Poor Motor Performance - Do Peers Matter? Examining the Role of Peer Relations in the Context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to investigate pathways of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis concerning the role of peer relations in the context of poor motor skills. First, we examined (1) the mediating role of peer problems in the association between motor performance in daily activities and internalizing problems as a main pathway of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis. Furthermore, we explored the role of (2) children's popularity as a mediator and (3) best friendship quality as a moderator path of the effect of motor performance on both peer problems and internalizing problems. The non-clinical sample of the present study consisted of 189 children (48.6% females) aged 9-11 years (Mage = 9.69, SDage = 0.46). Parents reported on their child's motor performance in daily activities by completing the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess peer problems as well as internalizing problems. The Self Description Questionnaire provided a measure of children's self-reported popularity. The Friendship Quality Questionnaire was used to investigate children's best friendship quality. Results of a structural equation model suggest that peer problems fully mediated the association between the motor performance in daily activities and both popularity and internalizing problems. However, no evidence for the mediating effect of popularity in the association between peer problems and internalizing problems was found. Further, best friendship quality had a non-significant moderating effect on the relation between peer problems and internalizing problems. The mediating role of peer problems highlights the importance of peer relations in the motor performance of daily activities. Schools and psychomotor interventions were suggested as practical implications to support children with poor motor performance in their relationship with their peers and to improve their motor performance in daily activities.
Project description:RATIONALE:Mental health disorders often arise during adolescence, with disruptive behavior disorders and anxiety disorders among the most common. Given the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, and research suggesting that mental health disorders negatively impact social functioning, this study uses novel methodology from social network analysis to uncover the social processes linking disruptive behavior disorders and anxiety disorders with adolescent friendships. In particular, the study focuses on peer withdrawal, peer popularity, and peer homophily in relation to both disorders. METHODS:Data come from 15-year old students in four Scottish secondary schools (N = 602). Diagnoses of disruptive behavior disorders and anxiety disorders were produced using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and peer relationship data were obtained through a friendship nomination survey. Exponential random graph models were used to estimate the probability of peer withdrawal, peer popularity, and peer homophily based on each disorder. RESULTS:Results demonstrated that adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders were more popular than their peers without disruptive behavior disorders (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.20, 1.87). Friendship was also more likely between two adolescents both with or both without disruptive behavior disorders (OR: 1.26, CI: 1.07, 1.47), demonstrating peer homophily. There was no evidence that anxiety disorders were related to adolescent peer relationships. CONCLUSIONS:Findings from this study suggest that disruptive behavior disorders may be socially rewarded (e.g., peer popularity) and socially clustered (e.g., homophily), whereas anxiety disorders show no such trends. Thus, intervention efforts must account for the peer social status that may be gained from engaging in disruptive behavior during this developmental period. Further, given that similarity in DBD status is associated with an increased likelihood of friendship, adolescents are likely to be surrounded by peers who reinforce their behaviors.
Project description:Adolescents interact with their peers in multiple social settings and form various types of peer relationships that affect drinking behavior. Friendship and popularity perceptions constitute critical relationships during adolescence. These two relations are commonly measured by asking students to name their friends, and this network is used to construct drinking exposure and peer status variables. This study takes a multiplex network approach by examining the congruity between friendships and popularity as correlates of adolescent drinking. Using data on friendship and popularity nominations among high school adolescents in Los Angeles, California (N = 1707; five schools), we examined the associations between an adolescent's drinking and drinking by (a) their friends only; (b) multiplexed friendships, friends also perceived as popular; and (c) congruent, multiplexed-friends, close friends perceived as popular. Logistic regression results indicated that friend-only drinking, but not multiplexed-friend drinking, was significantly associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.51, p < 0.05). However, congruent, multiplexed-friend drinking also was associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.10, p < 0.05). This study provides insight into how adolescent health behavior is predicated on the multiplexed nature of peer relationships. The results have implications for the design of health promotion interventions for adolescent drinking.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Aside from primary vestibular symptoms such as vertigo and dizziness, persons with vestibular dysfunction frequently express cognitive and motor problems. These symptoms have mainly been assessed in single-task setting, which might not represent activities of daily living accurately. Therefore, a dual-task protocol, consisting of the simultaneous performance of cognitive and motor tasks, was developed. This protocol assesses cognitive and motor performance in general, as well as cognitive-motor interference in specific. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The motor component of the 2BALANCE protocol consists of a static and dynamic postural task. These motor tasks are combined with different cognitive tasks assessing visuospatial cognition, processing speed, working memory and response inhibition. First, test-retest reliability will be assessed with an interval of 2 weeks in a group of young adults. Second, the 2BALANCE protocol will be validated in persons with bilateral vestibulopathy. Finally, the protocol will be implemented in persons with unilateral vestibular loss. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:The 2BALANCE project aims to elucidate the impact of vestibular dysfunction on cognitive and motor performance in dual-task setting. This protocol represents everyday situations better than single-task protocols, as dual-tasks such as reading street signs while walking are often encountered during daily activities. Ultimately, this project could enable individualised and holistic clinical care in these patients, taking into account single as well as dual-task performance. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The current study was approved by the ethics committee of Ghent University Hospital on 5 July 2019 with registration number B670201940465. All research findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at vestibular as well as multidisciplinary international conferences and meetings. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT04126798, pre-results phase.
