First-line R-CVP versus R-CHOP induction immunochemotherapy for indolent lymphoma with rituximab maintenance. A multicentre, phase III randomized study by the Polish Lymphoma Research Group PLRG4.
ABSTRACT: R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) and R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone + rituximab) are immunochemotherapy regimens frequently used for remission induction of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (iNHLs). Rituximab maintenance (RM) significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with complete/partial remission (CR/PR). Here we report the final results of a randomized study comparing R-CVP to R-CHOP both followed by RM. Untreated patients in need of systemic therapy with symptomatic and progressive iNHLs including follicular (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), small lymphocytic (SLL), and lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) lymphoma were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive R-CVP or R-CHOP for eight cycles or until complete response (CR). All patients with CR/PR (partial response) received RM 375 mg/m2 q 2 months for 12 cycles. Primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Two-hundred and fifty patients [FL 42%, MZL/MALT 38%, LPL/ Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (WM) 11%, SLL 9%] were enrolled and randomized (R-CHOP: 127, R-CVP: 123). Median age was 56 years (21-85), 44% were male, 90% were in stage III-IV, 43% of FL patients had a Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ?3, and 33·4% of all patients had an IPI score ?3. At the end of induction treatment, the CR/PR rate was 43·6/50·9% and 36·3/60·8% in the R-CHOP and R-CVP groups (P = 0·218) respectively. After a median follow-up of 67, 66, and 70 months, five-year EFS was 61% vs. 56% (not significant), progression-free survival (PFS) was 71% vs. 69% (not significant) and overall survival (OS) was 84% vs. 89% in the R-CHOP vs. the R-CVP arm respectively. Grade III/IV adverse events (65 vs. 22) occurred in 40 (33·1%) and 18 (15·3%) patients, P = 0·001; neutropenia in 16 (11·6%) and 4 (3·4%) patients, P = 0·017; infection in 14 (10·7%) and 3 (2·5%) patients,; P = 0·011; and a second neoplasm in three versus seven patients., in the R-CHOP and the R-CVP groups respectively. This multicentre randomized study with >five-year follow-up shows similar outcome in patients with indolent lymphoma in need of systemic therapy treated with R-CVP or R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and rituximab maintenance in both arms. The minor toxicity of the R-CVP regimen makes it a reasonable choice for induction treatment, leaving other active agents like doxorubicin or bendamustin for second-line therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Follicular lymphoma (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) are types of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that develop in the B lymphocytes (also known as B cells). OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review of studies relating to cost effectiveness, costs and resource use, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with FL or MZL. METHODS:Three separate systematic reviews were conducted to identify all published evidence on cost effectiveness, costs and resource use, and HRQoL between 2007 and March 2017 using the MEDLINE<sup>®</sup>, MEDLINE in-process, E-pubs ahead of print (Ovid SP<sup>®</sup>), Embase (Ovid SP<sup>®</sup>), NHS EED, and EconLit databases. Select congress proceedings were also searched. Two systematic reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full papers against eligibility criteria. Relevant data were extracted into bespoke data extraction templates (DETs) by a single systematic reviewer; these data were then validated for accuracy by a second reviewer against clean copies of the relevant publications. RESULTS:A total of 25 cost-effectiveness studies (24 in FL; 1 in FL and MZL) met the eligibility criteria. Markov models were the most utilised cost-effectiveness model. US FL studies reported an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $28,565/QALY for first-line rituximab-cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) versus CVP, and $43,000/QALY for second-line obinutuzumab plus bendamustine (G?+?B) followed by G maintenance versus B. In the UK, ICERs were £1529-10,834/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for first-line rituximab?+?chemotherapy versus chemotherapy, £27,988/QALY for second-line G?+?B?+?G-maintenance versus B, and £62,653/QALY for second-line idelalisib versus chemotherapy and/or rituximab. Five costs/resource use and four HRQoL studies were identified in FL, and none in MZL. US mean lifetime costs in first-line patients ranged from $108,000 (rituximab) to $130,300 (rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine and prednisolone [CHOP]), and from £2185 (watch-and-wait) to £17,054 (chemotherapy) in the UK. In a multinational study, more rituximab-refractory patients receiving G?