Use of Physiologically Based Kinetic Modeling to Predict Rat Gut Microbial Metabolism of the Isoflavone Daidzein to S-Equol and Its Consequences for ER? Activation.
ABSTRACT: SCOPE:To predict gut microbial metabolism of xenobiotics and the resulting plasma concentrations of metabolites formed, an in vitro-in silico-based testing strategy is developed using the isoflavone daidzein and its gut microbial metabolite S-equol as model compounds. METHODS AND RESULTS:Anaerobic rat fecal incubations are optimized and performed to derive the apparent maximum velocities (Vmax ) and Michaelis-Menten constants (Km ) for gut microbial conversion of daidzein to dihydrodaidzein, S-equol, and O-desmethylangolensin, which are input as parameters for a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model. The inclusion of gut microbiota in the PBK model allows prediction of S-equol concentrations and slightly reduced predicted maximal daidzein concentrations from 2.19 to 2.16 µm. The resulting predicted concentrations of daidzein and S-equol are comparable to in vivo concentrations reported. CONCLUSION:The optimized in vitro approach to quantify kinetics for gut microbial conversions, and the newly developed PBK model for rats that includes gut microbial metabolism, provide a unique tool to predict the in vivo consequences of daidzein microbial metabolism for systemic exposure of the host to daidzein and its metabolite S-equol. The predictions reveal a dominant role for daidzein in ER?-mediated estrogenicity despite the higher estrogenic potency of its microbial metabolite S-equol.
Project description:The metabolism of isoflavones by gut bacteria plays a key role in the availability and bioactivation of these compounds in the intestine. Daidzein and genistein are the most common dietary soy isoflavones. While daidzein conversion yielding equol has been known for some time, the corresponding formation of 5-hydroxy-equol from genistein has not been reported previously. We isolated a strictly anaerobic bacterium (Mt1B8) from the mouse intestine which converted daidzein via dihydrodaidzein to equol as well as genistein via dihydrogenistein to 5-hydroxy-equol. Strain Mt1B8 was a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium identified as a member of the Coriobacteriaceae. Strain Mt1B8 also transformed dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein to equol and 5-hydroxy-equol, respectively. The conversion of daidzein, genistein, dihydrodaidzein, and dihydrogenistein in the stationary growth phase depended on preincubation with the corresponding isoflavonoid, indicating enzyme induction. Moreover, dihydrogenistein was transformed even more rapidly in the stationary phase when strain Mt1B8 was grown on either genistein or daidzein. Growing the cells on daidzein also enabled conversion of genistein. This suggests that the same enzymes are involved in the conversion of the two isoflavones.
Project description:(S)-Equol, a gut bacterial isoflavone derivative, has drawn great attention because of its potent use for relieving female postmenopausal symptoms and preventing prostate cancer. Previous studies have reported on the dietary isoflavone metabolism of several human gut bacteria and the involved enzymes for conversion of daidzein to (S)-equol. However, the anaerobic growth conditions required by the gut bacteria and the low productivity and yield of (S)-equol limit its efficient production using only natural gut bacteria. In this study, the low (S)-equol biosynthesis of gut microorganisms was overcome by cloning the four enzymes involved in the biosynthesis from Slackia isoflavoniconvertens into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The reaction conditions were optimized for (S)-equol production from the recombinant strain, and this recombinant system enabled the efficient conversion of 200 μM and 1 mM daidzein to (S)-equol under aerobic conditions, achieving yields of 95% and 85%, respectively. Since the biosynthesis of trans-tetrahydrodaidzein was found to be a rate-determining step for (S)-equol production, dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR) was subjected to rational site-directed mutagenesis. The introduction of the DHDR P212A mutation increased the (S)-equol productivity from 59.0 mg/liter/h to 69.8 mg/liter/h in the whole-cell reaction. The P212A mutation caused an increase in the (S)-dihydrodaidzein enantioselectivity by decreasing the overall activity of DHDR, resulting in undetectable activity for (R)-dihydrodaidzein, such that a combination of the DHDR P212A mutant with dihydrodaidzein racemase enabled the production of (3S,4R)-tetrahydrodaidzein with an enantioselectivity of >99%.
Project description:A newly isolated rod-shaped, gram-negative anaerobic bacterium from human feces, named Julong 732, was found to be capable of metabolizing the isoflavone dihydrodaidzein to S-equol under anaerobic conditions. The metabolite, equol, was identified by using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and UV spectral analyses. However, strain Julong 732 was not able to produce equol from daidzein, and tetrahydrodaidzein and dehydroequol, which are most likely intermediates in the anaerobic metabolism of dihydrodaidzein, were not detected in bacterial culture medium containing dihydrodaidzein. Chiral stationary-phase high-performance liquid chromatography eluted only one metabolite, S-equol, which was produced from a bacterial culture containing a racemic mixture of dihydrodaidzein. Strain Julong 732 did not show racemase activity to transform R-equol to S-equol and vice versa. Its full 16S rRNA gene sequence (1,429 bp) had 92.8% similarity to that of Eggerthella hongkongenis HKU10. This is the first report of a single bacterium capable of converting a racemic mixture of dihydrodaidzein to enantiomeric pure S-equol.
