The bRPS6-Family Protein RFC3 Prevents Interference by the Splicing Factor CFM3b during Plastid rRNA Biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT: Plastid ribosome biogenesis is important for plant growth and development. REGULATOR OF FATTY ACID COMPOSITION3 (RFC3) is a member of the bacterial ribosomal protein S6 family and is important for lateral root development. rfc3-2 dramatically reduces the plastid rRNA level and produces lateral roots that lack stem cells. In this study, we isolated a suppressor of rfc three2 (sprt2) mutant that enabled recovery of most rfc3 mutant phenotypes, including abnormal primary and lateral root development and reduced plastid rRNA level. Northern blotting showed that immature and mature plastid rRNA levels were reduced, with the exception of an early 23S rRNA intermediate, in rfc3-2 mutants. These changes were recovered in rfc3-2 sprt2-1 mutants, but a second defect in the processing of 16S rRNA appeared in this line. The results suggest that rfc3 mutants may be defective in at least two steps of plastid rRNA processing, one of which is specifically affected by the sprt2-1 mutation. sprt2-1 mutants had a mutation in CRM FAMILY MEMBER 3b (CFM3b), which encodes a plastid-localized splicing factor. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay suggested that RFC3 and SPRT2/CFM3b interact with each other in plastids. These results suggest that RFC3 suppresses the nonspecific action of SPRT2/CFM3b and improves the accuracy of plastid rRNA processing.
Project description:The plastid evolved from a symbiotic cyanobacterial ancestor and is an essential organelle for plant life, but its developmental roles in roots have been largely overlooked. Here, we show that plastid translation is connected to the stem cell patterning in lateral root primordia. The RFC3 gene encodes a plastid-localized protein that is a conserved bacterial ribosomal protein S6 of ?/? proteobacterial origin. The rfc3 mutant developed lateral roots with disrupted stem cell patterning and associated with decreased leaf photosynthetic activity, reduced accumulation of plastid rRNAs in roots, altered root plastid gene expression, and changes in expression of several root stem cell regulators. These results suggest that deficiencies in plastid function affect lateral root stem cells. Treatment with the plastid translation inhibitor spectinomycin phenocopied the defective stem cell patterning in lateral roots and altered plastid gene expression observed in the rfc3 mutant. Additionally, when prps17 defective in a plastid ribosomal protein was treated with low concentrations of spectinomycin, it also phenocopied the lateral root phenotypes of rfc3 The spectinomycin treatment and rfc3 mutation also negatively affected symplasmic connectivity between primary root and lateral root primordia. This study highlights previously unrecognized functions of plastid translation in the stem cell patterning in lateral roots.
Project description:Yeast replication factor C (RF-C) is a multi-polypeptide complex required for processive DNA replication by DNA polymerases delta and epsilon. The gene encoding the 40-kDa subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RF-C (RFC3) has been cloned. The RFC3 gene is required for yeast cell growth and has been mapped to the left arm of chromosome XIV. The deduced amino acid sequence of the RFC3 gene shows a high homology to the 36-, 37-, and 40-kDa subunits of human RF-C (also called activator 1), with the highest homology to the 36-kDa subunit. Among the conserved regions are the A motif of ATP binding proteins; the "DEAD box," common to DNA helicases and other ATPases; and the "RFC box," an approximately 15-amino acid domain virtually identical in the yeast and human RF-C subunits. Limited homology to the functional homologs of the Escherichia coli replication apparatus was also observed. The steady-state mRNA levels of RFC3 do not change significantly during the mitotic cell cycle of yeast. The intact form of the RFC3 gene product (Rfc3p) has been overproduced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Purified Rfc3p has an ATPase activity that is markedly stimulated by single-stranded DNA but not by double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Project description:Viruses and their hosts can reach balanced states of evolution ensuring mutual survival, which makes it difficult to appreciate the underlying dynamics. To uncover hidden interactions, virus mutants that have lost defense genes may be used. Deletion of the gene that encodes serine protease inhibitor 1 (SPI-1) of rabbitpox