+?B?+?G-maintenance reported a meaningful improvement in total FACT-Lym scores compared with patients receiving B. In the UK, total FACT-Lym scores were meaningfully higher for newly diagnosed patients compared with patients with progression (136.04 vs. 109.7). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:We found a small body of evidence of quality of life, and potentially cost-effective treatment options for FL; however, no evidence was reported on MZL specifically. The significant data gaps in knowledge in these diseases demonstrate a marked need for further studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Real-world data about the treatment outcomes of patients receiving rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance are required to understand better the treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). METHODS:A cross-sectional study analyzed FL patients who were treated with R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) or R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and rituximab maintenance. RESULTS:Of 139 patients, 85 patients received R-CVP and 54 received R-CHOP. The characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. Only grade 3 of FL was more common in R-CHOP. The complete response rate did not differ significantly between R-CHOP (50/54, 92.6%) and R-CVP (77/85, 90.6%). The number of disease relapses during rituximab maintenance did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.798). Therefore, the comparison of progression-free survival (PFS) showed no significant difference: the 3-year PFS rates for R-CVP and R-CHOP were 77% and 85%, respectively (p = 0.567). Although five of 56 hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive patients experienced HBV reactivation, all cases of HBV reactivation were identified during regular monitoring for HBV DNA in blood, and were successfully managed with antiviral treatment. CONCLUSION:The survival outcomes of FL patients on rituximab maintenance after responding to R-CVP or R-CHOP were similar. Rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy followed by rituximab maintenance can be safely used for anti-HBc-positive patients if HBV DNA titer in blood can be regularly monitored.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The response rate and survival improvement for rituximab, a CD20-targeting monoclonal antibody, have been demonstrated in marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapeutic regimens, yet relapses still occur despite treatment completion. Thus, extending the period of remission in MZL patients remains an essential goal. This multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase II study evaluated the survival efficacy of 2 years of rituximab-maintenance therapy in patients with stage III-IV CD20-positive MZL who had responded to first-line R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone). The objective of this study was to determine whether rituximab maintenance following R-CVP warrants further investigation. METHODS:Prior to rituximab-maintenance therapy, patients received 6-8 cycles of first-line R-CVP therapy for stage III-IV MZL. Rituximab (375 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2), and vincristine (1.4 mg/m2; maximum 2 mg) were administered via an intravenous infusion on day 1 of each 3-week cycle, while oral prednisolone (100 mg) was given on days 1-5 of each 3-week cycle. The patients who achieved complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) to R-CVP treatment, were prescribed rituximab-maintenance therapy which was administered intravenously at a dose of 375 mg/m2 every 8 weeks for up to 12 cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and treatment safety. RESULTS:47 patients were enrolled, of whom, 45 (96%) received rituximab-maintenance treatment. Fifteen (33%) patients had nodal MZL. Following R-CVP first-line therapy, 20 (44%), 22 (49%), and 3 (7%) patients achieved CR, PR, and SD, respectively. After a median follow-up of 38.2 months, their observed 3-year PFS rate was 81%. During the rituximab-maintenance, 6 PR and 1 SD patients achieved CR following the administration of R-CVP. Elevated LDH and the presence of B symptoms were found to be significant prognostic factors for PFS (P?=?0.003) and demonstrated a 3-year OS rate of 90%. Rituximab-maintenance therapy was well tolerated, and the common treatment-emergent adverse events were sensory neuropathy (18%), myalgia (13%), fatigue (9%), and neutropenia (9%). CONCLUSION:Rituximab-maintenance therapy following first-line R-CVP demonstrated good PFS in patients with stage III-IV MZL, in addition to a favorable toxicity profile. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01213095.