Project description:Gut bacteria play a key role in the metabolism of dietary isoflavones, thereby influencing the availability and bioactivation of these polyphenols in the intestine. The human intestinal bacterium Slackia isoflavoniconvertens converts the main soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein to equol and 5-hydroxy-equol, respectively. Cell extracts of S. isoflavoniconvertens catalyzed the conversion of daidzein via dihydrodaidzein to equol and that of genistein to dihydrogenistein. Growth of S. isoflavoniconvertens in the presence of daidzein led to the induction of several proteins as observed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Based on determined peptide sequences, we identified a cluster of eight genes encoding the daidzein-induced proteins. Heterologous expression of three of these genes in Escherichia coli and enzyme activity tests with the resulting cell extracts identified the corresponding gene products as a daidzein reductase (DZNR), a dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR), and a tetrahydrodaidzein reductase (THDR). The recombinant DZNR also converted genistein to dihydrogenistein at higher rates than were observed for the conversion of daidzein to dihydrodaidzein. Higher rates were also observed with cell extracts of S. isoflavoniconvertens. The recombinant DHDR and THDR catalyzed the reduction of dihydrodaidzein to equol, while the corresponding conversion of dihydrogenistein to 5-hydroxy-equol was not observed. The DZNR, DHDR, and THDR were expressed as Strep-tag fusion proteins and subsequently purified by affinity chromatography. The purified enzymes were further characterized with regard to their activity, stereochemistry, quaternary structure, and content of flavin cofactors.
Project description:Equol is metabolized from daidzein, a soy isoflavone, by the gut microflora. In this study, we identified a novel dihydrodaidzein racemase (L-DDRC) that is involved in equol biosynthesis in a lactic acid bacterium, Lactococcus sp. strain 20-92, and confirmed that histidine-tagged recombinant L-DDRC (L-DDRC-His) was able to convert both the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of dihydrodaidzein to the racemate. Moreover, we showed that recombinant L-DDRC-His was essential for in vitro equol production from daidzein by a recombinant enzyme mixture and that efficient in vitro equol production from daidzein was possible using at least four enzymes, including L-DDRC. We also proposed a model of the metabolic pathway from daidzein to equol in Lactococcus strain 20-92.
Project description:Equol is a metabolite produced from daidzein by enteric microflora, and it has attracted a great deal of attention because of its protective or ameliorative ability against several sex hormone-dependent diseases (e.g., menopausal disorder and lower bone density), which is more potent than that of other isoflavonoids. We purified a novel NADP(H)-dependent daidzein reductase (L-DZNR) from Lactococcus strain 20-92 (Lactococcus 20-92; S. Uchiyama, T. Ueno, and T. Suzuki, international patent WO2005/000042) that is involved in the metabolism of soy isoflavones and equol production and converts daidzein to dihydrodaidzein. Partial amino acid sequences were determined from purified L-DZNR, and the gene encoding L-DZNR was cloned. The nucleotide sequence of this gene consists of an open reading frame of 1,935 nucleotides, and the deduced amino acid sequence consists of 644 amino acids. L-DZNR contains two cofactor binding motifs and an 4Fe-4S cluster. It was further suggested that L-DZNR was an NAD(H)/NADP(H):flavin oxidoreductase belonging to the old yellow enzyme (OYE) family. Recombinant histidine-tagged L-DZNR was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein converted daidzein to (S)-dihydrodaidzein with enantioselectivity. This is the first report of the isolation of an enzyme related to daidzein metabolism and equol production in enteric bacteria.
Project description:Much attention has been focused on the biological effects of equol, a metabolite of daidzein produced by intestinal microbiota. However, little is known about the role of isoflavone metabolizing bacteria in the intestinal microbiota. Recently, we isolated a dihydrodaidzein (DHD)-producing Clostridium-like bacterium, strain TM-40, from human feces. We investigated the effects of strain TM-40 on in vitro daidzein metabolism by human fecal microbiota from a male equol producer and two male equol non-producers. In the fecal suspension from the male equol non-producer and DHD producer, DHD was detected in the in vitro fecal incubation of daidzein after addition of TM-40. The DHD concentration increased as the concentration of strain TM-40 increased. In the fecal suspension from the equol producer, the fecal equol production was increased by the addition of strain TM-40. The occupation ratios of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillales were higher in the equol non-producers than in the equol producer. Adding isoflavone-metabolizing bacteria to the fecal microbiota should facilitate the estimation of the metabolism of isoflavonoids by fecal microbiota. Studies on the interactions among equol-producing microbiota and DHD-producing bacteria might lead to clarification of some of the mechanisms regulating the production of equol by fecal microbiota.
