Morphogenetic Variability as Potential Biomarker of Neurogenic Lesion Degree in Children with Spina Bifida.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:In this study we analyzed the degree of genetic homozygosity among spina bifida patients with different degrees of neurogenic lesion (N = 82), as well as their clinical and neurological characteristics, compared to healthy control individuals (N = 100). METHODS:According to clinical and electromyographic findings, we separately assessed the type of neurogenic lesion (paresis or paralysis). Regarding the degree of neurogenic lesion, patients were classified into three groups: mild, moderate and severe. We analyzed six muscles. For assessing the degree of individual genetic homozygosity, we tested the presence and distribution of 15 homozygous recessive characteristics (HRC). RESULTS:The predominant type of neurogenic lesion was paresis. Every third evaluated muscle was affected in the group with mild neurogenic lesion, while more than half were affected in the group with severe neurogenic lesion. The average values of HRCs among different groups of patients and the control showed the population-genetic differences that exist among them (control HRC/15=3.0±0.2; mild HRC/15=3.6±0.2; moderate HRC/15=4.8±0.3; severe neurogenic lesion HRC/15=5.0±0.3). CONCLUSIONS:Spina bifida patients have a significant increase of recessive homozygosity and a decreased variability compared to the control group. As neurogenic lesions are more severe, more affected muscles are present, as well as the increase of individual recessive homozygosity.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Assuming that spina bifida (SB) is a genetically controlled disease, the aim of our study was to evaluate the degree of genetic homozygosity and the distribution of AB0 blood types among patients with SB occulta and SB aperta by the homozygously recessive characteristics (HRC) test. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Our study included an analysis of the presence, distribution and individual combination of 15 selected genetically controlled morpho-physiological traits in a sample of 100 patients with SB (SB occulta N = 50 and SB aperta N = 50) and a control group of individuals (N = 100). RESULTS:We found a statistically significant difference between the mean values for genetic homozygosity (SB 4.5 ±0.3; control 3.0 ±0.2, p < 0.001) and also differences in the presence of certain individual combinations of such traits. In 12 (80.0%) of the 15 observed characteristics, recessive homozygosity was expressed to a greater degree among the group of SB patients, while for 9 (60.0%) of the traits this level of difference was statistically significant (?(?) (2) = 266.3, p < 0.001). There was no difference in average homozygosity of such genetic markers between groups of SB occulta and SB aperta patients, but the type of individual variation in the two studied groups significantly differed. In the group of patients with SB the frequency of 0 blood group was significantly increased while B blood group was significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS:Our results clearly show that there is a populational genetic difference in the degree of genetic homozygosity and variability between the group of patients with SB and individuals without clinical manifestations, indicating a possible genetic component in the aetiopathogenesis of spina bifida.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aim of our study was to evaluate degree of genetic homozygosity in male and female gender of spina bifida (SB) occulta and SB aperta patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We evaluated 95 patients with SB occulta and 51 with SB aperta. Degree of genetic homozygosity was evaluated by direct observation of 15 homozygously recessive characteristics (HRC) by HRC-test separately for SB occulta and SB aperta participants. Additionally 370 individuals without SB from Serbia were randomly selected and evaluated as control group. Male and female gender was separately evaluated for assessing degree of genetic homozygosity. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in mean values of HRC between male and female gender in control group (male gender -3.9±1.2, female gender -4.0±1.4, z=0.39; p>0.05), SB occulta (male gender -4.1±1.5, female gender -4.7±1.4, z=1.87, p>0.05) and SB aperta patients (male gender -4.3±1.6, female gender -4.5±1.4, z=0.66, p>0.05), while there was significantly increased recessive homozygosity in female SB occulta group versus control female group (Females: SB occulta -4.7±1.4, Control group -4.0±1.4, z=3.16, p<0.01) and female SB aperta group versus control female group (Females: SB aperta -4.5±1.4, Control group -4.0±1.4, z=2.05, p<0.05). CONCLUSION:There is increased recessive homozygosity in tested female SB occulta and female SB aperta individuals versus SB male participants and significantly increased recessive homozygosity in female groups of SB patients versus control female group. These findings could lead to the possible assumption that different genes in different degree might be expressed in SB occulta and SB aperta patients.
Project description:We compared individual trait variability in 65 male and 81 female patients with spina bifida occulta (SBO) or spina bifida aperta (SBA) against 170 male and 200 female subjects randomly selected Serbian subjects without these conditions. Variability was evaluated by direct observation of 15 homozygous recessive traits (HRT), while gender was evaluated separately. Individual trait variations between genders in SBO patients (4/15 HRT) and in SBA patients (12/15 HRT) showed remarkable differences. Individual trait variations between the male control group and SBO (9/15 HRT), between the female control group and SBO (5/15 HRT), between the male control group and SBA (8/15 HRT), between the female control group and SBA (9/15 HRT), between male SBO and SBA patients (6/15 HRT), between female SBO and SBA patients (6/15 HRT), also indicated remarkable differences. These differences could be explained by different expression of genes that may contribute to expression of spina bifida (SB).