Project description:The rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial (RESORT; E4402) was a phase 3 randomized prospective trial comparing maintenance rituximab (MR) versus a retreatment (RR) dosing strategy in asymptomatic, low tumour burden indolent lymphoma. A planned exploratory sub-study compared the two strategies for small lymphocytic (SLL) and marginal zone lymphomas (MZL). Patients responding to rituximab weekly × 4 were randomized to MR (single dose rituximab every 3 months until treatment failure) or RR (rituximab weekly × 4) at the time of each progression until treatment failure. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTTF). Patients with SLL (n = 57), MZL (n = 71) and unclassifiable small B-cell lymphoma (n = 3) received induction rituximab. The overall response rate (ORR) was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI) 31-49%; SLL ORR 22·8%; MZL ORR 52·1%]; all 52 responders were randomized. At a median of 4·3 years from randomization, treatment failure occurred in 18/23 RR and 15/29 MR. The median TTTF was 1·4 years for RR and 4·8 years for MR (P = 0·012); median time to first cytotoxic therapy was 6·3 years for RR and not reached for MR (P = 0·0002). Survival did not differ (P = 0·72). In low tumour burden SLL and MZL patients responding to rituximab induction, MR significantly improved TTTF as compared with RR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disease progression within < 2 years of initial chemoimmunotherapy and patient age > 60 years have been associated with poor overall survival (OS) in follicular lymphoma (FL). No standard treatment exists for these high-risk patients, and the effectiveness of sequential therapies remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We studied the course of FL with first-, second-, and third-line treatment. Using large population-based data, we identified 5234 patients with FL diagnosed in 2000 to 2009. Of these patients, 71% had received second-line therapy < 2 years, and 29% had received no therapy after first-line therapy, with a median OS of < 3 years. Treatment included rituximab, R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine), R-Other (other rituximab-containing), and other regimens. The Aalen-Johansen estimator and Cox proportional hazards models were used to quantify the outcomes and assess the effects of the clinical and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS:R-CHOP demonstrated the most favorable 5-year OS among first- (71%), second- (55%), and third-line (61%) therapies. First-line R-CHOP improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.64) and reduced the mortality risks after first-line (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.77), second-line (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29-0.53), and third-line (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) treatments. B-symptoms, being married, and histologic grade 1/2 were associated with the use of earlier second-line therapy. Early progression from second- to third-line therapy was associated with poor OS. The repeated use of R-CHOP or R-CVP as first- and second-line treatment yielded high 2-year mortality rates (R-CHOP + R-CHOP, 17.3%; R-CVP + R-CVP, 21.1%). CONCLUSION:Our multistate approach assessed the effect of sequential therapy on the immediate and subsequent treatment-line outcomes. We found that R-CHOP in any line improved OS for patients with high-risk FL.
Project description:Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal presentation of lymphoma; however, the data for outcomes of patients with subtypes other than diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are limited. Therefore, we analyzed overall survival (OS) of adult patients diagnosed with PCNSL by histologic subtype between 1998 and 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results. A total of 4375 patients were identified. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 18-96). DLBCL was the most common histology (N=3,091), followed by follicular lymphoma (FL, N=83), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL, N=64), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL, N=63), Burkitt lymphoma (BL, N=27), small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL, N=22), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, N=13) and others (N=1,012). The 5-year OS rates were 30% in DLBCL, 66% in FL, 33% in PTCL, 79% in MZL, 42% in BL, 38% in SLL and 45% in HL. Radiation alone showed similar OS compared to no treatment in DLBCL, BL and PTCL, while radiation alone was associated with similar OS to chemotherapy or chemo-radiation in FL and MZL. The outcomes of patients with PCNSL are unfavorable; with the exception of FL and MZL which can potentially show prolonged survival with surgical resection or radiation monotherapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:The BRIGHT study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00877006) was initiated to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) with either rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma or mantle-cell lymphoma. This publication provides long-term follow-up data. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients were monitored for a minimum of 5 years after completion of study treatment for the time-to-event end points of progression-free survival (PFS), event-free survival, duration of response, and overall survival per investigator assessment. Data on the number of patients who received second-line anticancer treatment and the occurrence of other malignancies were also collected. RESULTS:The medians were not reached for any of the time-to event end points for either the BR or R-CHOP/R-CVP study treatment groups by study completion. PFS rates at 5 years were 65.5% in the BR treatment group and 55.8% in the R-CHOP/R-CVP group. The difference in PFS was considered significant with a hazard ratio of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.85; P = .0025). The hazard ratio for event-free survival and duration of response (P = .0020 and .0134, respectively) also favored the BR regimen over R-CHOP/R-CVP. However, no significant difference in overall survival was observed. The overall safety profiles of BR, R-CHOP, and R-CVP were as expected; no new safety data were collected during long-term follow-up. A higher number of secondary malignancies was noted in the BR treatment group. CONCLUSION:Overall, BR demonstrated better long-term disease control than R-CHOP/R-CVP and should be considered as a first-line treatment option for patients with indolent and mantle-cell lymphoma.
