SRSF3 functions as an oncogene in colorectal cancer by regulating the expression of ArhGAP30.
ABSTRACT: Background:Splicing factor SRSF3 is an oncogene and overexpressed in various kinds of cancers, however, the function and mechanism involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) remained unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between SRSF3 and carcinogenesis and progression of CRC. Methods:The expression of SRSF3 in CRC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The proliferation and invasion rate was analyzed by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, transwell invasion assay and xenograft experiment. The expression of selected genes was detected by western blot or real time PCR. Results:SRSF3 is overexpressed in CRC tissues and its high expression was associated with CRC differentiation, lymph node invasion and AJCC stage. Upregulation of SRSF3 was also associated with shorter overall survival. Knockdown of SRSF3 in CRC cells activated ArhGAP30/Ace-p53 and decreased cell proliferation, migration and survival; while ectopic expression of SRSF3 attenuated ArhGAP30/Ace-p53 and increases cell proliferation, migration and survival. Targeting SRSF3 in xenograft tumors suppressed tumor progression in vivo. Conclusions:Taken together, our data identify SRSF3 as a regulator for ArhGAP30/Ace-p53 in CRC, and highlight potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of SRSF3 in CRC.
Project description:Serine/arginine (SR)-rich proteins that contain RS domains and SR repeats have diverse cellular functions including transcription, polyadenylation, translation, and RNA export. The splicing factor SRSF3, also termed SRp20, is the smallest member of the SR protein family and is a known proto-oncogene. Although it is implicated in the malignant phenotypes of various cancer cells, the molecular mechanism underlying SRSF3-mediated cancer progression is still obscure. We investigated here the oncogenic functions of SRSF3 in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Knockdown of SRSF3 inhibited proliferation, clonogenicity, and metastatic potential including migration and invasion. It also decreased the level of miR-1908 independent of its host gene FADS1. Although FADS1 was not associated with SRSF3-mediated malignant properties, overexpression of miR-1908-5p increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, suggesting that miR-1908-5p is responsible for the oncogenic functions of SRSF3. Knockdown of SRSF3 decreased the expression of miR-1908-5p by inhibiting transactivation of NF-?B. We observed that miR-1908-5p downregulated NF-?B inhibitor interacting Ras-like 2 (NKIRAS2), a negative regulator of the NF-?B pathway by directly binding to the 3'UTR of NKIRAS2 mRNA. Consistent with overexpression of miR-1908-5p, knockdown of NKIRAS2 diminished the expression level of I?B-? and provoked translocation of NF-?B into the nucleus where it transcriptionally activates its target genes including miR-1908-5p expression, thus elevating the proliferation and metastatic potential. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SRSF3 confers the malignant characteristics on cancer cells via the SRSF3/miR-1908-5p/NKIRAS2 axis.
Project description:Most human pre-mRNA transcripts are alternatively spliced, but the significance and fine-tuning of alternative splicing in different biological processes is only starting to be understood. SRSF3 (SRp20) is a member of a highly conserved family of splicing factors that have critical roles in key biological processes, including tumor progression. Here, we show that SRSF3 regulates cellular senescence, a p53-mediated process to suppress tumorigenesis, through TP53 alternative splicing. Downregulation of SRSF3 was observed in normal human fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence, and was associated with the upregulation of p53?, an alternatively spliced isoform of p53 that promotes p53-mediated senescence. Knockdown of SRSF3 by short interfering RNA (siRNA) in early-passage fibroblasts induced senescence, which was associated with elevated expression of p53? at mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of p53 partially rescued SRSF3-knockdown-induced senescence, suggesting that SRSF3 acts on p53-mediated cellular senescence. RNA pulldown assays demonstrated that SRSF3 binds to an alternatively spliced exon uniquely included in p53? mRNA through the consensus SRSF3-binding sequences. RNA crosslinking and immunoprecipitation assays (CLIP) also showed that SRSF3 in vivo binds to endogenous p53 pre-mRNA at the region containing the p53?-unique exon. Splicing assays using a transfected TP53 minigene in combination with siRNA knockdown of SRSF3 showed that SRSF3 functions to inhibit the inclusion of the p53?-unique exon in splicing of p53 pre-mRNA. These data suggest that downregulation of SRSF3 represents an endogenous mechanism for cellular senescence that directly regulates the TP53 alternative splicing to generate p53?. This study uncovers the role for general splicing machinery in tumorigenesis, and suggests that SRSF3 is a direct regulator of p53.
