Modulating the Electronic and Solid-State Structure of Organic Semiconductors by Site-Specific Substitution: The Case of Tetrafluoropentacenes.
ABSTRACT: The properties as well as solid-state structures, singlet fission, and organic field-effect transistor (OFET) performance of three tetrafluoropentacenes (1,4,8,11: 10, 1,4,9,10: 11, 2,3,9,10: 12) are compared herein. The novel compounds?10 and 11 were synthesized in high purity from the corresponding 6,13-etheno-bridged precursors by reaction with dimethyl 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-dicarboxylate at elevated temperatures. Although most of the molecular properties of the compounds are similar, their chemical reactivity and crystal structures differ considerably. Isomer?10 undergoes the orbital symmetry forbidden thermal [4+4] dimerization, whereas 11 and 12 are much less reactive. The isomers 11 and 12 crystallize in a herringbone motif, but 10 prefers ?-? stacking. Although the energy of the first electric dipole-allowed optical transition varies only within 370?cm-1 (0.05?eV) for the neutral compounds, this amounts to roughly 1600?cm-1 (0.20?eV) for radical cations and 1300?cm-1 (0.16?eV) for dications. Transient spectroscopy of films of 11 and 12 reveals singlet-fission time constants (91±11, 73±3?fs, respectively) that are shorter than for pentacene (112±9?fs). OFET devices constructed from 11 and 12 show close to ideal thin-film transistor (TFT) characteristics with electron mobilities of 2×10-3 and 6×10-2 ?cm2 ?V-1 ?s-1 , respectively.
Project description:We demonstrate liquid crystal-on-organic field-effect transistor (LC-on-OFET) sensory devices that can perceptively sense ultralow level gas flows. The LC-on-OFET devices were fabricated by mounting LC molecules (4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on the polymer channel layer of OFET. Results showed that the presence of LC molecules on the channel layer resulted in enhanced drain currents due to a strong dipole effect of LC molecules. Upon applying low intensity nitrogen gas flows, the drain current was sensitively increased depending on the intensity and time of nitrogen flows. The present LC-on-OFET devices could detect extremely low level nitrogen flows (0.7 sccm-11 ?l/s), which could not be felt by human skins, thanks to a synergy effect between collective behavior of LC molecules and charge-sensitive channel layer of OFET. The similar sensation was also achieved using the LC-on-OFET devices with a polymer film skin, suggesting viable practical applications of the present LC-on-OFET sensory devices.
Project description:We employ a combination of linear spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and transient absorption spectroscopy to characterize the interplay between electron transfer and singlet fission dynamics in polyacene-based dyes attached to nanostructured TiO2. For triisopropyl silylethynyl (TIPS)-pentacene, we find that the singlet fission time constant increases to 6.5 ps on a nanostructured TiO2 surface relative to a thin film time constant of 150 fs, and that triplets do not dissociate after they are formed. In contrast, TIPS-tetracene singlets quickly dissociate in 2 ps at the molecule/TiO2 interface, and this dissociation outcompetes the relatively slow singlet fission process. The addition of an alumina layer slows down electron injection, allowing the formation of triplets from singlet fission in 40 ps. However, the triplets do not inject electrons, which is likely due to a lack of sufficient driving force for triplet dissociation. These results point to the critical balance required between efficient singlet fission and appropriate energetics for interfacial charge transfer.
Project description:We present the electrical detection of singlet fission in tetracene by using a field-effect transistor (FET). Singlet fission is a photoinduced spin-dependent process, yielding two triplet excitons from the absorption of a single photon. In this study, we engineered a more deterministic platform composed of an organic single crystal FET rather than amorphous or polycrystalline FETs to elucidate spin-dependent processes under magnetic fields. Despite the unipolar operation and relatively high mobility of single crystal tetracene FETs, we were able to manipulate spin dependent processes to detect magnetoconductance (MC) at room temperature by illuminating the FETs and tuning the bias voltage to adjust majority charge carrier density and trap occupancy. In considering the crystalline direction and magnetic field interactions in tetracene, we show the MC response observed in tetracene FETs to be the result of the singlet fission process.
Project description:To investigate organic field-effect transistor (OFET) properties, a new thienoacene-type molecule, 4,14-dihexyldinaphtho[2,3-d:2',3'-d']anthra[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (C6-DNADT), consisting of ?-conjugated nine aromatic rings and two hexyl chains along the longitudinal molecular axis has been successfully synthesized by sequential reactions, including Negishi coupling, epoxidation, and cycloaromatization. The fabricated OFET using thin films of C6-DNADT exhibited p-channel FET properties with field-effect mobilities (µ) of up to 2.6 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is ca. three times lower than that of the parent DNADT molecule (8.5 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1). Although this result implies that the installation of relatively short alkyl chains into the DNADT core is not suitable for transistor application, the origins for the FET performance obtained in this work is fully discussed, based on theoretical calculations and solid-state structure of C6-DNADT by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The results obtained in this study disclose the effect of alkyl chains introduced onto the molecule on transistor characteristics.
Project description:High-response organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based NO? sensors were fabricated using the synergistic effect the synergistic effect of zinc oxide/poly(methyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) hybrid dielectric and CuPc/Pentacene heterojunction. Compared with the OFET sensors without synergistic effect, the fabricated OFET sensors showed a remarkable shift of saturation current, field-effect mobility and threshold voltage when exposed to various concentrations of NO? analyte. Moreover, after being stored in atmosphere for 30 days, the variation of saturation current increased more than 10 folds at 0.5 ppm NO?. By analyzing the electrical characteristics, and the morphologies of organic semiconductor films of the OFET-based sensors, the performance enhancement was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the dielectric and organic semiconductor. The ZnO nanoparticles on PMMA dielectric surface decreased the grain size of pentacene formed on hybrid dielectric, facilitating the diffusion of CuPc molecules into the grain boundary of pentacene and the approach towards the conducting channel of OFET. Hence, NO? molecules could interact with CuPc and ZnO nanoparticles at the interface of dielectric and organic semiconductor. Our results provided a promising strategy for the design of high performance OFET-based NO? sensors in future electronic nose and environment monitoring.
Project description:The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) and 10(9) respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up.
Project description:AbstractThree diazafluorene derivatives triphenylamine (TPA)(PDAF)n (n = 1, 2, 3) serving as small molecular elements are designed and synthesized via concentrated sulfuric acid mediated Friedel–Crafts reaction. With highly nonplanar topological configuration, TPA(PDAF)3 shows weaker intermolecular interaction in the solid states and thus exhibits single nanomolecular behavior, which is crucial for charge stored and retained in an organic field?effect transistor (OFET) memory device. Furthermore, diazafluorene derivatives possess a completely separate highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, which offers ideal hole and electron trapping sites. As charge storage elements, triphenylamine groups provide the hole trapping sites, while diazafluorene units provide the electron trapping sites and act as a hole blocking group to restrain the leakage of stored holes trapped in triphenylamine. The pentacene?based OFET memory device with solution?processing TPA(PDAF)3 shows a good hole?trapping ability, high hole trapping density (4.55 × 1012 cm?2), fast trapping speed (<20 ms), a large memory window (89 V), and a tunable ambipolar memory behavior. The optimized device shows a large ON/OFF current ratio (2.85 × 107), good charge retention (>104 s), and reliable endurance properties. This study suggests that diazafluorene based donor–acceptor small molecular elements have great promise for high?performance OFET memory.
Project description:Biosystems integration into an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) structure is achieved by spin coating phospholipid or protein layers between the gate dielectric and the organic semiconductor. An architecture directly interfacing supported biological layers to the OFET channel is proposed and, strikingly, both the electronic properties and the biointerlayer functionality are fully retained. The platform bench tests involved OFETs integrating phospholipids and bacteriorhodopsin exposed to 1-5% anesthetic doses that reveal drug-induced changes in the lipid membrane. This result challenges the current anesthetic action model relying on the so far provided evidence that doses much higher than clinically relevant ones (2.4%) do not alter lipid bilayers' structure significantly. Furthermore, a streptavidin embedding OFET shows label-free biotin electronic detection at 10 parts-per-trillion concentration level, reaching state-of-the-art fluorescent assay performances. These examples show how the proposed bioelectronic platform, besides resulting in extremely performing biosensors, can open insights into biologically relevant phenomena involving membrane weak interfacial modifications.
Project description:Deciphering singlet-to-triplet intersystem crossing (ISC) in organic near-infrared photosensitizers (PSs) is of fundamental importance in the designing of high-performance PSs to boost the clinical usage of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, in-depth investigations of the ISC dynamics in near-infrared PSs have not been performed to date. Here, systematical investigations of the ISC dynamics in organic near-infrared BODIPY derivatives are presented, in which a multi-channel yet remarkably efficient ISC process is revealed by ultrafast femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. The fs-TA verifies an exceptionally enhanced ISC efficiency (Φ ISC = 91%) in iodine-substituted BODIPY (2I-BDP) which is further supported by the calculation results. This endows 2I-BDP with an ultrahigh singlet oxygen quantum yield (Φ Δ = 88%), thus enabling a proof-of-concept application of highly efficient PDT in vivo under ultralow near-infrared light power density (10 mW cm-2). The in-depth understanding of ISC dynamics in organic near-infrared materials may provide valuable guidance in the designing of novel organic theranostic materials for clinical cancer treatment.
Project description:There is a growing interest in achieving sensor systems to enable on-site testing of biomarkers. Herein, a new strategy for highly sensitive protein detection at sub-femtomolar levels without any labelling has been demonstrated by using an organic field-effect transistor (OFET). An artificial histidine-rich protein receptor (NiII-nitrilotriacetic acid complex, NiII-nta) functionalizes a detection portion (i.e. an extended-gate electrode) of the fabricated OFET device. The OFET responds electrically and selectively to a target analyte (bovine serum albumin), meaning that the binding processes at the NiII-nta on the extended-gate electrode for the analyte affect the field-effect properties of the device. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the OFET with the artificial receptor is an ideal approach for label-free and immune-free protein detection.