Project description:Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a significant complication of premature infants. With improved preterm infant survival, there is increased incidence of severe IVH, and the potential for lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Neurological complications are high in babies that develop hydrocephalus as a result of IVH and require a permanent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Spina bifida is a congenital disorder caused by the incomplete closure of the neural tube. Hydrocephalus is also a common complication of spina bifida, presenting in 15 to 25% of cases. Often, when spina bifida is identified and surgically repaired, CSF shunting mechanisms are placed in a high percentage of cases. A better understanding of the events leading to the development of hydrocephalus will help clinicians make more informed decisions about the need for CSF shunting and other interventions. Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) may be indicators of the multiple pathological events surrounding the development of hydrocephalus in subjects with intraventricular hemorrhage or spina bifida. exRNAs may also be indicators for the presence and magnitude of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Under that premise, we sequenced the total exRNA in CSF from children that had IVH or spina bifida, some of which developed hydrocephalus and/or had reported developmental delays. Overall design: CSF collected from 35 IVH patients, no controls, some samples collected on multiple days -------------------------------- Submitter states "We are currently working on submitting the data for these protected datasets to dbGaP, but wanted to submit the processed data to GEO in the mean time."
Project description:AIM:To examine associations between camp-based intervention dosage and changes in independence-related skills for young people with spina bifida. METHOD:Participants were 110 individuals (mean age [SD] 14y 7mo [6y 1mo], range 6-32y; 66 females, 54 males) who attended a summer camp for individuals with spina bifida between 2 to 6 times (mean 2.40; operationalized as 'dosage'). Parents of young campers (e.g. those <18y) also participated in data collection. Campers and/or parents completed preintervention measures assessing campers' level of medical responsibility, mastery over medical tasks, and social skills. Outcomes included change in preintervention scores from dose 1 to final dose. RESULTS:Hierarchical regression analyses with and without covariates (age, IQ, and lesion level at dose 1) revealed that increased dosage was significantly associated with greater parent-reported improvements in campers' medical responsibility and mastery over medical tasks. Increased dosage was also significantly associated with camper-report of increased medical responsibility, but this relationship was no longer significant when including covariates. Intervention dosage was not associated with changes in campers' social skills. INTERPRETATION:Repeated participation in a camp-based intervention was associated with improvements in condition-related independence. Future work may focus on the development of interventions to promote improvements in social skills for young people with spina bifida. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:Participating in an intervention over multiple summers is associated with increases in campers' responsibility for spina bifida-related tasks. Repeated summer camp intervention participation is associated with improved mastery over condition-related tasks for campers with spina bifida. Repeated camp intervention participation is not associated with changes in social skills for campers with spina bifida.
Project description:Neural tube defects (NTDs) (OMIM #182940) including anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, are severe congenital malformations that affect 0.5-1 in 1,000 live births in the United States, with varying prevalence around the world. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes are believed to cause a variety of NTDs in both mice and humans. SCRIB is a PCP-associated gene. Mice that are homozygous for the Scrib p.I285K and circletail (Crc) mutations, present with the most severe form of NTDs, namely craniorachischisis. A recent study reported that mutations in SCRIB were associated with craniorachischisis in humans, but whether SCRIB mutations contribute to increased spina bifida risk is still unknown. We sequenced the SCRIB gene in 192 infants with spina bifida and 190 healthy controls. Among the spina bifida patients, we identified five novel missense mutations that were predicted-to-be-deleterious by the PolyPhen software. Of these five mutations, three of them (p.P1043L, p.P1332L, p.L1520R) significantly affected the subcellular localization of SCRIB. In addition, we demonstrated that the craniorachischisis mouse line-90 mutation I285K, also affected SCRIB subcellular localization. In contrast, only one novel missense mutation (p.A1257T) was detected in control samples, and it was predicted to be benign. This study demonstrated that rare deleterious mutations of SCRIB may contribute to the multifactorial risk for human spina bifida.