Project description:This study uses recent data to investigate if smoking initiation diffuses through friendship networks over the high school period and explores if diffusion processes differ across schools. One thousand four hundred and twenty-five racially and ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in Los Angeles were surveyed four times over the high school period from 2010 to 2013. Probit regression models and stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics tested for peer effects on smoking initiation. Friend smoking was found to predict adolescent smoking, and smoking initiation diffused through friendship networks in some but not all of the schools. School differences in smoking rates and the popularity of smokers may be linked to differences in the diffusion of smoking through peer networks. We conclude that there are differences in peer effects on smoking initiation across schools that will be important to account for in network-based smoking interventions.
Project description:The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms (n = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms (n = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms (n = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 (Mage = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.
Project description:Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD.PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs) in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into 'friendship', 'peer status', 'social skills/competence', and 'peer victimisation and bullying'. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review.All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls' conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes. Further, very high levels of social impairment and social skills deficits, with large effect sizes, were found across all studies. Levels of pro-social behaviour varied across studies, but were mostly lower in girls with ADHD, with small to large effect sizes. Overall, social disability was significantly higher among girls with ADHD than among TD girls.Congruous evidence was found for peer functioning difficulties in the peer relationship domains of friendship, peer status, social skills/competence, and peer victimisation and bullying in girls with ADHD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and dietary phenylalanine and tyrosine restriction improves physical health and life expectancy in Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1). However, neurocognitive outcome is suboptimal. This study aimed to investigate behavior problems and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in NTBC-dietary-treated TT1 and to relate this to phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations. RESULTS:Thirty-one TT1 patients (19 males; mean age 13.9?±?5.3?years) were included in this study. Emotional and behavioral problems, as measured by the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, were present in almost all domains. Attention and thought problems were particularly evident. HR-QoL was assessed by the TNO AZL Children's and Adults QoL questionnaires. Poorer HR-QoL as compared to reference populations was observed for the domains: independent daily functioning, cognitive functioning and school performance, social contacts, motor functioning, and vitality. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were associated with low phenylalanine (and associated lower tyrosine) concentrations during the first year of life. In contrast, high tyrosine (and associated higher phenylalanine) concentrations during life and specifically the last year before testing were associated with more internalizing behavior and/or HR-QoL problems. CONCLUSIONS:TT1 patients showed several behavior problems and a lower HR-QoL. Associations with metabolic control differed for different age periods. This suggests the need for continuous fine-tuning and monitoring of dietary treatment to keep phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations within target ranges in NTBC-treated TT1 patients.
Project description:In this study, we examined the dynamics of the perception of "dislike" ties (reputational dislike) among adolescents within the contexts of friendship, perceived popularity, substance use, and Facebook use. Survey data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 238 adolescents from the 11th and 12th grades in one California high school. We estimated stochastic actor-based network dynamic models, using reports of reputational dislike, friendships, and perceived popularity, to identify factors associated with the maintenance and generation reputational dislike ties. The results showed that high-status adolescents and more frequent Facebook users tended to become perceived as or stay disliked by their peers over time. There was a tendency for friendships to promote the creation and maintenance of reputational disliking but not vice versa. Adolescents tended to perceive others as disliked when their friends also perceived them as disliked. There was no evidence that either cigarette smoking or drinking alcohol affected reputational dislike dynamics. This study highlights the important role that the hierarchical peer system, online peer context, and friendships play in driving information diffusion of negative peer relations among adolescents.
Project description:Studies have identified concurrent, longitudinal, and bidirectional associations between language difficulties and internalizing problems. This is commonly explained by social exclusion or withdrawal from peers, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study uses sibling data to investigate if the comorbidity between language difficulties and internalizing problems is best explained by familial factors shared by siblings, such as genes or family environment, or nonfamilial factors specific to each child, such as peer environment. Data include 5,568 siblings at 5 years and 3,654 siblings at 8 years participating in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We constructed a latent factor model at 5 and 8 years, including a family comorbidity factor capturing correlations between language and internalizing problems that were equally strong between as within siblings. Results showed that the correlation between one sibling's internalizing problems and the other sibling's language problems was mostly accounted for by a family comorbidity factor. The best-fitting longitudinal model included stability of the family comorbidity factor and stability of language and internalizing problems within each sibling and no cross-sibling or cross-trait longitudinal associations. This suggests that the association between language and internalizing problems may be best explained by family factors.
Project description:Irritability is a subdimension of ODD, which predicts mainly to internalizing disorders, and to a lesser extent, conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Given that youth with similar dispositions as the irritable types - as well as youth high in callous-unemotional (CU) traits - have both been reported to experience high levels of victimization by peers, the authors examined an extension of the failure model (Patterson & Capaldi, 1990): that irritability increases peer victimization, which, in turn, predicts both CU and internalizing symptoms.Using data from 5,923 mother-child pairs participating in The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, the authors tested the outcomes of internalizing difficulties and callous-unemotional traits (based on mother report at age 13) via the predictors (at ages 8 and 10) of irritability (mother report) and the experience of peer victimization (youth report).Irritability and peer victimization (age 10) directly predicted both CU and internalizing difficulties (age 13). Contrary to strict interpretation of the failure model, the significant indirect pathway described peer victimization (age 8) as increasing irritability (age 10), which, in turn, increased both CU and internalizing difficulties (age 13).Results suggest that - for youth with irritable dispositions - co-occurring CU and internalizing difficulties can be acquired via adverse experiences in the social environment.