Project description:Altered alternative splicing (AS) events are considered pervasive causes that result in the development of carcinogenesis. Herein, we identified reprogrammed expression and splicing profiles of Muscle blind-like protein 1 (MBNL1) transcripts in tumorous tissues compared to those of adjacent normal tissues dissected from individual colorectal cancer (CRC) patients using whole-transcriptome analyses. MBNL1 transcript 8 (MBNL18) containing exons 5 and 7 was majorly generated by cancerous tissues and CRC-derived cell lines compared with those of the normal counterparts. Interplay between the exonic CA-rich element and upregulated SRSF3 facilitated the inclusion of MBNL1 exons 5 and 7, which encode a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and conformational NLS. Moreover, abundant SRSF3 interfered with the autoregulatory mechanism involved in utilization of MBNL1 exons 5 and 7, resulting in enrichment of the MBNL18 isoform in cultured CRC cell lines. Subsequently, an increase in the MBNL18 isoform drove a shift in the apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer in nucleus 1-S (Acin1-S) isoform to the Acin1-L isoform, leading to diminished DNA fragmentation in cultured CRC cells under oxidative stress. Taken together, SRSF3-MBNL1-Acin1 was demonstrated to constitute an emerging axis which is relevant to proapoptotic signatures and post-transcriptional events of CRC cells.
Project description:Alternative RNA splicing is an important focus in molecular and clinical oncology. We report here that SRSF3 regulates alternative RNA splicing of interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3) and production of this double-strand RNA-binding protein. An increased coexpression of ILF3 isoforms and SRSF3 was found in various types of cancers. ILF3 isoform-1 and isoform-2 promote cell proliferation and transformation. Tumor cells with reduced SRSF3 expression produce aberrant isoform-5 and -7 of ILF3. By binding to RNA sequence motifs, SRSF3 regulates the production of various ILF3 isoforms by exclusion/inclusion of ILF3 exon 18 or by selection of an alternative 3' splice site within exon 18. ILF3 isoform-5 and isoform-7 suppress tumor cell proliferation and the isoform-7 induces cell apoptosis. Our data indicate that ILF3 isoform-1 and isoform-2 are two critical factors for cell proliferation and transformation. The increased SRSF3 expression in cancer cells plays an important role in maintaining the steady status of ILF3 isoform-1 and isoform-2.
Project description:Misregulated alternative RNA splicing (AS) contributes to the tumorigenesis and progression of human cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we showed that a major splicing factor, serine and arginine rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3), was frequently upregulated in clinical glioma specimens and that elevated SRSF3 was associated with tumor progression and a poor prognosis for patients with glioma. In patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSC), SRSF3 expression promoted cell proliferation, self-renewal, and tumorigenesis. Transcriptomic profiling identified more than 1,000 SRSF3-affected AS events, with a preference for exon skipping in genes involved with cell mitosis. Motif analysis identified the sequence of CA(G/C/A)CC(C/A) as a potential exonic splicing enhancer for these SRSF3-regulated exons. To evaluate the biological impact of SRSF3-affected AS events, four candidates were selected whose AS correlated with SRSF3 expression in glioma tissues, and their splicing pattern was modified using a CRISPR/Cas9 approach. Two functionally validated AS candidates were further investigated for the mechanisms underlying their isoform-specific functions. Specifically, following knockout of SRSF3, transcription factor ETS variant 1 (ETV1) gene showed exon skipping at exon 7, while nudE neurodevelopment protein 1 (NDE1) gene showed replacement of terminal exon 9 with a mutually exclusive exon 9'. SRSF3-regulated AS of these two genes markedly increased their oncogenic activity in GSCs. Taken together, our data demonstrate that SRSF3 is a key regulator of AS in GBM and that understanding mechanisms of misregulated AS could provide critical insights for developing effective therapeutic strategies against GBMs. SIGNIFICANCE: SRSF3 is a significant regulator of glioma-associated alternative splicing, implicating SRSF3 as an oncogenic factor that contributes to the tumor biology of GBM.