Project description:Given the emerging evidence of equol's benefit to human health, understanding its synthesis and regulation in equol-producing bacteria is of paramount importance. Adlercreutzia equolifaciens DSM19450T is a human intestinal bacterium -for which the whole genome sequence is publicly available- that produces equol from the daidzein isoflavone. In the present work, daidzein (between 50 to 200 μM) was completely metabolized by cultures of A. equolifaciens DSM19450T after 10 h of incubation. However, only about one third of the added isoflavone was transformed into dihydrodaidzein and then into equol. Transcriptional analysis of the ORFs and intergenic regions of the bacterium's equol gene cluster was therefore undertaken using RT-PCR and RT-qPCR techniques with the aim of identifying the genetic elements of equol biosynthesis and its regulation mechanisms. Compared to controls cultured without daidzein, the expression of all 13 contiguous genes in the equol cluster was enhanced in the presence of the isoflavone. Depending on the gene and the amount of daidzein in the medium, overexpression varied from 0.5- to about 4-log10 units. Four expression patterns of transcription were identified involving genes within the cluster. The genes dzr, ddr and tdr, which code for daidzein reductase, dihydrodaidzein reductase and tetrahydrodaidzein reductase respectively, and which have been shown involved in equol biosynthesis, were among the most strongly expressed genes in the cluster. These expression patterns correlated with the location of four putative ρ-independent terminator sequences in the cluster. All the intergenic regions were amplified by RT-PCR, indicating the operon to be transcribed as a single RNA molecule. These findings provide new knowledge on the metabolic transformation of daidzein into equol by A. equolifaciens DSM19450T, which might help in efforts to increase the endogenous formation of this compound and/or its biotechnological production.
Project description:Soy isoflavones and their metabolism by intestinal microbiota have gained attention because of potential health benefits, such as the alleviation of estrogen/hormone-related conditions in postmenopausal women, associated with some of these compounds. However, overall changes in gut bacterial community structure and composition in response to addition of soy isoflavones to diets and their association with excreted isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine fecal bacterial community changes in 17 postmenopausal women after a week of diet supplementation with soy bars containing isoflavones, and to determine correlations between microbial community changes and excreted isoflavone metabolites. Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM p<0.03) before and after soy supplementation in all subjects. However, between subjects comparisons showed high inter-individual variation that resulted in clustering of profiles by subjects. Urinary excretion of isoflavone (daidzein) metabolites indicated four subjects were equol producers and all subjects produced O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA). Comparison of relative proportions of 16S rRNA genes from 454 pyrosequencing of the last fecal samples of each treatment session revealed significant increases in average proportions of Bifidobacterium after soy consumption, and Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium were significantly greater in equol vs non-S-(-)equol producers. This is the first in vivo study using pyrosequencing to characterize significant differences in fecal community structure and composition in postmenopausal women after a week of soy diet-supplementation, and relate these changes to differences in soy isoflavones and isoflavone metabolites.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00244907.
Project description:Background:Consumption of diet high in soy products is suggested to contribute to lower prostate cancer incidence in Asian men. But little has been known about the influences of dietary patterns on gut microbiota and microbiota-mediated isoflavone metabolism. Here, we determined the influences of western pattern diet on prostate carcinogenesis, gut microbiota and microbiota-mediated equol metabolism using a transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Methods:We mimicked the western pattern diet using a high fat diet (HFD). TRAMP mice were fed with either control diet (CD) or HFD. At the age of 24?weeks, mice were orally administered daidzein over a 4-day period, and then sacrificed. The serum daidzein and equol were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. Fecal microbiome was analyzed with fecal 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and prostate was dissected and performed with histopathology. Results:HFD could promote prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice (p?=?0.045). The daidzein showed no significant differences between CD and HFD groups, while equol was significantly decreased in HFD group (p?=?0.019). Fecal microbiotas differed between the two groups, 21 microbial phylotypes were increased and 11 phylotypes were decreased in abundance in HFD group, including decreased abundance of equol-producing bacterium Adlercreutzia (0.08% vs. 0.27%). Conclusions:HFD may promote prostate carcinogenesis through adversely affecting equol-producing bacterium. Further functional validations are required to ascertain the mechanism of those HFD-responsive bacteria in carcinogenesis.