virus and vaccinia virus, two closely related orthopoxviruses, prevents their efficient replication in human cells, whereas certain other mammalian cells remain fully permissive. Our high-throughput genome-wide siRNA screen identified host factors that prevent reproduction and spread of the mutant viruses in human cells. More than 20,000 genes were interrogated with individual siRNAs and those that prominently increased replication of the SPI-1 deletion mutant were subjected to a secondary screen. The top hits based on the combined data-replication factor C3 (RFC3), FAM111A, and interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2)-were confirmed by custom assays. The siRNAs to RFC1, RFC2, RFC4, and RFC5 mRNAs also enhanced spread of the mutant virus, strengthening the biological significance of the RFC complex as a host restriction factor for poxviruses. Whereas association with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and participation in processive genome replication are common features of FAM111A and RFC, IRF2 is a transcriptional regulator. Microarray analysis, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunoblotting revealed that IRF2 regulated the basal level expression of FAM111A, suggesting that the enhancing effect of depleting IRF2 on replication of the SPI-1 mutant was indirect. Thus, the viral SPI-1 protein and the host IRF2, FAM111A, and RFC complex likely form an interaction network that influences the ability of poxviruses to replicate in human cells.
Project description:PURPOSE:Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a lethal malignancy that can develop from the premalignant condition, Barrett's esophagus (BE). Currently, there are no validated simple methods to predict which patients will progress to EAC. A better understanding of the genetic mechanisms driving EAC tumorigenesis is needed to identify new therapeutic targets and develop biomarkers capable of identifying high-risk patients that would benefit from aggressive neoadjuvant therapy. We employed an integrative genomics approach to identify novel genes involved in EAC biology that may serve as useful clinical markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Whole genome tiling-path array comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify significant regions of copy number alteration in 20 EACs and 10 matching BE tissues. Copy number and gene expression data were integrated to identify candidate oncogenes within regions of amplification and multiple additional sample cohorts were assessed to validate candidate genes. RESULTS:We identified RFC3 as a novel, candidate oncogene activated by amplification in approximately 25% of EAC samples. RFC3 was also amplified in BE from a patient whose EAC harbored amplification and was differentially expressed between nonmalignant and EAC tissues. Copy number gains were detected in other cancer types and RFC3 knockdown inhibited proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells with increased copy number but had little effect on those without. Moreover, high RFC3 expression was associated with poor patient outcome in multiple cancer types. CONCLUSIONS:RFC3 is a candidate oncogene amplified in EAC. RFC3 DNA amplification is also prevalent in other epithelial cancer types and RFC3 expression could serve as a prognostic marker.
Project description:Lung cancer is a malignant tumor responsible for the highest mortality rate in humans. The identification of novel functional genes is of great importance in the treatment of lung cancer. The reported roles of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3) in tumorigenesis are contradictory. The present study aimed to explore the role and mechanism of RFC3 in lung cancer cells. An immunohistochemical study of 165 lung cancer and adjacent tissues was conducted (123 lung adenocarcinoma tissues and 42 lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues). Kaplan?Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis were employed to explore the relationship between RFC3 and patient prognosis. In addition, the proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of A549 and H1299 cells were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively, following cell transfection to induce overexpression and knockdown of RFC3. A Boyden chamber assay and wound?healing assay were conducted to determine the invasive and migratory abilities of A549 and H1299 cells. Western blotting was used to analyze the effects of RFC3 overexpression and RFC3 small interfering RNA?induced knockdown, and to explore the potential mechanism and pathway underlying the effects of RFC3. Positive expression of RFC3 was detected in lung adenocarcinoma, and overexpression of RFC3 shortened the survival time of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, overexpression of RFC3 increased the invasion and migration of A549 cells, whereas knockdown of RFC3 significantly reduced the invasion and migration of H1299 cells. Ectopic expression of RFC3 induced epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT), as determined by downregulation of E?cadherin, and upregulation of N?cadherin, vimentin and Wnt signaling target genes, including c?MYC, Wnt1 and ??catenin, and the ratio of phosphorylated?glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)?? (Ser9)/GSK3??. In conclusion, RFC3 may be considered a coactivator that promotes the Wnt/??catenin signaling pathway, and induces EMT and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:There is widespread interest in defining factors and mechanisms that suppress the proliferation of cancer cells. Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent suppressor of mammary cancer and developmental embryonic cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which 9-cis-RA signaling induces growth inhibition in RA-sensitive breast cancer and embryonic cells are not apparent. Here, we provide evidence that the inhibitory effect of 9-cis-RA on cell proliferation depends on 9-cis-RA-dependent interaction of retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) with replication factor C3 (RFC3), which is a subunit of the RFC heteropentamer that opens and closes the circular proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp on DNA. An RFC3 ortholog in a sea urchin cDNA library was isolated by using the ligand-binding domain of RXR? as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction of RFC3 with RXR? depends on 9-cis-RA and bexarotene, but not on all-trans-RA or an RA receptor (RAR)-selective ligand. Truncation and mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the C-terminal LXXLL motifs in both human and sea urchin RFC3 are critical for the interaction with RXR?. The transient interaction between 9-cis-RA-activated RXR? and RFC3 resulted in reconfiguration of the PCNA-RFC complex. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of RXR? or overexpression of RFC3 impairs the ability of 9-cis-RA to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and sea urchin embryogenesis. Our results indicate that 9-cis-RA-activated RXR? suppresses the growth of RA-sensitive breast cancer and embryonic cells through RFC3.
Project description:Replication and related processes in eukaryotic cells require replication factor C (RFC) to load a molecular clamp for DNA polymerase in an ATP-driven process, involving multiple molecular interactions. The detailed understanding of this mechanism is hindered by the lack of data regarding structure, mutual arrangement, and dynamics of the players involved. In this study, we analyzed interactions that take place during loading onto DNA of either the PCNA clamp or the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex, using computationally derived molecular models. Combining the modeled structures for each RFC subunit with known structural, biochemical, and genetic data, we propose detailed models of how two of the RFC subunits, RFC1 and RFC3, interact with the C-terminal regions of PCNA. RFC1 is predicted to bind PCNA similarly to the p21-PCNA interaction, while the RFC3-PCNA binding is proposed to be similar to the E. coli delta-beta interaction. Additional sequence and structure analysis, supported by experimental data, suggests that RFC5 might be the third clamp loader subunit to bind the equivalent PCNA region. We discuss functional implications stemming from the proposed model of the RFC1-PCNA interaction and compare putative clamp-interacting regions in RFC1 and its paralogs, Rad17 and Ctf18. Based on the individual intermolecular interactions, we propose RFC and PCNA arrangement that places three RFC subunits in association with each of the three C-terminal regions in PCNA. The two other RFC subunits are positioned at the two PCNA interfaces, with the third PCNA interface left unobstructed. In addition, we map interactions at the level of individual subunits between the alternative clamp loader/clamp system, Rad17-RFC(2-5)/Rad9-Rad1-Hus1. The proposed models of interaction between two clamp/clamp loader pairs provide both structural framework for interpretation of existing experimental data and a number of specific findings that can be subjected to direct experimental testing.
