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Regulating Retinoic Acid Availability during Development and Regeneration: The Role of the CYP26 Enzymes.


ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the role of the Cytochrome p450 subfamily 26 (CYP26) retinoic acid (RA) degrading enzymes during development and regeneration. Cyp26 enzymes, along with retinoic acid synthesising enzymes, are absolutely required for RA homeostasis in these processes by regulating availability of RA for receptor binding and signalling. Cyp26 enzymes are necessary to generate RA gradients and to protect specific tissues from RA signalling. Disruption of RA homeostasis leads to a wide variety of embryonic defects affecting many tissues. Here, the function of CYP26 enzymes is discussed in the context of the RA signalling pathway, enzymatic structure and biochemistry, human genetic disease, and function in development and regeneration as elucidated from animal model studies.

SUBMITTER: Roberts C 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7151129 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): 10.12688/f1000research.15391.1

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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Publications

Establishing sharp and homogeneous segments in the hindbrain.

Wilkinson David G DG  

F1000Research 20180813


Studies of the vertebrate hindbrain have revealed parallel mechanisms that establish sharp segments with a distinct and homogeneous regional identity. Recent work has revealed roles of cell identity regulation and its relationships with cell segregation. At early stages, there is overlapping expression at segment borders of the Egr2 and Hoxb1 transcription factors that specify distinct identities, which is resolved by reciprocal repression. Computer simulations show that this dynamic regulation  ...[more]

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