Project description:Background:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in the United States. Mounting microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in various cancers including CRC. Materials and methods:The levels of microRNA-143-3p (miR-143-3p) and catenin-?1 (CTNND1) were determined by RT-qPCR assay. Cell proliferative ability was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell migratory and invasive capacities were measured by transwell migration and invasion assay. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to explore whether miR-143-3p could bind with CTNND1 3'UTR. CTNND1 protein level was determined through Western blot assay. Mouse xenograft models of CRC were established to test the functions and molecular basis of miR-143-3p in the development of CRC in vivo. Results:Low amounts of miR-143-3p were expressed in CRC tissues and cells. Functional analysis revealed that miR-143-3p overexpression suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in CRC. Molecular mechanism exploration indicated that miR-143-3p directly targeted CTNND1. Moreover, enforced expression of CTNND1 contributed to cell proliferation, migration and invasion in CRC, and CTNND1 silencing exerted opposite effects. Restoration experiments disclosed that CTNND1 upregulation weakened the inhibitory effects of miR-143-3p on CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, miR-143-3p inhibited the growth of HCT116-derived xenograft tumors by targeting CTNND1 in vivo. Conclusion:miR-143-3p hampered the development and progression of CRC by targeting CTNND1 in vitro and in vivo, deepening our understanding of the functions and molecular basis of miR-143-3p in the tumorigenesis of CRC and providing some candidate prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for CRC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Our previous study showed that guanine nucleotide exchange factor T (GEFT) was highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and CRC patients with high GEFT expression had a poor prognosis, and suggested the close link of GEFT expression and CRC tumorigenesis/metastasis. In this text, the roles and upstream regulatory mechanisms of GEFT in the development and progression of CRC were further investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>Expression levels of GEFT mRNA and LINC00355 was measured by RT-qPCR assay. Protein levels of lin-28 homologue A (LIN28A) and GEFT were determined by western blot assay. Cell proliferative, migratory, and invasive capacities were assessed by CCK-8, Transwell migration and invasion assays, respectively. The effect of GEFT knockdown on CRC tumorigenesis was examined by mouse xenograft experiments <i>in vivo</i>. GEFT mRNA stability was examined by actinomycin D assay. The relationships of LINC000355, LIN28A, and GEFT were explored by RNA pull down and RIP assays.<h4>Results</h4>GEFT was highly expressed in CRC tissues and cell lines. GEFT knockdown inhibited CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and hindered CRC xenograft tumor growth. GEFT overexpression alleviated the detrimental effects of LINC00355 loss on CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. LINC00355 promoted GEFT expression and enhanced GEFT mRNA stability <i>via</i> LIN28A. LIN28A knockdown weakened the promotive effect of LINC00355 on CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.<h4>Conclusion</h4>LINC00355 facilitated CRC tumorigenesis and progression by increasing GEFT expression <i>via</i> LIN28A, deepening our understanding on roles and upstream regulatory mechanisms of GEFT in CRC development and progression.
Project description:Our previous work found that serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) was overexpressed in human ovarian cancer and the overexpression of SRSF3 was required for ovarian cancer cell growth and survival. The mechanism underlying the role of SRSF3 in ovarian cancer remains to be addressed.We conducted microarray analysis to profile the gene expression and splicing in SRSF3-knockdown cells and employed quantitative PCR and western blotting to validate the profiling results. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to study transcription and the direct repeat green fluorescent protein reporter assay to study homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair (HRR).We identified 687 genes with altered expression and 807 genes with altered splicing in SRSF3-knockdown cells. Among expression-altered genes, those involved in HRR, including BRCA1, BRIP1 and RAD51, were enriched and were all downregulated. We demonstrated that the downregulation of BRCA1, BRIP1 and RAD51 expression was caused by decreased transcription and not due to increased nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Further, we found that SRSF3 knockdown impaired HRR activity in the cell and increased the level of ?-H2AX, a biomarker for double-strand DNA breaks. Finally, we observed that SRSF3 knockdown changed splicing pattern of KMT2C, a H3K4-specific histone methyltransferase, and reduced the levels of mono- and trimethylated H3K4.These results suggest that SRSF3 is a new regulator of HRR process, which possibly regulates the expression of HRR-related genes indirectly through an epigenetic pathway. This new function of SRSF3 not only explains why overexpression of SRSF3 is required for ovarian cancer cell growth and survival but also offers a new insight into the mechanism of the neoplastic transformation.
Project description:Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis.
Project description:Objective:Rho GTPase-activating protein 30 (ARHGAP30), a member of the Rho GTPase-activating proteins (Rho GAPs) family, plays an important role in the regulation of cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion. Materials and methods:mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell assays were conducted to detect cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Results:ARHGAP30 expression was downregulated in specimens and cell lines of lung cancer in comparison to non-cancerous specimens and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines, respectively. Moreover, in vitro experiments demonstrated that ARHGAP30 overexpression impeded the proliferative, migratory, and invasive abilities of lung cancer cells. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung cancer dataset showed a negative association between ARHGAP30 expression and the Wnt signaling pathway. Enforced expression of ARHGAP30 decreased the mRNA and protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Besides, the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 blocked the enhanced cell growth, migration, and invasion caused by ARHGAP30 knockdown. Thus, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway mediated the functions of ARHGAP30 in lung cancer cells. Conclusion:ARHGAP30 acts as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling.