Asymmetric Hydroformylation Using a Rhodium Catalyst Encapsulated in a Chiral Capsule.
ABSTRACT: Supramolecular capsules can be used to change the activity and selectivity of a catalyst through the influence of the second coordination sphere, reminiscent of how enzymes control the selectivity of their processes. In enzymes, this approach is used to also control the enantioselectivity of reactions in which the active catalytic site is often not chiral but the second coordination sphere is. We are interested in the possibility to generate a chiral second coordination sphere around an otherwise achiral transition metal complex for asymmetric catalysis. In this paper we show that the ligand template approach can be used to generate a chiral second coordination sphere around a rhodium complex, which is used in asymmetric hydroformylation.
Project description:The synthesis of ?-amino-aldehydes has been achieved through enantioselective hydroformylation of PMP-protected allylic amines. The reaction is accomplished by using a scalemic scaffolding ligand that covalently and reversibly binds to the substrate. These ligands behave like chiral auxiliaries because they are covalently attached to the substrate during hydroformylation; however, similar to traditional asymmetric ligands, they can be used in catalytic quantities. The directed hydroformylation of disubstituted olefins occurs under mild conditions (35 °C and 50 psi CO/H(2)), and Z-olefins afford excellent enantioselectivities (up to 93% ee).
Project description:Size-selective hydroformylation of terminal alkenes was attained upon embedding a rhodium bisphosphine complex in a supramolecular metal-organic cage that was formed by subcomponent self-assembly. The catalyst was bound in the cage by a ligand-template approach, in which pyridyl-zinc(II) porphyrin interactions led to high association constants (>105 m-1 ) for the binding of the ligands and the corresponding rhodium complex. DFT calculations confirm that the second coordination sphere forces the encapsulated active species to adopt the ee coordination geometry (i.e., both phosphine ligands in equatorial positions), in line with in situ high-pressure IR studies of the host-guest complex. The window aperture of the cage decreases slightly upon binding the catalyst. As a result, the diffusion of larger substrates into the cage is slower compared to that of smaller substrates. Consequently, the encapsulated rhodium catalyst displays substrate selectivity, converting smaller substrates faster to the corresponding aldehydes. This selectivity bears a resemblance to an effect observed in nature, where enzymes are able to discriminate between substrates based on shape and size by embedding the active site deep inside the hydrophobic pocket of a bulky protein structure.
Project description:Rhodium complexes of diazaphospholane ligands catalyze the asymmetric hydroformylation of N-vinyl carboxamides, allyl ethers, and allyl carbamates; products include 1,2- and 1,3-aminoaldehydes and 1,3-alkoxyaldehydes. Using glass pressure bottles, short reaction times (generally less than 6 h), and low catalyst loading (commonly 0.5 mol %), 20 substrates are successfully converted to chiral aldehydes with useful regioselectivity and high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). Chiral Roche aldehyde is obtained with 97% ee from the hydroformylation of allyl silyl ethers. Commonly difficult substrates such as 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted alkenes undergo effective hydroformylation with 89-97% ee and complete conversion for six examples. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative amination of allyl benzyl ether followed by enantioselective hydroformylation yields the ?(3)-aminoaldehyde with 74% ee.
Project description:Hydroformylation utilizes dihydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a catalyst to transform alkenes into aldehydes. This work applies chiral bisdiazaphospholane (BDP)- and bisphospholanoethane-ligated rhodium complexes to the hydroformylation of a variety of alkenes to produce chiral tetrasubstituted aldehydes. 1,1'-Disubstituted acrylates bearing electron-withdrawing substituents undergo hydroformylation under mild conditions (1 mol % of catalyst/BDP ligand, 150 psig gas, 60 °C) with high conversions and yields of tetrasubstituted aldehydes (e.g., 13:1 regioselectivity, 85% ee, and <1% hydrogenation for 1-fluoromethyl acrylate). The scope also encompasses both acyclic 1,1'-disubstituted and trisubstituted, electron-poor alkenes as well as di- and trisubstituted alkenes composed of small rings with exocyclic and endocyclic unsaturation. For example, 1-methylene-?-lactam furnished the tetrasubstituted aldehyde with 98% selectivity and up to 83% ee. Notably, chiral trisubstituted bicyclic methyleneaziridines are transformed with >99% regioselectivity and >19:1 diastereoselectivity to tetrasubstituted aldehydes at rates >50 catalyst turnovers/hour. NMR studies of the noncatalytic reaction of HRh(BDP)(CO)2 with methyl 1-fluoroacrylate enable interception of tertiary alkylrhodium intermediates, demonstrating migratory insertion to acyl species is slower than formation of secondary and primary alkylrhodium intermediates. Overall, these investigations reveal how the interplay of sterics, electronics, and ring strain are harnessed to provide access to valuable ?-tetrasubstituted aldehyde synthetic building blocks by promoting branched-selective hydroformylation.