Project description:This randomized, noninferiority (NI), global, phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) vs a standard rituximab-chemotherapy regimen (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CHOP] or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone [R-CVP]) for treatment-naive patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or mantle cell lymphoma. Investigators preassigned the standard treatment regimen they considered most appropriate for each patient; patients were randomized to receive BR (n = 224) or standard therapy (R-CHOP/R-CVP, n = 223) for 6 cycles; 2 additional cycles were permitted at investigator discretion. Response was assessed by a blinded independent review committee. BR was noninferior to R-CHOP/R-CVP, as assessed by the primary end point of complete response rate (31% vs 25%, respectively; P = .0225 for NI [0.88 margin]). The overall response rates for BR and R-CHOP/R-CVP were 97% and 91%, respectively (P = .0102). Incidences of vomiting and drug-hypersensitivity reactions were significantly higher in patients treated with BR (P < .05), and incidences of peripheral neuropathy/paresthesia and alopecia were significantly higher in patients treated with standard-therapy regimens (P < .05). These data indicate BR is noninferior to standard therapy with regard to clinical response with an acceptable safety profile. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00877006.
Project description:Lack of consensus for first-line marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) treatment and toxicities associated with currently available systemic therapies have inspired evaluation of immunotherapeutic agents yielding robust outcomes with improved tolerability. We previously reported durable efficacy with first-line lenalidomide and rituximab (R2 ) in follicular lymphoma, MZL and small lymphocytic lymphoma with a subsequent long-term follow-up shown here in MZL patients. This phase 2 investigator-initiated study included previously untreated, stage III/IV MZL patients treated with lenalidomide 20 mg/day on days 1-21 and rituximab 375 mg/m2 on day 1 of each 28-day cycle, continuing in responders for ?6-12 cycles. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR); secondary endpoints were complete and partial response (CR, PR), safety, and progression-free survival (PFS). The ORR was 93% with 70% attaining CR/CR unconfirmed. At median follow-up of 75·1 months, median PFS was 59·8 months and 5-year OS was 96%. Most non-haematological adverse events (AE) were grade 1/2. Grade 3 haematological AEs were neutropenia (33%) and leucopenia (7%), and grade 4 were leucopenia (3%) and thrombocytopenia (3%). Two patients died of secondary malignancies; no treatment-related fatalities occurred. With extended follow-up, outcomes for MZL patients receiving R2 were robust with no unexpected late or delayed toxicities.
Project description:We performed a phase II study of oral vorinostat, a histone and protein deacetylase inhibitor, to examine its efficacy and tolerability in patients with relapsed/refractory indolent lymphoma.In this open label phase II study (NCT00253630), patients with relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma (FL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with ? 4 prior therapies were eligible. Oral vorinostat was administered at a dose of 200 mg twice daily on days 1 through 14 of a 21-day cycle until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR), with secondary end points of progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression, duration of response, safety, and tolerability.All 35 eligible patients were evaluable for response. The median number of vorinostat cycles received was nine. ORR was 29% (five complete responses [CR] and five partial responses [PR]). For 17 patients with FL, ORR was 47% (four CR, four PR). There were two of nine responders with MZL (one CR, one PR), and no formal responders among the nine patients with MCL, although one patient maintained stable disease for 26 months. Median PFS was 15.6 months for patients with FL, 5.9 months for MCL, and 18.8 months for MZL. The drug was well-tolerated over long periods of treatment, with the most common grade 3 adverse events being thrombocytopenia, anemia, leucopenia, and fatigue.Oral vorinostat is a promising agent in FL and MZL, with an acceptable safety profile. Further studies in combination with other active agents in this setting are warranted.