A common polymorphism in the retinoic acid pathway modifies adrenocortical carcinoma age-dependent incidence.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have enriched the fields of genomics and drug development. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a bimodal age distribution and inadequate treatment options. Paediatric ACC is frequently associated with TP53 mutations, with particularly high incidence in Southern Brazil due to the TP53 p.R337H (R337H) germline mutation. The heterogeneous risk among carriers suggests other genetic modifiers could exist. METHODS:We analysed clinical, genotype and gene expression data derived from paediatric ACC, R337H carriers, and adult ACC patients. We restricted our analyses to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified in GWASs to associate with disease or human traits. RESULTS:A SNP, rs971074, in the alcohol dehydrogenase 7 gene significantly and reproducibly associated with allelic differences in ACC age-of-onset in both cohorts. Patients homozygous for the minor allele were diagnosed up to 16 years earlier. This SNP resides in a gene involved in the retinoic acid (RA) pathway and patients with differing levels of RA pathway gene expression in their tumours associate with differential ACC progression. CONCLUSIONS:These results identify a novel genetic component to ACC development that resides in the retinoic acid pathway, thereby informing strategies to develop management, preventive and therapeutic treatments for ACC.
Project description:Germline TP53 mutations predispose individuals to multiple cancers and are associated with Li-Fraumeni/Li-Fraumeni-Like Syndromes (LFS/LFL). The founder mutation TP53 p.R337H is detected in 0.3% of the general population in southern Brazil. This mutation is associated with an increased risk of childhood adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) but is also common in Brazilian LFS/LFL families. Breast Cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in TP53 mutation carriers. We have assessed the prevalence of p.R337H in two groups: (1) 59 BC affected women with a familial history (FH) suggestive of hereditary cancer syndrome but no LFS/LFL features; (2) 815 BC affected women unselected for cancer FH, diagnosed with BC at or before age 45 or at age 55 or older. Among group 1 and group 2 patients, 2/59 (3.4%, CI95%: 0.4%-11.7%) and 70/815 (8.6%, CI95%: 6.8%-10.7%), respectively, were p.R337H carriers in the germline. The prevalence of p.R337H was higher in women diagnosed with BC at or before age 45 (12.1%, CI95%: 9.1%-15.8%) than at age 55 or older (5.1%, CI95%: 3.2%-7.7%), p<0.001). The Brazilian founder p.R337H haplotype was detected in all carriers analysed. These results suggest that inheritance of p.R337H may significantly contribute to the high incidence of BC in Brazil, in addition to its recently demonstrated impact on the risk of childhood ACC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most common childhood cancers occurring in infants affected with the Li-Fraumeni and Li- Fraumeni-like (LFS/LFL) syndromes, which are caused by dominant germline mutations in the TP53 gene. In Brazil, a particular mutation, occurring in the tetramerisation domain of the gene, p.R337H, is exceedingly common due to a founder effect and is strongly associated with ACC. In this report, we describe the phenotype and long-term clinical follow-up of a female child diagnosed with ACC and homozygous for the TP53 p.R337H founder mutation. CASE PRESENTATION: At age 11 months, the patient was diagnosed with a virilising anaplastic adrenal cortical tumour, which was completely excised without disturbing the adrenal capsule. Family history was consistent with an LFL tumour pattern, and genotyping identified the TP53 p.R337H mutation in both alleles in genomic DNA from lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Haplotype analysis confirmed the occurrence of the mutation in the same founder haplotype previously described in other Brazilian patients. No other germline or somatic TP53 mutations or rearrangements were identified. At age 9 years, the child was asymptomatic and had no evidence of endocrine derangements. Full body and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to detect any suspicious proliferative lesions, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing results were within the normal reference for the child's age, ruling out a major exercise capacity deficiency. CONCLUSION: This is the first clinical and aerobic functional capacity documentation of a patient who carries two mutant TP53 alleles and no wild-type allele. Our results support the hypothesis that TP53 p.R337H, the most common TP53 mutation ever described in any population, is a conditional mutant. Furthermore, our observations over a long period of clinical follow-up suggest that TP53 p.R337H homozygotes do not have a more severe disease phenotype than do heterozygote carriers of the same mutation. Patients with the homozygous TP53 p.R337H genotype will require careful surveillance for lifetime cancer risk and for effects on metabolic capacity later in life.
Project description:A common criticism of studying rare diseases is the often-limited relevance of the findings to human health. Here, we review ?15 years of research into an unusual germline TP53 mutation (p.R337H) that began with its detection in children with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a remarkably rare childhood cancer that is associated with poor prognosis. We have come to learn that the p.R337H mutation exists at a very high frequency in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, occurring in one of 375 individuals within a total population of ?100 million. Moreover, it has been determined that carriers of this founder mutation display variable tumor susceptibility, ranging from isolated cases of pediatric ACC to Li-Fraumeni or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndromes, thus representing a significant medical issue for this country. Studying the biochemical and molecular consequences of this mutation on p53 tumor-suppressor activity, as well as the putative additional genetic alterations that cooperate with this mutation, is advancing our understanding of how p53 functions in tumor suppression in general. These studies, which originated with a rare childhood tumor, are providing important information for guiding genetic counselors and physicians in treating their patients and are already providing clinical benefit.
Project description:Cancer risk is highly variable in carriers of the common TP53-R337H founder allele, possibly due to the influence of modifier genes. Whole-genome sequencing identified a variant in the tumor suppressor XAF1 (E134*/Glu134Ter/rs146752602) in a subset of R337H carriers. Haplotype-defining variants were verified in 203 patients with cancer, 582 relatives, and 42,438 newborns. The compound mutant haplotype was enriched in patients with cancer, conferring risk for sarcoma (P = 0.003) and subsequent malignancies (P = 0.006). Functional analyses demonstrated that wild-type XAF1 enhances transactivation of wild-type and hypomorphic TP53 variants, whereas XAF1-E134* is markedly attenuated in this activity. We propose that cosegregation of XAF1-E134* and TP53-R337H mutations leads to a more aggressive cancer phenotype than TP53-R337H alone, with implications for genetic counseling and clinical management of hypomorphic TP53 mutant carriers.
Project description:The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also contribute to breast tumorigenesis in a genetic background-specific context.We conducted a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the R337H mutation by sequencing TP53 exon 10 in 123 women with breast cancer and 223 age- and sex-matched control subjects from southern Brazil. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of the R337H.The R337H mutation was found in three patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.0442). Among the carriers, two had familial history of cancer meeting the Li-Fraumeni-like criteria. Remarkably, tumors in each of these three cases underwent loss of heterozygosity by eliminating the mutant TP53 allele rather than the wild-type allele. Polymorphisms were identified within the TP53 (R72P and Ins16) and MDM2 (SNP309) genes that may further diminish TP53 tumor suppressor activity.These results demonstrate that the R337H mutation can significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in carriers, which likely depends on additional cooperating genetic factors. These findings are also important for understanding how low-penetrant mutant TP53 alleles can differentially influence tumor susceptibility.
Project description:Li Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is associated with a wide variety of tumors; nevertheless, thyroid carcinoma has not been evaluated in this syndrome. Due to the Brazilian founder mutation p.R337H, some tumors that have not been described in the classic LFS have been observed in a higher-than-expected prevalence in Brazil.To determine the frequency of thyroid carcinoma in Brazilian carriers of a founder TP53 p.R337H mutation.We reviewed medical records of patients with LFS with germline TP53 p.R337H mutation. For a better understanding of the correlation between thyroid carcinoma and LFS, tumor profile data of Brazilian carriers were analyzed. We included data from 193 patients with LFS with the TP53 p.R337H mutation from the database of the Department of Oncogenetics from the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center.Thyroid tumors found in this population were reviewed with regard to age at diagnosis, sex, histologic subtype, and other tumors presented by these patients.Overall, 101 of 193 TP53 p.R337H mutation carriers with LFS from 58 families were cancer affected and, among them, thyroid carcinoma presented a prevalence of 10.9% (3 men and 8 women). The mean age at diagnosis was 44 years (median [SD], 43 [14.77] years). All the cases were histologically classified as papillary carcinomas, with 2 of them exhibiting follicular variant. The most common other cancers in the patients with thyroid carcinoma were breast cancer (5 patients) and soft-tissue sarcoma (2 patients).Thyroid carcinoma may be associated with the Brazilian founder TP53 p.R337H mutation. Knowledge about this genotype/phenotype correlation is relevant to adjusting the LFS screening recommendations to these specific carriers.
Project description:Germline TP53 mutations are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a disease that predisposes carriers to a wide variety of early onset tumors. In southern and southeastern Brazil, a high frequency of a germline TP53 mutation, p.R337H, was diagnosed in 0,3% of the population due to a founder effect. Carriers are at risk for developing cancer but the penetrance is lower than in typical DNA binding domain mutations. To date, only a few families were detected and diagnosis of carriers remains a challenge. Therefore, the inclusion of additional criteria to detect p.R337H carriers is necessary for the Brazilian population. We assessed the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center Oncogenetics Department database in search of common characteristics associated with p.R337H families that did not fulfill LFS/LFL clinical criteria. Among 42 p.R337H families, three did not meet any LFS/LFL criteria. All cases were young female patients with breast cancer diagnosed before age 45 and with no family history of LFS linked-cancers. Our results suggest that screening for the germline TP53 p.R337H mutation should be indicated, along with BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing, for this group of patients, especially in the South and Southeast of Brazil.
Project description:The high incidence of adrenocortical tumors and choroid plexus carcinoma in children from South and Southeastern regions of Brazil is associated with the germline p.R337H mutation of TP53 gene. The concomitant occurrence of neuroblastoma and adrenocortical tumors in pediatric patients harboring the p.R337H mutation at our institution prompted us to investigate the putative association between p.R337H and pediatric neuroblastoma. Genomic DNA samples from 83 neuroblastoma patients referred to a single institution during the period of 2000-2014 were screened for the p.R337H mutation. Available samples from carriers were investigated for both nuclear p53 accumulation and loss of heterozigosity in tumor. Clinical data were obtained from medical records in order to assess the impact of 337H allele on manifestation of the disease. Seven out 83 neuroblastoma patients (8.4%) were carriers of the TP53 p.R337H mutation in our cohort. Immunohistochemical analysis of p.R337H-positive tumors revealed nuclear p53 accumulation. Loss of heterozigosity was not found among available samples. The presence of 337H allele was associated with increased proportion of stage I tumors. Our data indicate that in addition to adrenocortical tumors, choroid plexus carcinoma, breast cancer and osteosarcoma, genetic counseling and clinical surveillance should consider neuroblastoma as a potential neoplasia affecting p.R337H carriers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), an inherited rare cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by a variety of early-onset tumors, is caused by different highly penetrant germline mutations in the TP53 gene; each separate mutation has dissimilar functional and phenotypic effects, which partially clarifies the reported heterogeneity between LFS families. Increases in copy number variation (CNV) have been reported in TP53 mutated individuals, and are also postulated to contribute to LFS phenotypic variability. The Brazilian p.R337H TP53 mutation has particular functional and regulatory properties that differ from most other common LFS TP53 mutations, by conferring a strikingly milder phenotype. METHODS: We compared the CNV profiles of controls, and LFS individuals carrying either p.R337H or DNA binding domain (DBD) TP53 mutations by high resolution array-CGH. RESULTS: Although we did not find any significant difference in the frequency of CNVs between LFS patients and controls, our data indicated an increased proportion of rare CNVs per genome in patients carrying DBD mutations compared to both controls (p=0.0002***) and p.R337H (0.0156*) mutants. CONCLUSIONS: The larger accumulation of rare CNVs in DBD mutants may contribute to the reported anticipation and severity of the syndrome; likewise the fact that p.R337H individuals do not present the same magnitude of rare CNV accumulation may also explain the maintenance of this mutation at relatively high frequency in some populations.