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Destruction of Cell Topography, Morphology, Membrane, Inhibition of Respiration, Biofilm Formation, and Bioactive Molecule Production by Nanoparticles of Ag, ZnO, CuO, TiO2, and Al2O3 toward Beneficial Soil Bacteria.

ABSTRACT: The unregulated discharge of nanoparticles (NPs) from various nanotechnology industries into the environment is expected to alter the composition and physiological functions of soil microbiota. Considering this knowledge gap, the impact of five NPs (Ag, ZnO, CuO, Al2O3, and TiO2) differing in size and morphology on growth behavior and physiological activity of Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas mosselii, and Sinorhizobium meliloti were investigated. Various biochemical and microscopic approaches were adopted. Interestingly, all bacterial strains were found sensitive to Ag-NPs and ZnO-NPs but showed tolerance toward CuO, Al2O3, and TiO2-NPs. The loss of cellular respiration due to NPs was coupled with a reduction in population size. ZnO-NPs at 387.5 ?g mL-1 had a maximum inhibitory impact on A. chroococcum and reduced its population by 72%. Under Ag-NP stress, the reduction in IAA secretion by bacterial strains followed the order S. meliloti (74%) > P. mosselii (63%) > A. chroococcum (49%). The surface of bacterial cells had small- or large-sized aggregates of NPs. Also, numerous gaps, pits, fragmented, and disorganized cell envelopes were visible. Additionally, a treated cell surface appeared corrugated with depressions and alteration in cell length and a strong heterogeneity was noticed under atomic force microscopy (AFM). For instance, NPs induced cell roughness for P. mosselii followed the order 12.6 nm (control) > 58 nm (Ag-NPs) > 41 nm (ZnO-NPs). TEM analysis showed aberrant morphology, cracking, and disruption of the cell envelope with extracellular electron-dense materials. Increased permeability of the inner cell membrane caused cell death and lowered EPS production. Ag-NPs and ZnO-NPs also disrupted the surface adhering ability of bacteria, which varied with time and concentration of NPs. Conclusively, a plausible mechanism of NP toxicity to bacteria has been proposed to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological interaction between NPs and resourceful bacteria. These results also emphasize to develop strategies for the safe disposal of NPs.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7160826 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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