Project description:Replication factor C (RFC) is a multisubunit complex that opens the sliding clamp and loads it onto the DNA chain in an ATP-dependent manner and is thus critical for high-speed DNA synthesis. In yeast (<i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>) and humans, biochemical studies and structural analysis revealed interaction patterns between the subunits and architectures of the clamp loaders. Mutations of <i>ScRFC1/2/3/4/5</i> lead to loss of cell viability and defective replication. However, the functions of RFC subunits in higher plants are unclear, except for <i>AtRFC1/3/4</i>, and the interaction and arrangement of the subunits have not been studied. Here, we identified <i>rfc2-1</i>/+, <i>rfc3-2</i>/+, and <i>rfc5-1</i>/+ mutants in <i>Arabidopsis</i>, and found that embryos and endosperm arrested at the 2/4-celled embryo proper stage and 6-8 nuclei stages, respectively. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that AtRFC1 and OsRFC1/4/5 proteins were localized in the nucleus, while AtRFC2/3/4/5 and OsRFC2/3 proteins were present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. By using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) techniques, we demonstrated the interactions of <i>Arabidopsis</i> and rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i>) RFC subunits, and proposed arrangements of the five subunits within the RFC complex, which were AtRFC5-AtRFC4-AtRFC3/2-AtRFC2/3-AtRFC1 and OsRFC5-OsRFC2-OsRFC3-OsRFC4-OsRFC1, respectively. In addition, AtRFC1 could interact with AtRFC2/3/4/5 in the presence of other subunits, while OsRFC1 directly interacted with the other four subunits. To further characterize the regions required for complex formation, truncated RFC proteins of the subunits were created. The results showed that C-termini of the RFC subunits are required for complex formation. Our studies indicate that the localization and interactions of RFCs in <i>Arabidopsis</i> and rice are distinctly discrepant.
Project description:The cellular pathways involved in maintaining genome stability halt cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA damage or incomplete replication. Proteins required for this pathway include Rad17, Rad9, Hus1, Rad1, and Rfc-2, Rfc-3, Rfc-4, and Rfc-5. The heteropentamer replication factor C (RFC) loads during DNA replication the homotrimer proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) polymerase clamp onto DNA. Sequence similarities suggest the biochemical functions of an RSR (Rad17-Rfc2-Rfc3-Rfc4-Rfc5) complex and an RHR heterotrimer (Rad1-Hus1-Rad9) may be similar to that of RFC and PCNA, respectively. RSR purified from human cells loads RHR onto DNA in an ATP-, replication protein A-, and DNA structure-dependent manner. Interestingly, RSR and RFC differed in their ATPase activities and displayed distinct DNA substrate specificities. RSR preferred DNA substrates possessing 5' recessed ends whereas RFC preferred 3' recessed end DNA substrates. Characterization of the biochemical loading reaction executed by the checkpoint clamp loader RSR suggests new insights into the mechanisms underlying recognition of damage-induced DNA structures and signaling to cell cycle controls. The observation that RSR loads its clamp onto a 5' recessed end supports a potential role for RHR and RSR in diverse DNA metabolism, such as stalled DNA replication forks, recombination-linked DNA repair, and telomere maintenance, among other processes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Spo0B-associated GTP-binding protein (Obg) GTPase, has diverse and important functions in bacteria, including morphological development, DNA replication and ribosome maturation. Homologs of the Bacillus subtilis Obg have been also found in chloroplast of Oryza sativa, but their primary roles remain unknown.<h4>Results</h4>We clarify that OsObgC1 is a functional homolog of AtObgC. The mutant obgc1-d1 exhibited hypersensitivity to the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Quantitative PCR results showed that the ratio of chloroplast DNA to nuclear DNA in the mutants was higher than that of the wild-type plants. After DAPI staining, OsObgC1 mutants showed abnormal nucleoid architectures. The specific punctate staining pattern of OsObgC1-GFP signal suggests that this protein localizes to the chloroplast nucleoids. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutation in OsObgC1 led to a severe suppression of protein biosynthesis by affecting plastid rRNA processing. It was also demonstrated through rRNA profiling that plastid rRNA processing was decreased in obgc1-d mutants, which resulted in impaired ribosome biogenesis. The sucrose density gradient profiles revealed a defective chloroplast ribosome maturation of obgc1-d1 mutants.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings here indicate that the OsObgC1 retains the evolutionarily biological conserved roles of prokaryotic Obg, which acts as a signaling hub that regulates DNA replication and ribosome biogenesis in chloroplast nucleoids.