Chronic activation of hexosamine biosynthesis in the heart triggers pathological cardiac remodeling.
ABSTRACT: The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) plays critical roles in nutrient sensing, stress response, and cell growth. However, its contribution to cardiac hypertrophic growth and heart failure remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that the HBP is induced in cardiomyocytes during hypertrophic growth. Overexpression of Gfat1 (glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1), the rate-limiting enzyme of HBP, promotes cardiomyocyte growth. On the other hand, Gfat1 inhibition significantly blunts phenylephrine-induced hypertrophic growth in cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, cardiac-specific overexpression of Gfat1 exacerbates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction. Conversely, deletion of Gfat1 in cardiomyocytes attenuates pathological cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload. Mechanistically, persistent upregulation of the HBP triggers decompensated hypertrophy through activation of mTOR while Gfat1 deficiency shows cardioprotection and a concomitant decrease in mTOR activity. Taken together, our results reveal that chronic upregulation of the HBP under hemodynamic stress induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure through persistent activation of mTOR.
Project description:The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls metabolic pathways in response to nutrients. Recently, we have shown that mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) modulates the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) by promoting the expression of the key enzyme of the HBP, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase 1 (GFAT1). Here, we found that GFAT1 Ser-243 phosphorylation is also modulated in an mTORC2-dependent manner. In response to glutamine limitation, active mTORC2 prolongs the duration of Ser-243 phosphorylation, albeit at lower amplitude. Blocking glycolysis using 2-deoxyglucose robustly enhances Ser-243 phosphorylation, correlating with heightened mTORC2 activation, increased AMPK activity, and O-GlcNAcylation. However, when 2-deoxyglucose is combined with glutamine deprivation, GFAT1 Ser-243 phosphorylation and mTORC2 activation remain elevated, whereas AMPK activation and O-GlcNAcylation diminish. Phosphorylation at Ser-243 promotes GFAT1 expression and production of GFAT1-generated metabolites including ample production of the HBP end-product, UDP-GlcNAc, despite nutrient starvation. Hence, we propose that the mTORC2-mediated increase in GFAT1 Ser-243 phosphorylation promotes flux through the HBP to maintain production of UDP-GlcNAc when nutrients are limiting. Our findings provide insights on how the HBP is reprogrammed via mTORC2 in nutrient-addicted cancer cells.
Project description:Pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with significantly increased risk of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in pathological cardiac remodeling. However, whether miR-99a participates in the signaling cascade leading to cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. To evaluate the role of miR-99a in cardiac hypertrophy, we assessed the expression of miR-99a in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by isoprenaline (ISO)/angiotensin-II (Ang II) and in mice model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Expression of miR-99a was evaluated in these hypertrophic cells and hearts. We also found that miR-99a expression was highly correlated with cardiac function of mice with heart failure (8 weeks after TAC surgery). Overexpression of miR-99a attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice and cellular hypertrophy in stimuli treated cardiomyocytes through down-regulation of expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicate that miR-99a negatively regulates physiological hypertrophy through mTOR signaling pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic approach for pressure-overload heart failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a dynamic calcium signal transducer implicated in hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. STIM1 is thought to act as an initiator of cardiac hypertrophic response at the level of the sarcolemma, but the pathways underpinning this effect have not been examined. METHODS AND RESULTS:To determine the mechanistic role of STIM1 in cardiac hypertrophy and during the transition to heart failure, we manipulated STIM1 expression in mice cardiomyocytes by using in vivo gene delivery of specific short hairpin RNAs. In 3 different models, we found that Stim1 silencing prevents the development of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy but also reverses preestablished cardiac hypertrophy. Reduction in STIM1 expression promoted a rapid transition to heart failure. We further showed that Stim1 silencing resulted in enhanced activity of the antihypertrophic and proapoptotic GSK-3? molecule. Pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 was sufficient to reverse the cardiac phenotype observed after Stim1 silencing. At the level of ventricular myocytes, Stim1 silencing or inhibition abrogated the capacity for phosphorylation of Akt(S473), a hydrophobic motif of Akt that is directly phosphorylated by mTOR complex 2. We found that Stim1 silencing directly impaired mTOR complex 2 kinase activity, which was supported by a direct interaction between STIM1 and Rictor, a specific component of mTOR complex 2. CONCLUSIONS:These data support a model whereby STIM1 is critical to deactivate a key negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. In cardiomyocytes, STIM1 acts by tuning Akt kinase activity through activation of mTOR complex 2, which further results in repression of GSK-3? activity.
Project description:Pathological growth of cardiomyocytes (hypertrophy) is a major determinant for the development of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. Here we show that the microRNA (miRNA)-212/132 family regulates cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy in cardiomyocytes. Hypertrophic stimuli upregulate cardiomyocyte expression of miR-212 and miR-132, which are both necessary and sufficient to drive the hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. MiR-212/132 null mice are protected from pressure-overload-induced heart failure, whereas cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the miR-212/132 family leads to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure and death in mice. Both miR-212 and miR-132 directly target the anti-hypertrophic and pro-autophagic FoxO3 transcription factor and overexpression of these miRNAs leads to hyperactivation of pro-hypertrophic calcineurin/NFAT signalling and an impaired autophagic response upon starvation. Pharmacological inhibition of miR-132 by antagomir injection rescues cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice, offering a possible therapeutic approach for cardiac failure.
Project description:Glucose and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential nutrients and key determinants of cell growth and stress responses. High BCAA level inhibits glucose metabolism but reciprocal regulation of BCAA metabolism by glucose has not been demonstrated. Here we show that glucose suppresses BCAA catabolism in cardiomyocytes to promote hypertrophic response. High glucose inhibits CREB stimulated KLF15 transcription resulting in downregulation of enzymes in the BCAA catabolism pathway. Accumulation of BCAA through the glucose-KLF15-BCAA degradation axis is required for the activation of mTOR signaling during the hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. Restoration of KLF15 prevents cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload in wildtype mice but not in mutant mice deficient of BCAA degradation gene. Thus, regulation of KLF15 transcription by glucose is critical for the glucose-BCAA circuit which controls a cascade of obligatory metabolic responses previously unrecognized for cell growth.
Project description:The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is a nutrient-sensing metabolic pathway that produces the activated amino sugar UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, a critical substrate for protein glycosylation. Despite its biological significance, little is known about the regulation of HBP flux during nutrient limitation. Here, we report that amino acid or glucose shortage increase GFAT1 production, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP. GFAT1 is a transcriptional target of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) induced by the GCN2-eIF2? signalling pathway. The increased production of GFAT1 stimulates HBP flux and results in an increase in O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine protein modifications. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ATF4 provides a link between nutritional stress and the HBP for the regulation of the O-GlcNAcylation-dependent cellular signalling.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy leads to heart failure (HF). The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a key role in maintaining protein homeostasis and cardiac function. However, research on the role of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) in cardiac function is limited. Here, we observed that the deubiquitinase ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) was significantly up-regulated in agonist-stimulated primary cardiomyocytes and in hypertrophic and failing hearts. Knockdown of UCHL1 in cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts significantly ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy induced by agonist or pressure overload. Conversely, overexpression of UCHL1 had the opposite effect in cardiomyocytes and rAAV9-UCHL1-treated mice. Mechanistically, UCHL1 bound, deubiquitinated, and stabilized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and activated its downstream mediators. Systemic administration of the UCHL1 inhibitor LDN-57444 significantly reversed cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. These findings suggest that UCHL1 positively regulates cardiac hypertrophy by stabilizing EGFR and identify UCHL1 as a target for hypertrophic therapy.
