE research platform. Exposures:Individuals with glomerular hyperfiltration (eGFR >95th percentile after stratification for sex and age) were compared with individuals with normal filtration rate (eGFR 25th-75th percentiles). Main Outcomes and Measures:Adverse cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Risk of adverse cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox and fractional polynomial regressions and propensity score matching. Results:From the 20?004 CARTaGENE participants, 9515 healthy participants (4050 [42.6%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 50.4 [45.9-55.6] years) were identified. Among these, 473 had glomerular hyperfiltration (median [interquartile range] eGFR, 112 [107-115] mL/min/1.73 m2) and 4761 had a normal filtration rate (median [interquartile range] eGFR, 92 [87-97] mL/min/1.73 m2). Compared with the normal filtration rate, glomerular hyperfiltration was associated with an increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.30-2.74; P?=?.001). Findings were similar with propensity score matching. The fractional polynomial regression showed that only the highest eGFR percentiles were associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular risk of individuals with glomerular hyperfiltration was similar to that of the 597 participants with an eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56-1.42; P?=?.64). Conclusions and Relevance:These findings suggest that glomerular hyperfiltration is independently associated with increased cardiovascular risk in middle-aged healthy individuals. This risk profile appears to be similar to stage 3a chronic kidney disease.
Project description:Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS), and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008-2011) was performed. Renal hyperfiltration was defined as exceeding the age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentile. We divided participants into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): >120, 90-119, 60-89, and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The participants with eGFR >120 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed the highest risk for MS, in the highest ALP quartiles (3.848, 95% CI, 1.876-7.892), compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, the highest risk for DM, in the highest ALP quartiles, was observed in participants with eGFR >120 ml/min/1.73 m2 (2.166, 95% CI, 1.084-4.329). ALP quartiles were significantly associated with albuminuria in participants with eGFR ? 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The highest ALP quartile had a 1.631-fold risk elevation for albuminuria with adjustment of age and sex. (95% CI, 1.158-2.297, P = 0.005). After adjustment, the highest ALP quartile had a 1.624-fold risk elevation, for renal hyperfiltration (95% CI, 1.204-2.192, P = 0.002). In addition, hyperfiltration was significantly associated with hemoglobin, triglyceride, white blood cell count, DM, smoking, and alcohol consumption (P<0.05). The relationship between serum ALP and metabolic disorders is stronger in participants with an upper-normal range of eGFR. Higher ALP levels are significantly associated with renal hyperfiltration in Korean general population.
Project description:In adults, glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with abnormalities related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated if glomerular hyperfiltration was associated with metabolic abnormalities in US adolescents without diabetes.We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adolescents ages 12-17 years. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined using the bedside Schwartz equation; adolescents with hyperfiltration (eGFR >120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) were compared to those with normal eGFR (90-120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). We calculated mean levels of factors related to MetS, insulin resistance and diabetes risk, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, and BMI z -score.Overall, 11.8% of US adolescents had hyperfiltration [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6-13.0]. Hyperfiltration prevalence varied by race (20.2% in Hispanics versus 9.8% non-Hispanic whites and 7.4% non-Hispanic blacks; P< 0.001). Compared to those with normal eGFR, adolescents with hyperfiltration had higher adjusted mean levels of triglyceride (83 versus 77 mg/dL; P = 0.05), fasting insulin (15.1 versus 12.9; P< 0.001) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (3.52 versus 3.01; P = 0.001). These differences persisted after adjusting for BMI z- score. Adolescents with hyperfiltration had increased odds for hypertriglyceridemia [odds ratio 1.58 (95% CI 1.11-2.23)]. These relationships varied by racial/ethnic group.Glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with hypertriglyceridemia and increased insulin resistance independent of BMI z- score in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Hispanic adolescents are more likely to have hyperfiltration than other racial/ethnic groups. These findings could have significance in evaluations of renal function and MetS in adolescents to identify related risks and target interventions.
Project description:Rapid glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline (>3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) is an increasingly recognized high-risk diabetic nephropathy (DN) phenotype in Type 1 diabetes. Rapid GFR decline is a recognized predictor of impaired GFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). However, the association between rapid GFR decline and renal hyperfiltration is not well described in Type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that renal hyperfiltration (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR ? 120 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) would predict rapid GFR decline over 6 years and that rapid GFR decline would predict impaired GFR at 6 years in adults with Type 1 diabetes.GFR was calculated by chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) creatinine in 646 adults with Type 1 diabetes in the coronary artery calcification in Type 1 diabetes study. Logistic multivariable models were employed to investigate the relationships between renal hyperfiltration and rapid GFR decline, and rapid GFR decline and incident impaired GFR over 6 years.Renal hyperfiltration predicted greater odds of rapid GFR decline over 6 years [odds ratio (OR): 5.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.03-8.25, P < 0.0001] adjusting for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), sex, duration, log of albumin/creatinine ratio and estimated insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, rapid GFR decline predicted greater odds of incident impaired eGFR (OR: 15.99, 95% CI 2.34-114.37, P = 0.006) in a similarly adjusted model. Sensitivity analyses with GFR calculated by CKD-EPI combined creatinine and cystatin C, and renal hyperfiltration defined as ?135 mL/min/1.73 m(2) yielded similar results.In adults with Type 1 diabetes, rapid GFR decline over 6 years was associated with baseline renal hyperfiltration and incident GFR impairment. These observations may suggest an intermediate and predictive role of rapid GFR decline in the progression of DN.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Glomerular hyperfiltration has been considered to be a contributing factor to the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). To address this issue, we analyzed GFR follow-up data on participants with type 1 diabetes undergoing 125I-iothalamate clearance on entry into the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:This was a cohort study of DCCT participants with type 1 diabetes who underwent an 125I-iothalamate clearance (iGFR) at DCCT baseline. Presence of hyperfiltration was defined as iGFR levels ?140 ml/min per 1.73 m2, with secondary thresholds of 130 or 150 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between the baseline hyperfiltration status and the subsequent risk of reaching an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. RESULTS:Of the 446 participants, 106 (24%) had hyperfiltration (iGFR levels ?140 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 28 (interquartile range, 23, 33) years, 53 developed an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The cumulative incidence of eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at 28 years of follow-up was 11.0% among participants with hyperfiltration at baseline, compared with 12.8% among participants with baseline GFR <140 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Hyperfiltration was not significantly associated with subsequent risk of developing an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in an unadjusted Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 1.62) nor in an adjusted model (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 1.54). Application of alternate thresholds to define hyperfiltration (130 or 150 ml/min per 1.73 m2) showed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS:Early hyperfiltration in patients with type 1 diabetes was not associated with a higher long-term risk of decreased GFR. Although glomerular hypertension may be a mechanism of kidney injury in DKD, higher total GFR does not appear to be a risk factor for advanced DKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often used as a surrogate for single-nephron hyperfiltration. Our objective was to determine the definition for high GFR that best reflects clinical and structural characteristics of hyperfiltration. METHODS:We studied living kidney donors at the Mayo Clinic and Cleveland Clinic. Potential donors underwent evaluations that included measured GFR (mGFR) by iothalamate clearance and estimated GFR (eGFR) by the serum creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. High GFR was defined by the 95th percentile for each method (mGFR or eGFR) using either overall or age-specific thresholds. High mGFR was defined as both corrected and uncorrected for body surface area. The association of high GFR by each definition with clinical characteristics and radiologic findings (kidney volume) was assessed. In the subset that donated, the association of high GFR with kidney biopsy findings (nephron number and glomerular volume) and single-nephron GFR was assessed. RESULTS:We studied 3317 potential donors, including 2125 actual donors. The overall 95th percentile for corrected mGFR was 134?mL/min/1.73 m2 and for eGFR was 118?mL/min/1.73 m2. The age-based threshold for uncorrected mGFR was 198?mL/min - 0.943×Age, for corrected mGFR it was 164?mL/min/1.73 m2 - 0.730×Age and for eGFR it was 146?mL/min/1.73 m2 - 0.813×Age. High age-based uncorrected mGFR had the strongest associations with higher single-nephron GFR, larger glomerular volume, larger kidney volume, male gender, higher body mass index and higher 24-h urine albumin, but also had the strongest association with high nephron number. A high age-height-gender-based uncorrected mGFR definition performed almost as well but had a weaker association with nephron number and did not associate with male gender. CONCLUSIONS:High age-based uncorrected mGFR showed the most consistent associations reflective of hyperfiltration. However, high age-based uncorrected mGFR has limited clinical utility because it does not distinguish between hyperfiltration and high nephron number.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unclear whether sleep duration and quality are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerular hyperfiltration. The aim of this study was to examine the association of sleep duration and quality with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration in young and middle-aged adults. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and women who underwent a health checkup examination, including assessment of sleep duration and quality (n = 241,607). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR above the age-/sex-specific 95th percentile. RESULTS:In a multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant confounders, the adjusted prevalence ratios for CKD (95% confidence interval) comparing sleep durations of ? 5, 6, 8, and 9 hours with 7 hours were 1.22 (0.95-1.55), 0.93 (0.75-1.14), 0.97 (0.75-1.26), and 1.56 (1.06-2.30) in men and 0.98 (0.68-1.43), 1.03 (0.72-1.46), 1.39 (0.97-2.00), and 1.31 (0.78-2.22) in women, respectively. The corresponding prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) for glomerular hyperfiltration were 1.00 (0.93-1.08), 0.97 (0.91-1.03), 1.03 (0.94-1.13), and 1.39 (1.13-1.72) in men and 1.04 (0.95-1.14), 0.96 (0.90-1.04), 1.11 (1.02-1.20), and 1.28 (1.14-1.45) in women, respectively. Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in men and women. CONCLUSION:In this large study of young and middle-aged adults, we found that long sleep duration was associated with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration. Additionally, poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration, suggesting the importance of adequate quantity and quality of sleep for kidney function.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health concern due to the increased prevalence the high fatalities related to heart disease in this population. Among novel cardiovascular risk markers, the coronary artery calcification score (CAC) emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events.<h4>Hypothesis</h4>We aimed to test if glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria are independently associated with coronary calcification.<h4>Methods</h4>The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health is a cohort of men and women aged 35 to 74 years old addressing cardiovascular diseases. We analyzed the association of CAC, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) according to stages of eGFR (1 = ?90; 2 = 60-89; 3 = <60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> ), and ACR (<30; 30 to 300; >300 mg/g). These associations were estimated by logistic regression with a model including age, sex, race, income, and cardiovascular risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>Among 4189 persons (median age = 51 years, 54% women), 1183 had CAC. The odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) in the multivariate model was 0.86 (0.58-1.29) for the category of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> compared to people with eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73m<sup>2</sup> . On the other hand, the OR (95% CI) for individuals with ACR >300 mg/g was 4.31 (1.27-14.64) compared to people with ACR <30 mg/g. A discrete interaction factor for the association with CAC between eGFR and ACR were analyzed as continuous variable.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Albuminuria was independently associated with coronary calcification, but the reduction of the glomerular filtration rate was not associated with CAC score in this sample of apparently healthy adults.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, the association of mildly reduced kidney function with CVD risk is unclear.<h4>Methods and results</h4>This study investigated the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with prevalent CVDs, 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), and 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) in 239 832 participants from the baseline of the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal study. With an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, we collected information on CVD, including reported CHD, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to calculate eGFR. Compared with individuals with normal eGFR (?90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), those with decreased eGFR (75-89, 60-74, and <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) had higher risk of prevalent obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in both men and women (P for trend all <0.001). Moreover, a significantly higher 10-year Framingham risk for CHD and 10-year risk for ASCVD was observed in both men and women with mildly decreased eGFR (60-89 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Even mildly reduced eGFR (under 90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) is associated with elevated 10-year Framingham risk for CHD and 10-year ASCVD risk among Chinese adults.
Project description:Long-term clinical outcomes in children with very-early onset (VEO; diagnosis in utero or within the first 18 months of life) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are currently not well understood. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to assess the association between VEO status and adverse clinical outcomes.Seventy patients with VEO-ADPKD matched (by year of birth, sex and race/ethnicity) to 70 patients with non-VEO-ADPKD who participated in research at the University of Colorado were studied. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The predictor was VEO status, and outcomes were progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), development of hypertension, progression to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2), glomerular hyperfiltration (eGFR ?140 ml/min/1.73 m2) and height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) measured by MRI ?600 ml/m.Median follow-up was until 16.0 years of age. There were only 4 ESRD events during the follow-up period, all in the VEO group (p < 0.05). VEO patients were more likely to develop hypertension (hazard ratio, HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.86-5.34; p < 0.0001) and to progress to eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.01-3.84; p < 0.05) than non-VEO patients. There was no difference between groups in the development of glomerular hyperfiltration (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.56-1.42; p = 0.62). There were only 7 patients who progressed to htTKV ?600 ml/m, 4 in the VEO group and 3 in the non-VEO group (p < 0.01).Several clinical outcomes are worse in patients with VEO-ADPKD compared to non-VEO ADPKD. Children with VEO-ADPKD represent a particularly high-risk group of ADPKD patients.
Project description:AIMS:To investigate associations of glomerular hyperfiltration with other metabolic factors in a nationally representative dataset. METHODS:We analyzed cross-sectional data from 15,918 subjects with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and urine albumin creation ratio (ACR) <30 mg/g, who participated in the 5th and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR (CKD-EPI equation) exceeding the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile for healthy control subjects. RESULTS:Prevalence of hyperfiltration was 5.2% and that among normal, prediabetic, and diabetic subjects was 4.9%, 5.6%, and 7.3%, respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, and body weight (p for trend = 0.008). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, hyperfiltration was associated with a body mass index ?30 kg/m2 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.461, p<0.001], waist circumference 85 cm (men) or 80 cm (women) (OR = 1.425, p = 0.015), systolic blood pressure 120-129 mmHg (OR = 1.644, p = 0.022), fasting plasma glucose 140 mg/dL (OR = 1.695, p = 0.033) and t serum triglyceride level 500 mg/dL (OR = 2.988, p = 0.001), and was independently associated with the ACR (B = 0.053, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In a general Korean population, both hyperfiltration and ACR were associated with similar metabolic parameters, and hyperfiltration correlated independently with a high ACR. Longitudinal studies are needed to further explore risks of hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria.