Taxonomic Notes on the 'Mahat' (Artocarpus lacucha and A. thailandicus, Moraceae) Species Complex in Thailand.
ABSTRACT: 'Mahat' is a well-known medicinal plant utilized in Thailand. The Thai name 'Mahat' has been used in many scientific articles for years. However, it is, unpredictably, a homonym of two scientific names in Flora of Thailand, i.e., A. lacucha and A. thailandicus. Additionally, both species are complex due to their high morphological variation. This causes difficulties in species identification especially when this Thai name is referred to as the scientific name for research publication, quality control of pharmaceutical raw materials, and registration of pharmaceutical products. In this study, we scrutinized the taxonomy of 'Mahat' by detailed examination of its morphology and distribution, including molecular and qualitative phytochemical studies. Leaf surfaces were inspected using scanning electron microscopy. The phylogeny of both species was studied using DNA sequences of nuclear and plastid regions. Chromatographic fingerprints, focusing on the major active compound oxyresveratrol, were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. According to our current study, phylogenetic evidence showed that some samples of both species were clustered together in the same clade and phytochemical fingerprints were almost identical. These results are valuable data for taxonomic revision in the near future and reveal the possible utilization of A. thailandicus as a new material source of oxyresveratrol in the pharmaceutical industry.
Project description:Artocarpus lakoocha Wall. ex Roxb. (family: Moraceae) has been used as a traditional Thai medicine for the treatment of various parasitic diseases. This species has been reported to be the source of phytochemicals, which show potent biological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the phytochemical profile of the extracts of the heartwood of A. lakoocha and their pro-oxidant activity in vitro. The heartwood was ground, extracted, and then chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out; oxyresveratrol was identified as the major component in the extracts. The pro-oxidant activity was investigated using DNA-nick, reactive oxygen species and reducing assays. The results showed that oxyresveratrol induced DNA damage dose-dependently in the presence of copper (II) ions. It was also found to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner and reduce copper (II) to copper (I). It is concluded that oxyresveratrol is the most abundant stilbenoid in A. lakoocha heartwood. The compound exhibited pro-oxidant activity in the presence of copper (II) ions, which may be associated with its ability to act as an anticancer compound.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. METHODS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. RESULTS: Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells.
Project description:A new species of the genus Sulawesifulvius, Sulawesifulvius thailandicus Wolski, Yasunaga & Gorczyca, sp. n., is described from Thailand. The present finding also represents the first distribution record in Indochina for the genus. Color adult habitus images for Sulawesifulvius thailandicus and Sulawesifulvius schuhi (type species of the genus), male genital drawings of Sulawesifulvius thailandicus, and scanning electron micrographs of selected structures of Sulawesifulvius schuhi and Sulawesifulvius thailandicus are provided.
Project description:Uses of polyherbal formulations have played a major role in traditional medicine. The present study is focused on the formulations used in traditional Thai folkloric medicine as tonics or bracers. Twenty documented polyherbal mixtures, used as nourishing tonics by the folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces in southern Thailand, are targeted. Despite traditional health claims, there is no scientific evidence to support the utilization of polyherbal formulations.The phenolic and flavonoid contents of the polyherbal formulations and a series of antioxidant tests were applied to measure their capability as preventive or chain-breaking antioxidants. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of effective formulations was assayed in Vero cells.Ninety-eight plant species belonging to 45 families were used to prepare the tested formulation. The preliminary results revealed that water extracts of THP-R016 and THP-R019 contain a high level of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibit remarkable antioxidant activities, as tested by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The extract of THP-R019 also showed the strongest metal chelating activities, whereas THP-R016 extract possessed notable superoxide anion and peroxyl radical scavenging abilities.The data provide evidence that the water extracts of folkloric polyherbal formulations, particularly THP-R016, are a potential source of natural antioxidants, which will be valuable in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. The free radical scavenging of THP-R016 may be due to the contribution of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Useful characteristics for the consumer, such as the phytochemical profiles of active ingredients, cellular based antioxidant properties and beneficial effects in vivo, are under further investigation.
Project description:Resin bees of the genus Megachile subgenus Callomegachile sensu lato (Hymenoptera; Megachilidae) from Thailand are reviewed. The 14 species treated include those described or revised in the subgenus Alocanthedon, a junior synonym of <i>Callomegachile</i> (three species), and in <i>Carinula</i> (one species). One new species is described, <i>Megachile chiangmaiensis</i> Chatthanabun and Warrit, <b>sp. nov.</b> The replacement name <i>Megachile parornata</i> Chatthanabun, Warrit and Ascher, <b>nom. nov.</b>, is proposed for <i>M. gigas</i> Wu (not Schrottky), which is recorded for the first time outside China. For each species, maps and full label data for the examined material documenting occurrences in Thailand are provided. In addition, global ranges, floral associations, and other life history data are summarized and a key to the Thai species is provided for females.
Project description:Five new species belonging to Hermatomyces (Hermatomycetaceae, Pleosporales) are described based on morphological investigations of specimens collected on rotten twigs and stems of various plants in Panama as well as phylogenetic analyses of sequence data of nuclear ribosomal and protein coding genes (EF1-?, RPB2, ?-TUB). The new species are described as: Hermatomyces bifurcatus, H. constrictus, H. megasporus, H. sphaericoides, and H. verrucosus spp. nov. Previously described species such as H. sphaericus and H. tucumanensis were identified among the studied specimens. The new combination, H. reticulatus, is made for Subicularium reticulatum based on examination of the holotype and fresh collections. Hermatomyces subiculosus, originally described from Thailand, is reduced to synonymy with H. reticulatus; H. tectonae is synonymized under H. sphaericus based on morphological and molecular evidence; and H. chiangmaiensis and H. thailandicus are considered later synonyms of H. krabiensis and H. indicus, respectively. The type material of Scyphostroma mirum was found to be conspecific with H. tucumanensis and, therefore, the generic name Hermatomyces should be conserved or protected against the older name Scyphostroma and the binomial H. tucumanensis against S. mirum. Sixteen species of Hermatomyces are recognized, their distinctive characteristics are highlighted in line drawings and a key is provided for their identification. The peculiar morphology and consistent phylogeny of new and previously known Hermatomyces species supports the recognition of the recently introduced monotypic family Hermatomycetaceae as a well delimited monophyletic taxon within the order Pleosporales.
Project description:The phytochemical oxyresveratrol has been shown to exert diverse biological activities including prevention of obesity. However, the exact reason underlying the anti-obese effects of oxyresveratrol is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanism of oxyresveratrol in adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Oxyresveratrol suppressed lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers during the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. Administration of oxyresveratrol in HFD-fed obese mice prevented body-weight gains, lowered adipose tissue weights, improved lipid profiles, and increased glucose tolerance. The anti-obese effects were linked to increases in energy expenditure and higher rectal temperatures without affecting food intake, fecal lipid content, and physical activity. The increased energy expenditure by oxyresveratrol was concordant with the induction of thermogenic genes including Ucp1, and the reduction of white adipocyte selective genes in adipose tissue. Furthermore, Foxo3a was identified as an oxyresveratrol-induced gene and it mimicked the effects of oxyresveratrol for induction of thermogenic genes and suppression of white adipocyte selective genes, suggesting the role of Foxo3a in oxyresveratrol-mediated anti-obese effects. Taken together, these data show that oxyresveratrol increases energy expenditure through the induction of thermogenic genes in adipose tissue and further implicates oxyresveratrol as an ingredient and Foxo3a as a molecular target for the development of functional foods in obesity and metabolic diseases.
Project description:The Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (EBDCS) is a widely used standard among ethnobotanists. However, this standard classifies ethnomedicinal uses into categories based on local peoples' perception. It is difficult to apply in pharmacological research. The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), now updated to ICPC-2, is more related to medical terms, but is rarely used among ethnobotanists. This study aims to apply the ICPC-2 to classify metadata of the ethnomedicinal uses of Zingiberaceae plants in Thailand, in order to identify important medicinal taxa for future research. Data on the ethnomedicinal uses of Thai gingers were collected from 62 theses, journal articles, scientific reports and a book, published between 1990 and 2019. Scientific plant names were updated using The World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP) website. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) was used to identify the medicinal issues commonly treated with gingers, and the Cultural Importance Index (CI) was used to identify species that might have pharmacological potential. We found records of 76 ginger species with ethnomedicinal uses, and together they had 771 use reports. The gingers were commonly used for treatments related to digestive system conditions, particularly abdominal pain and flatulence. Gingers remain exceedingly important in Thai ethnomedicine, with a high number of useful species. They are used to treat a variety of health conditions, but most commonly such ones that are related to the digestive system. Apart from the popular studied ginger, Curcuma longa, we identified a number of other useful gingers in Thailand.
Project description:Thai terrestrial microsnails in the genus Aulacospira Möllendorff, 1890 are revised based on the collection of the Zoological Research Collection, Burapha University, Chonburi Province, Thailand and recently collected material. Three new species are described: Aulacospira nutadhirai sp.nov. from Southern Thailand, and Aulacospira tekavongae sp.nov. and Aulacospira vanwalleghemi sp. nov. from Eastern Thailand. The radula and genital system are described, and a key to Thai species is presented.
Project description:Thailand has a great diversity of ant fauna as a zoogeographical crossroads and biodiversity hotspot. The last publication presenting a Thai ant checklist was published in 2005. In the present paper, based on an examination of museum specimens and published records, a comprehensive and critical species list of Thai ants is synthesized. Currently, 529 valid species and subspecies in 109 genera among ten subfamilies are known from Thailand with their diversity and distribution within 77 provinces presented and assigned to six geographical regions. Furthermore, Thailand is the type locality for 81 ant species. Forty-one species are here newly recorded for Thailand with photographs illustrating these species. The checklist provides information on distribution and a comprehensive bibliography. This study will also serve as a guide for the upper northeast and central Thailand, which are poorly sampled; a comprehensive reference list relating to endemic taxa and localities where conservation is an important priority, thus an essential resource for policy makers and conservation planners concerned with the management of insect diversity in Thailand; and a list of exotic ant species found in Thailand, which could possibly impact the ecological balance.