Project description:We analyzed morphogenetic variability and degree of genetic homozygosity in male and female individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) versus unaffected controls. We have tested 235 CAD patients; 109 were diagnosed also with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 126 with hypertension (HTN). We additionally evaluated 152 healthy individuals without manifested CAD. For the evaluation of the degree of recessive homozygosity, we have performed the homozygously recessive characteristics (HRC) test and tested 19 HRCs. In controls, the frequency of HRC for males was 2.88 ± 1.89, while for females, it was 3.65 ± 1.60. In the CAD group, the frequency of HRC for males was 4.21 ± 1.47, while for females, it was 4.73 ± 1.60. There is significant difference in HRC frequencies between controls and CAD separately for males (p < 0.001) and females (p < 0.001). The same applies between controls and CAD with DM (males: p < 0.001 and females: p = 0.004), and controls and CAD with HTN (males: p < 0.001 and females: p < 0.001). There is no significant difference in HRC frequencies between the group of CAD with DM and the group of CAD with HTN (males: p = 0.952 and females: p = 0.529). Our findings point to the increased degree of recessive homozygosity and decreased variability in both genders of CAD patients versus controls, indicating the potential genetic predisposition for CAD.
Project description:PURPOSE:Achieving bladder continence in individuals with spina bifida is a lifetime management goal. We investigated bladder continence status through time and factors associated with this status in patients with spina bifida. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We used National Spina Bifida Patient Registry data collected from 2009 through 2015 and applied generalized estimating equation models to analyze factors associated with bladder continence status. RESULTS:This analysis included 5,250 participants with spina bifida in a large, multi-institutional patient registry who accounted for 12,740 annual clinic visit records during the study period. At last followup mean age was 16.6 years, 22.4% of participants had undergone bladder continence surgery, 92.6% used some form of bladder management and 45.8% reported bladder continence. In a multivariable regression model the likelihood of bladder continence was significantly greater in those who were older, were female, were nonHispanic white, had a nonmyelomeningocele diagnosis, had a lower level of lesion, had a higher mobility level and had private insurance. Continence surgery history and current management were also associated with continence independent of all other factors (adjusted OR and 95% CI 1.9, 1.7-2.1 and 3.8, 3.2-4.6, respectively). The association between bladder management and continence was stronger for those with a myelomeningocele diagnosis (adjusted OR 4.6) than with nonmyelomeningocele (adjusted OR 2.8). CONCLUSIONS:In addition to demographic, social and clinical factors, surgical intervention and bladder management are significantly and independently associated with bladder continence status in individuals with spina bifida. The association between bladder management and continence is stronger in those with myelomeningocele.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of our study was to evaluate the degree of genetic homozygosity in the group of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as to evaluate morphogenetic variability in CAD patients regarding the presence of investigated risk factors (RF) compared to a control sample of individuals. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of ABO blood type frequencies between tested samples of individuals. METHODS:This study analyzed individual phenotype and morphogenetic variability of 17 homozygously-recessive characteristics (HRC), by using HRC test in a sample of 148 individuals in CAD patients group and 156 individuals in the control group. The following RF were analyzed: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. RESULTS:The mean value of HRC in CAD patients is significantly higher, while variability decreases compared to the control sample (CAD patients: 4.24 ± 1.59, control sample: 3.75 ± 1.69; VCAD-patients = 37.50%, VC = 45.07%). There is a significant difference in individual variations of 17 HRC between control sample and CAD patients (?² = 169.144; p < 0.01), which points out to different variability for tested genes. Mean values of HRC significantly differed in CAD patients in regard to the number of RF present. A blood type (OR = 1.75) is significant predictor for CAD, while O blood type (OR = 0.43) was significantly associated with controls. CONCLUSION:There is a higher degree of recessive homozygosity in CAD patients versus individuals in the control sample, and the presence of significant variations in the degree of recessive homozygosity as the number of tested RF increases.
Project description:AIM:To assess changes over time in parents' expectations of adult milestone achievement (college attendance, full-time job attainment, independent living, marriage, parenthood) for young people with spina bifida, to examine how expectancies relate to actual milestone achievement, and to compare milestone achievement in emerging adults with spina bifida with that of peers with typical development. METHOD:Sixty-eight families of children with spina bifida (mean age 8y 4mo, 37 males, 31 females) and 68 families of children with typical development (mean age 8y 6mo, 37 males, 31 females) participated at Time 1. At all subsequent timepoints, parents of young people with spina bifida were asked to rate their expectations of emerging adulthood milestone achievement. At Time 7, when participants were 22 to 23 years old, milestone achievement was assessed. RESULTS:Parents of young people with spina bifida lowered their expectations over time for most milestones; parents of children with higher cognitive ability reported decreases of lower magnitude. Parent expectancies were optimistic and unrelated to actual milestone achievement. Emerging adults with spina bifida were less likely than individuals with typical development to achieve all milestones. INTERPRETATION:Optimistic parental expectations may be adaptive for children with spina bifida and their families, although it is important for families to set realistic goals. Healthcare providers serve a key role in helping families of young people with spina bifida prepare for emerging adulthood.