Craniofacial Analysis May Indicate Co-Occurrence of Skeletal Malocclusions and Associated Risks in Development of Cleft Lip and Palate.
ABSTRACT: Non-syndromic orofacial clefts encompass a range of morphological changes affecting the oral cavity and the craniofacial skeleton, of which the genetic and epigenetic etiologic factors remain largely unknown. The objective of this study is to explore the contribution of underlying dentofacial deformities (also known as skeletal malocclusions) in the craniofacial morphology of non-syndromic cleft lip and palate patients (nsCLP). For that purpose, geometric morphometric analysis was performed using full skull cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of patients with nsCLP (n = 30), normocephalic controls (n = 60), as well as to sex- and ethnicity- matched patients with an equivalent dentofacial deformity (n = 30). Our outcome measures were shape differences among the groups quantified via principal component analysis and associated principal component loadings, as well as mean shape differences quantified via a Procrustes distance among groups. According to our results, despite the shape differences among all three groups, the nsCLP group shares many morphological similarities in the maxilla and mandible with the dentofacial deformity group. Therefore, the dentoskeletal phenotype in nsCLP could be the result of the cleft and the coexisting dentofacial deformity and not simply the impact of the cleft.
Project description:Non-syndromic cleft lip with palate (NSCLP) is the most serious sub-phenotype of non-syndromic orofacial clefts (NSOFC), which are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. Here we conduct a GWAS of NSCLP with multiple independent replications, totalling 7,404 NSOFC cases and 16,059 controls from several ethnicities, to identify new NSCLP risk loci, and explore the genetic heterogeneity between sub-phenotypes of NSOFC. We identify 41 SNPs within 26 loci that achieve genome-wide significance, 14 of which are novel (RAD54B, TMEM19, KRT18, WNT9B, GSC/DICER1, PTCH1, RPS26, OFCC1/TFAP2A, TAF1B, FGF10, MSX1, LINC00640, FGFR1 and SPRY1). These 26 loci collectively account for 10.94% of the heritability for NSCLP in Chinese population. We find evidence of genetic heterogeneity between the sub-phenotypes of NSOFC and among different populations. This study substantially increases the number of genetic susceptibility loci for NSCLP and provides important insights into the genetic aetiology of this common craniofacial malformation.
Project description:Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) results from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Candidate gene analysis and genome scans have been employed to identify the genes contributing to NSCLP. In this study, we evaluated the 16q24.1 chromosomal region, which has been identified by multiple genome scans as an NSCLP region of interest. Two candidate genes were found in the region: interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2). Initially, Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP multiplex families and simplex parent-child trios were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both IRF8 and CRISPLD2. CRISPLD2 was subsequently genotyped in a data set comprised of NSCLP families from Colombia, South America. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified a significant association between CRISPLD2 and NSCLP in both our Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP cohorts. SNP rs1546124 and haplotypes between rs1546124 and either rs4783099 or rs16974880 were significant in the Caucasian multiplex population (P=0.01, P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). An altered transmission of CRISPLD2 SNPs rs8061351 (P=0.02) and rs2326398 (P=0.06) was detected in the Hispanic population. No association was found between CRISPLD2 and our Colombian population or IRF8 and NSCLP. In situ hybridization showed that CRISPLD2 is expressed in the mandible, palate and nasopharynx regions during craniofacial development at E13.5-E17.5, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that genetic variation in CRISPLD2 has a role in the etiology of NSCLP.
Project description:Patient satisfaction with the shape and appearance of their nose after orthognathic surgery-based skeletofacial reconstruction is an important, but often overlooked, outcome. We assessed the nose-related outcomes through a recently developed patient-reported outcome instrument and a widely adopted 3D computer-based objective outcome instrument, to verify any correlation in the results produced by these tools. We collected FACE-Q nose appearance reports (2 scales) and 3D nasal morphometry (10 parameters) from patients with class III skeletal pattern and congenital cleft lip palate deformity (n?=?23) or developmental dentofacial deformity (n?=?23) after (>12 months) skeletofacial reconstruction. The cleft and dentofacial cohorts demonstrated significantly (p?<?0.001) poorer satisfaction scores with regard to the FACE-Q nostrils scale than the normal age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched subjects (n?=?107), without any significant difference in FACE-Q nose scale. The cleft cohort had significantly (p?<?0.001) smaller nasal length, nasal tip projection, and columellar angle and greater nasal protrusion, alar width, and columellar-labial angle values than the dentofacial and normal cohorts; however, there were no significant differences between the dentofacial versus normal cohorts. The FACE-Q nose and nostrils scales were significantly (p?<?0.001; r?=?-0.26-0.27) correlated to the results of the 3D morphometric analysis, with regard to nasal length, alar width, columella angle, and columellar-labial angle parameters. This study revealed differences in satisfaction with the appearance of the nose according to the type of underlying deformity, and demonstrated a significant correlation (low correlation coefficients) between the patient-reports and 3D image-based outcome measure tools, which has implications for multidisciplinary-centered research, auditing, and clinical care.
Project description:Non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) is a common congenital malformation with a multifactorial model of inheritance. Although several at-risk alleles have been identified, they do not completely explain the high heritability. We postulate that epigenetic factors as DNA methylation might contribute to this missing heritability. Using a Methylome-wide association study in a Brazilian cohort (67 NSCLP, 59 controls), we found 578 methylation variable positions (MVPs) that were significantly associated with NSCLP. MVPs were enriched in regulatory and active regions of the genome and in pathways already implicated in craniofacial development. In an independent UK cohort (171 NSCLP, 177 controls), we replicated 4 out of 11 tested MVPs. We demonstrated a significant positive correlation between blood and lip tissue DNA methylation, indicating blood as a suitable tissue for NSCLP methylation studies. Next, we quantified CDH1 promoter methylation levels in CDH1 mutation-positive families, including penetrants, non-penetrants or non-carriers for NSCLP. We found methylation levels to be significantly higher in the penetrant individuals. Taken together, our results demonstrated the association of methylation at specific genomic locations as contributing factors to both non-familial and familial NSCLP and altered DNA methylation may be a second hit contributing to penetrance.
Project description:Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) is critical for craniofacial development, epidermal differentiation, and tissue repair. IRF6 mutations cause Van der Woude Syndrome (VWS) and Popliteal Pterygium Syndrome. Individuals with VWS exhibit craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip and palate and lip pits. Furthermore, they have an increased risk for wound-healing complications following surgical repair when compared with patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP). However, nothing is known about the skin of these patients. The objective was to characterize the skin of patients with VWS. We hypothesize that IRF6 is required for proper skin homeostasis in humans.Discarded tissue from a hip was collected during surgical alveolar bone graft. Samples from children with VWS harboring IRF6 mutations (n = 2) were compared with samples from children with NSCLP (n = 7). Histology was assessed following hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, IRF6, P63, and Keratin 10 were determined by immunofluorescence. Keratinocytes were isolated and their proliferation potential was assessed by colony-forming efficiency assay.Hip skin from children with VWS showed a thicker epidermis when compared with that from children with NSCLP. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen staining revealed an increase in proliferation in syndromic tissues when compared with controls. However, P63 and Keratin 10 expression were similar between groups. Finally, keratinocytes from VWS showed increased long-term proliferation when compared with NSCLP.These results support, in vivo and in vitro, a previously described role for IRF6 in epidermal proliferation in humans. They further demonstrate a critical function for IRF6 in cutaneous homeostasis.
Project description:Orofacial clefts (OFC; MIM 119530) are among the most common major birth defects. Here, we carried out mutation screening of the PVR and PVRL2 genes, which are both located at an OFC linkage region at 19q13 (OFC3) and are closely related to PVRL1, which has been associated with both syndromic and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (nsCLP). We screened a total of 73 nsCLP patients and 105 non-cleft controls from the USA for variants in PVR and PVRL2, including all exons and encompassing all isoforms. We identified four variants in PVR and five in PVRL2. One non-synonymous PVR variant, A67T, was more frequent among nsCLP patients than among normal controls, but this difference did not achieve statistical significance.
Project description:Background:Orofacial cleft is the most common congenital defect of the maxillofacial region. Its non-syndromic type is multi-factorial, and several genes are involved in its occurrence. This study aimed to assess the interaction effect of Rsal and BamHI polymorphisms of Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGFα) gene and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP2) and BMP4 variants on the occurrence of Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate (NSCLP) in the Iranian population. Methods:This case-control study was conducted on 120 children with NSCLP and 215 healthy children. Genotyping of the TGFA/BamHI (rs11466297), TGFA/RsaI (rs37322-48), BMP4 (rs17563) and BMP2 (rs235768) was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Logistic regression was applied to determine the effective factors and the interaction effect of different variants on the occurrence of NSCLP. Results:Gender of patients had no significant association with the occurrence of NSCLP (p=0.335). Multiple logistic regression showed that the interaction effect of the aforementioned polymorphisms on the occurrence of NSCLP was not statistically significant (p=1.000). Conclusion:Although the individual effect of each of the BMP4, BMP2, RsaI and BamHI variants on the occurrence of NSCLP in the Iranian population has been previously confirmed, their interaction does not play a role in this respect.
Project description:Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is a common birth defect affecting 135,000 newborns worldwide each year. While a multifactorial etiology has been suggested as the cause, despite decades of research, the genetic underpinnings of NSCLP remain largely unexplained. In our previous genome-wide linkage study of a large NSCLP African-American family, we identified a candidate locus at 8q21.3-24.12 (LOD = 2.98). This region contained four genes, Frizzled-6 (FZD6), Matrilin-2 (MATN2), Odd-skipped related 2 (OSR2) and Solute Carrier Family 25, Member 32 (SLC25A32). FZD6 was located under the maximum linkage peak. In this study, we sequenced the coding and noncoding regions of these genes in two affected family members, and identified a rare variant in intron 1 of FZD6 (rs138557689; c.-153 + 432A>C). The variant C allele segregated with NSCLP in this family, through affected and unaffected individuals, and was found in one other NSCLP African-American family. Functional assays showed that this allele creates an allele-specific protein-binding site and decreases promoter activity. We also observed that loss and gain of fzd6 in zebrafish contributes to craniofacial anomalies. FZD6 regulates the WNT signaling pathway, which is involved in craniofacial development, including midfacial formation and upper labial fusion. We hypothesize, therefore, that alteration in FZD6 expression contributes to NSCLP in this family by perturbing the WNT signaling pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is a common birth defect with multifactorial etiology. Genetic studies have identified numerous gene variants in association with NSCLP. IFT88 (intraflagellar transport 88) has been suggested to play a major role in craniofacial development, as Ift88 mutant mice exhibit cleft palate and mutations in IFT88 were identified in individuals with NSCLP. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of IFT88 single nucleotide gene variants (SNVs) with NSCLP in a large family data set consisting of non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic families. METHODS:Nine SNVs in/nearby IFT88 were genotyped in 482 NHW families and 301 Hispanic NSCLP families. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan® chemistry. Single- and pairwise-SNV association analyses were performed for all families stratified by ethnicity and family history of NSCLP using the family-based association test (FBAT), and association in the presence of linkage (APL). Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing and p values ?.0055 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS:Significant association was found between IFT88 rs9509311 and rs2497490 and NSCLP in NHW all families (p =?.004 and .005, respectively), while nominal associations were found for rs7998361 and rs9509307 (p <?.05). Pairwise association analyses also showed nominal associations between NSCLP in both NHW and Hispanic data sets (p <?.05). No association was found between individual variants in IFT88 and NSCLP in Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that variation in IFT88 may contribute to NSCLP risk, particularly in multiplex families from a non-Hispanic white population.
Project description:Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is a common birth defect. Genetic and environmental factors have been causally implicated and studies have begun to delineate genetic contributions. The Wnt genes are involved in regulating mid-face development and upper lip fusion and are therefore strong candidates for an etiological role in NSCLP. Furthermore, the clf1 region in A/WyN clefting susceptible mice contains the Wnt3 and Wnt9B genes. To assess the role of the Wnt family of genes in NSCLP, we interrogated seven Wnt genes (Wnt3, Wnt3A, Wnt5A, Wnt7A, Wnt8A, Wnt9B and Wnt11) in our well-defined NSCLP dataset. Thirty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 132 multiplex NSCLP families and 354 simplex parent-child trios. In the entire dataset, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three genes, Wnt3A (P = 0.006), Wnt 5A (P = 0.002) and Wnt11 (P = 0.0001) were significantly associated with NSCLP after correction for multiple testing. When stratified by ethnicity, the strongest associations were found for SNPs in Wnt3A (P = 0.0007), Wnt11 (P = 0.0012) and Wnt8A (P = 0.0013). Multiple haplotypes in Wnt genes were associated with NSCLP, and gene-gene interactions were observed between Wnt3A and both Wnt3 and Wnt5A (P = 0.004 and P = 0.039, respectively). This data suggests that alteration in Wnt gene function may perturb formation and/or fusion of the facial processes and predispose to NSCLP.