Project description:Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), an antimicrobial peptide, was reported to protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the effect of CRAMP on pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy was unknown. This study explored the role of CRAMP on cardiac hypertrophy. A cardiac hypertrophy mouse model was induced by aortic banding surgery. Seven days after surgery, mice were given mCRAMP by intraperitoneal injection (8?mg/kg/d) for 7 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by the hypertrophic response and fibrosis level as well as cardiac function. Mice were also injected with AAV9-shCRAMP to knockdown CRAMP in the mouse heart. CRAMP levels first increased and then reduced in the remodeling heart, as well as in angiotensin II-stimulated endothelial cells but not in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. mCRAMP protected against the pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling process, while CRAMP knockdown accelerated this process. mCRAMP reduced the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the hypertrophic heart, while mCRAMP deficiency deteriorated the pressure overload-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress. mCRAMP inhibited the angiotensin II-stimulated hypertrophic response and oxidative stress in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, but mCRAMP did not help the angiotensin II-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we found that mCRAMP suppressed the cardiac hypertrophic response by activating the IGFR1/PI3K/AKT pathway via directly binding to IGFR1. AKT knockout mice completely reversed the anti-hypertrophic effect of mCRAMP but not its anti-oxidative effect. We also found that mCRAMP ameliorated cardiac oxidative stress by activating the TLR9/AMPKa pathway. This was confirmed by a TLR9 knockout mouse experiment, in which a TLR9 knockout partly reversed the anti-hypertrophic effect of mCRAMP and completely counteracted the anti-oxidative effect of mCRAMP. In summary, mCRAMP protected against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy by activating both the IGFR1/PI3K/AKT and TLR9/AMPKa pathways in cardiomyocytes.
Project description:Background Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member 3 (PHLDA3), a crucial member of the PHLDA family, is involved in tumor suppression, kidney injury, liver injury, and glucose metabolism. However, the role of PHLDA3 in pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure remains unclear. Methods and Results In the present study, PHLDA3 expression was downregulated in hypertrophic murine hearts and angiotensin II-treated cardiomyocytes. Next, an in vitro study suggested, by using gain- and loss-of-function approaches, that PHLDA3 attenuates Ang II exposure-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Consistent with the cell phenotype, disruption of PHLDA3 aggravated the effects of pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. In contrast, PHLDA3 overexpression resulted in an attenuated hypertrophic phenotype. Molecular analysis revealed that PHLDA3 suppressed the activation of AKT-mTOR-GSK3?-P70S6K signaling in response to hypertrophic stress, and the blockage of AKT activation rescued these adverse pathological effects of PHLDA3 deficiency-induced by AB and Ang II, respectively, in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions Collectively, our data indicated that PHLDA3 could ameliorate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling mainly by blocking the AKT signaling pathway, suggesting that PHLDA3 may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Project description:Pressure-overload stress to the heart causes pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which increases the risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality. However, the detailed signaling pathways induced by pressure overload remain unclear. Here we used phosphoproteomics to delineate signaling pathways in the myocardium responding to acute pressure overload and chronic hypertrophy in mice. Myocardial samples at 4 time points (10, 30, 60 min and 2 weeks) after transverse aortic banding (TAB) in mice underwent quantitative phosphoproteomics assay. Temporal phosphoproteomics profiles showed 360 phosphorylation sites with significant regulation after TAB. Multiple mechanical stress sensors were activated after acute pressure overload. Gene ontology analysis revealed differential phosphorylation between hearts with acute pressure overload and chronic hypertrophy. Most interestingly, analysis of the cardiac hypertrophy pathway revealed phosphorylation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) by prohypertrophic kinases. Phosphorylation of DRP1 S622 was confirmed in TAB-treated mouse hearts and phenylephrine (PE)-treated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. TAB-treated mouse hearts showed phosphorylation-mediated mitochondrial translocation of DRP1. Inhibition of DRP1 with the small-molecule inhibitor mdivi-1 reduced the TAB-induced hypertrophic responses. Mdivi-1 also prevented PE-induced hypertrophic growth and oxygen consumption in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. We reveal the signaling responses of the heart to pressure stress in vivo and in vitro. DRP1 may be important in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.