Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection. METHODS:Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation. FINDINGS:All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0?×?10? cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8-9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9-10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus. INTERPRETATION:The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. FUNDING:Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan.
Project description:This study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of late pregnancy with asymptomatic 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection, evaluate the outcome of maternal and fetal prognosis, and identify the evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission. A 22-years-old pregnant woman with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection who was admitted to our hospital on 11 February 2020 was enrolled in this study. Clinical data including laboratory test results and chest computed tomography (CT) scanning were collected and reviewed. Diagnosis of late pregnancy with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection was made. Lumbar anesthesia for cesarean section was performed and a female baby was delivered uneventfully, with the Apgar score of 9 to 10 points. Three times of COVID-19 nucleic acid test for the baby was negative after delivery. The puerpera returned to normal after the operation and two times of throat swab COVID-19 nucleic acid test were all negative after antiviral therapy. We reported an asymptomatic COVID-19 pregnant woman with detailed clinical information and our result indicated that for late pregnant women with asymptomatic COVID-19 infection, there might be no intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. Under such circumstance pregnant women are also affected significantly. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to observe the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women who have been confirmed with COVID-19. METHODS:The research objects were 55 cases of suspected COVID-19 pregnant women who gave a birth from Jan 20th 2020 to Mar 5th 2020 in our hospital-a big birth center delivering about 30,000 babies in the last 3 years. These cases were subjected to pulmonary CT scan and routine blood test, manifested symptoms of fever, cough, chest tightness or gastrointestinal symptoms. They were admitted to an isolated suite, with clinical features and newborn babies being carefully observed. Among the 55 cases, 13 patients were assigned into the confirmed COVID-19 group for being tested positive sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) via maternal throat swab test, and the other 42 patients were assigned into the control group for being ruled out COVID-19 pneumonia based on new coronavirus pneumonia prevention and control program(the 7th edition). RESULTS:There were 2 fever patients during the prenatal period and 8 fever patients during the postpartum period in the confirmed COVID-19 group. In contrast, there were 11 prenatal fever patients and 20 postpartum fever patients in the control group (p>0.05). Among 55 cases, only 2 case had cough in the confirmed group. The imaging of pulmonary CT scan showed ground- glass opacity (46.2%, 6/13), patch-like shadows(38.5%, 5/13), fiber shadow(23.1%, 3/13), pleural effusion (38.5%, 5/13)and pleural thickening(7.7%, 1/13), and there was no statistical difference between the confirmed COVID-19 group and the control group (p>0.05). During the prenatal and postpartum period, there was no difference in the count of WBC, Neutrophils and Lymphocyte, the radio of Neutrophils and Lymphocyte and the level of CRP between the confirmed COVID-19 group and the control group(p<0.05). 20 babies (from confirmed mother and from normal mother) were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 examination by throat swab samples in 24 h after birth and no case was tested positive. CONCLUSION:The clinical symptoms and laboratory indicators are not obvious for asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 pregnant women. Pulmonary CT scan plus blood routine examination are more suitable for finding pregnancy women with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 infection, and can be used screening COVID-19 pregnant women in the outbreak area of COVID-19 infection.
Project description:<b>Background and Objective:</b> Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created serious concerns about its potential adverse effects. There are limited data on clinical, radiological, and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to assess clinical manifestations and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19. <b>Methods:</b> We conducted a systematic article search of PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science for studies that discussed pregnant patients with confirmed COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and April 20, 2020, with no restriction on language. Articles were independently evaluated by two expert authors. We included all retrospective studies that reported the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19. <b>Results:</b> Forty-seven articles were assessed for eligibility; 13 articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Data is reported for 235 pregnant women with COVID-19. The age range of patients was 25-40 years, and the gestational age ranged from 8 to 40 weeks plus 6 days. Clinical characteristics were fever [138/235 (58.72%)], cough [111/235 (47.23%)], and sore throat [21/235 (8.93%)]. One hundred fifty six out of 235 (66.38%) pregnant women had cesarean section, and 79 (33.62%) had a vaginal delivery. All the patients showed lung abnormalities in CT scan images, and none of the patients died. Neutrophil cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, ALT, and AST were increased but lymphocyte count and albumin levels were decreased. Amniotic fluid, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples were taken to test for SARS-CoV-2 but all found negativ results. Recent published evidence showed the possibility of vertical transmission up to 30%, and neonatal death up to 2.5%. Pre-eclampsia, fetal distress, PROM, pre-mature delivery were the major complications of pregnant women with COVID-19. <b>Conclusions:</b> Our study findings show that the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 were similar to those of the general populations. The possibility of vertical transmission cannot be ignored but C-section should not be routinely recommended anymore according to latest evidences and, in any case, decisions should be taken after proper discussion with the family. Future studies are needed to confirm or refute these findings with a larger number of sample sizes and a long-term follow-up period.