Project description:A rhodium complex, in conjunction with commercially available Ph-BPE ligand, catalyzes the branch-selective asymmetric hydroformylation of 1-alkenes and rapidly generates ?-chiral aldehydes. A wide range of terminal olefins including 1-dodecene were examined, and all delivered high enantioselectivity (up to 98:2 er) as well as good branch:linear ratios (up to 15:1).
Project description:Hydroformylation of 1,2-disubstituted alkenes usually occurs at the ? position of the directing heteroatom such as oxygen atom and nitrogen atom. By contrast, to achieve hydroformylation on the ? position of the heteroatom is a tough task. Herein, we report the asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of 1,2-disubstituted alkenylsilanes with excellent regioselectivity at the ? position (relative to the silicon heteroatom) and enantioselectivity. In a synthetic sense, we achieve the asymmetric hydroformylation on the ? position of the oxygen atom indirectly by using the silicon group as a surrogate for the hydroxyl. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to examine energetics of the whole reaction path for Rh/YanPhos-catalyzed asymmetric hydroformylation and understand its regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. Our computational study suggests that the silicon group can activate the substrate and is critical for the regioselectivity.
Project description:The catalytic asymmetric aminoallylation of chiral aldehydes is developed as a new method for the catalyst controlled synthesis of syn- and anti-1,3-aminoalcohols. This methodology is highlighted in the synthesis of the sedum alkaloids (+)-sedridine and (+)-allosedridine both of which have their final carbon incorporated during closure of the piperidine ring via a hydroformylation with formaldehyde.
Project description:The capacity of two cavity-shaped ligands, HUGPHOS-1 and HUGPHOS-2, to generate exclusively singly phosphorus-ligated complexes, in which the cyclodextrin cavity tightly wraps around the metal centre, was explored with a number of late transition metal cations. Both cyclodextrin-derived ligands were assessed in palladium-catalysed Mizoroki-Heck coupling reactions between aryl bromides and styrene on one hand, and the rhodium-catalysed asymmetric hydroformylation of styrene on the other hand. The inability of both chiral ligands to form standard bis(phosphine) complexes under catalytic conditions was established by high-pressure NMR studies and shown to have a deep impact on the two carbon-carbon bond forming reactions both in terms of activity and selectivity. For example, when used as ligands in the rhodium-catalysed hydroformylation of styrene, they lead to both high isoselectivity and high enantioselectivity. In the study dealing with the Mizoroki-Heck reactions, comparative tests were carried out with WIDEPHOS, a diphosphine analogue of HUGPHOS-2.
Project description:A highly regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols is reported toward the synthesis of ?-hydroxy-acid and aldehyde products. The selectivity is achieved through the use of a ligand that reversibly binds to alcohols in situ, allowing for a directed hydroformylation to occur. The application to trisubstituted olefins was also demonstrated, which yields a single diastereomer product consistent with a stereospecific addition of CO and hydrogen.
Project description:Enantioenriched aldehydes are produced through asymmetric hydroformylation of styrene derivatives using BIBOP-type ligands. The featured example is enantioselective synthesis of 4-methyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin, which was prepared in a 95.1:4.9 enantiomeric ratio from asymmetric hydroformylation of ethyl 2-vinylbenzoate followed by in situ lactonization during the reduction process. The conditions are compatible with both electron-rich and electron-poor substituents.