Project description:A recent study tested 45 throat swabs taken from adults over age 30 who sought outpatient care at one of two central Wuhan hospitals for influenza-like-illness between December 30, 2019 and January 19, 2020. Although none were confirmed COVID-19 cases, nine retrospectively tested positive for the virus. Using the fact that Wuhan has 393 other hospitals, we extrapolate the total number of undetected cases of symptomatic COVID-19 in adults during this period. we estimate that there were 5,558 [95% CI: 2,761-9,864] adults with symptomatic COVID-19 infections in Wuhan between December 30th and January 19th, 2020.
Project description:Since its outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province China, 2019-coronavirus infected disease (COVID-19) had been widely spread all over the world, the control of which calls for a better understanding of its epidemiology and clinical characteristics. We included 12 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University from 23 January 2020 to 11 February 2020, which were retrospectively analyzed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological features. All the patients were confirmed by nucleic acid detection, the average age of whom was 45.25 years (range, 23-79 years). Most patients had a history of Wuhan traveling or had contact with Wuhan travelers or infected cases. Obvious family cluster was observed. Clinical manifestations included fever (12/12), fatigue (10/12), cough (6/12), sore throat (4/12), headache (3/12), and diarrhea (2/12). Only three out of eight patients had pneumonia manifestation on radiography. Most patients had a normal white blood cell (WBC) count and normal or reduced lymphocyte (LY) count. Pneumonia changes were observed in all the four patients who underwent a chest CT scan. Only one elderly patient developed severe pneumonia, while all the rest were mild disease and had a self-limiting course.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Amid the increasing number of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, there is a need for a quick and easy method to obtain a non-invasive sample for the detection of this novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to investigate the potential use of saliva samples as a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS:From 27 March to 4 April, 2020, we prospectively collected saliva samples and a standard nasopharyngeal and throat swab in persons seeking care at an acute respiratory infection clinic in a university hospital during the outbreak of COVID-19. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed, and the results of the two specimens were compared. RESULTS:Two-hundred pairs of the samples were collected. Sixty-nine (34.5%) patients were male, and the median (interquartile) age was 36 (28-48) years. Using nasopharyngeal and throat swab RT-PCR as the reference standard, the prevalence of COVID-19 diagnosed by nasopharyngeal and throat swab RT-PCR was 9.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the saliva sample RT-PCR were 84.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 60.4%-96.6%], and 98.9% (95% CI 96.1%-99.9%), respectively. An analysis of the agreement between the two specimens demonstrated 97.5% observed agreement (kappa coefficient 0.851, 95% CI 0.723-0.979; p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Saliva might be an alternative specimen for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The collection is non-invasive, and non-aerosol generating. This method could facilitate the diagnosis of the disease, given the simplicity of specimen collection and good diagnostic performance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In December 2019, coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The disease has rapidly spread from Wuhan to other regions. OBJECTIVES:To describe the clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Hunan Province in 2020. STUDY DESIGN:From January 19 to February 7, 2020, 33 patients with positive in nucleic acid test of pharyngeal swab were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS:There are 33 COVID-19 patients (16 male, 17 female), and the median age was 46 years. Nineteen patients (48 %) were associated with a family cluster outbreak. Seventeen patients (52 %) had traveled or lived in Hubei Province. These patients are early mild cases, most common symptoms are fever [23 (70 %)] and cough [13 (39 %)]. Most patients' white blood cell counts are normal, while they manifest as significant reduction in lymphocytes [17/28 (61 %)]. The levels of c-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate suggest a typical viral infection. Procalcitonin did not increase and D-dimer increased slightly. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels have elevated in most patients. CT images of these patients showed bilateral multiple plaques or nodular ground-glass opacities (68.4 %). Fecal nucleic acid results were positive in eight COVID-19 patients accompanied with diarrhea. Tear nucleic acid results were negative in six COVID-19 patients. And four asymptomatic patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical symptoms, laboratory results and imaging reports of patients with COVID-19 in Hunan area are significantly different from those in Wuhan area. For non-Wuhan epidemic areas, more attention should be paid to nucleic acid test results of throat swabs and stools, and it is not easily to diagnose based on clinical symptoms and CT results. Reduced whole blood lymph count can be used as an adjuvant diagnosis of early SARS-CoV-2 infection. Attention should be paid to asymptomatic carriers, which is of great significance for the control of the global epidemic.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector. When discharging COVID-19 patients in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using RT-PCR, the potential risk of reintroducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved. Here, 14 patients including 10 COVID-19 subjects were recruited; exhaled breath condensate (EBC), air samples and surface swabs were collected and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four hospitals with applied natural ventilation and disinfection practices in Wuhan. Here we discovered that 22.2% of COVID-19 patients (n = 9), who were ready for hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath (~10<sup>5</sup> RNA copies/m<sup>3</sup>). Although fewer surface swabs (3.1%, n = 318) tested positive, medical equipment such as face shield frequently contacted/used by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 (3-8 viruses/cm<sup>2</sup>). Three of the air samples (n = 44) including those collected using a robot-assisted sampler were detected positive by a digital PCR with a concentration level of 9-219 viruses/m<sup>3</sup>. RT-PCR diagnosis using throat swab specimens had a failure rate of more than 22% in safely discharging COVID-19 patients who were otherwise still exhaling the SARS-CoV-2 by a rate of estimated ~1400 RNA copies per minute into the air. Direct surface contact might not represent a major transmission route, and lower positive rate of air sample (6.8%) was likely due to natural ventilation (1.6-3.3 m/s) and regular disinfection practices. While there is a critical need for strengthening hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread, use of breath sample as a supplement specimen could further guard the hospital discharge to ensure the safety of the public and minimize the pandemic re-emergence risk.
Project description:The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 and became epidemic in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 has been rapidly spreading out in China and all over the world. The virus causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 has been known to be genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) but distinct from it. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can be characterized by mild upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection involving non-life threatening pneumonia, and life-threatening pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It affects all age groups, including newborns, to the elders. Particularly, pregnant women may be more susceptible to COVID-19 since pregnant women, in general, are vulnerable to respiratory infection. In pregnant women with COVID-19, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of the virus, but an increased prevalence of preterm deliveries has been noticed. The COVID-19 may alter immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, and affect the well-being of mothers and infants. In this review, we focused on the reason why pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 and the potential maternal and fetal complications from an immunological viewpoint.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As of June 1, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 6,000,000 infected persons and 360,000 deaths globally. Previous studies revealed pregnant women with COVID-19 had similar clinical manifestations to nonpregnant women. However, little is known about the outcome of neonates born to infected women. METHODS AND FINDINGS:In this retrospective study, we studied 29 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection delivered in 2 designated general hospitals in Wuhan, China between January 30 and March 10, 2020, and 30 neonates (1 set of twins). Maternal demographic characteristics, delivery course, symptoms, and laboratory tests from hospital records were extracted. Neonates were hospitalized if they had symptoms (5 cases) or their guardians agreed to a hospitalized quarantine (13 cases), whereas symptom-free neonates also could be discharged after birth and followed up through telephone (12 cases). For hospitalized neonates, laboratory test results and chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT) were extracted from hospital records. The presence of antibody of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed in the serum of 4 neonates. Among 29 pregnant COVID-19-infected women (13 confirmed and 16 clinical diagnosed), the majority had higher education (56.6%), half were employed (51.7%), and their mean age was 29 years. Fourteen women experienced mild symptoms including fever (8), cough (9), shortness of breath (3), diarrhea (2), vomiting (1), and 15 were symptom-free. Eleven of 29 women had pregnancy complications, and 27 elected to have a cesarean section delivery. Of 30 neonates, 18 were admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital for quarantine and care, whereas the other 12 neonates discharged after birth without any symptoms and had normal follow-up. Five hospitalized neonates were diagnosed as COVID-19 infection (2 confirmed and 3 suspected). In addition, 12 of 13 other hospitalized neonates presented with radiological features for pneumonia through X-ray or CT screening, 1 with occasional cough and the others without associated symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 specific serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured in 4 neonates and 2 were positive. The limited sample size limited statistical comparison between groups. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we observed COVID-19 or radiological features of pneumonia in some, but not all, neonates born to women with COVID-19 infection. These findings suggest that intrauterine or intrapartum transmission is possible and warrants clinical caution and further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000031954 (Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multicenter retrospective cohort study).