Like me, like you - relative importance of peers and siblings on children's fast food consumption and screen time but not sports club participation depends on age.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Lifestyle interventions to prevent paediatric obesity often target family and peer settings; their success is likely to depend on the influence that peers and families exert on children's lifestyle behaviors at different developmental stages. OBJECTIVE:First, to determine whether children's lifestyle behavior more closely resembles their peers' or siblings' behaviors. Secondly, to investigate longitudinally whether children's behavioral change is predicted by that of their peers or their siblings as they grow older. METHODS:The European prospective IDEFICS/I.Family cohort (baseline survey: 2007/2008, first follow-up: 2009/2010, and second follow-up: 2013/2014) aims at investigating risk factors for overweight and related behaviors during childhood and adolescence. The present investigation includes 2694 observations of children and their siblings aged 2 to 18?years. Peers were defined as same-sex, same-age children in the same community and identified from the full cohort. The longitudinal analysis (mean follow-up time: 3.7?years) includes 525 sibling pairs. Children's lifestyle behaviors including fast food consumption (frequency/week), screen time (hours/week) and sports club participation (hours/week) were assessed by questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear models. RESULTS:Children's lifestyle behavior was associated with the respective behavior of their peers and sibling for all 3 behaviors. For fast food consumption, the peer resemblance was more than 6-fold higher than the sibling resemblance and the peer resemblance surpassed the sibling resemblance by the age of 9-10?years. The similarities with peers for fast food consumption and screen time steadily increased, while the similarities with siblings steadily decreased with increasing age of the children (Pinteraction?
Project description:The co-occurrence of health-related markers and their associations with individual, family, and environmental characteristics have not yet been widely explored in siblings. We aimed to identify multivariate profiles of health-related markers, analyze their associations with biological, sociodemographic, and built environment characteristics, and estimate sibling resemblance in these profiles. The sample includes 736 biological siblings aged 9?20 years. Body fat was measured with a portable bioelectrical impedance scale; biological maturation was assessed with the maturity offset; handgrip strength, standing long jump, one-mile run, and shuttle run were used to mark physical fitness. Health behaviors, sociodemographic, and built environmental characteristics were recorded by questionnaire. Latent profile analysis and multilevel logistic regression models were used; sibling resemblance was estimated with the intraclass correlation (?). Two multivariate profiles emerged: "P1 = fit, lower fat and poorer diet" (86.7%) and "P2 = higher fat and lower fit, but better diet" (13.3%). Siblings whose fathers were less qualified in their occupation were more likely to belong to P2 (OR = 1.24, p = 0.04); those whose fathers with Grade 12 and university level education were more likely to fit in P2 compared to peers living with fathers having an educational level below Grade 12 (OR = 3.18, p = 0.03, and OR = 6.40, p = 0.02, Grade 12 and university level, respectively). A moderate sibling profile resemblance was found (0.46 ? ? ? 0.55). In conclusion, youth health-related markers present substantial differences linked with their body composition, physical fitness and unhealthy diet. Furthermore, only father socio-demographic characteristics were associated with profile membership. Sibling´s profile resemblance mirrors the effects of genetics and shared characteristics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sibling aggression is common and often viewed as benign. Although sibling aggression can be harmful for the victims, it may also be a marker of clinical risk for the aggressor. We differentiated typical from atypical levels of perpetration of sibling-directed aggression among preschoolers, a developmental period in which aggression is a normative misbehavior, by (a) identifying how frequently aggressive behaviors targeted at a sibling must occur to be psychometrically atypical; (b) mapping the dimensional spectrum of sibling-directed aggression from typical, more commonly occurring behaviors to rarer, more atypical, actions; and (c) comparing the psychometric atypicality and typical-to-atypical spectrum of sibling-directed aggression and peer-directed aggression. METHODS:Parents (N = 1,524) of 3- (39.2%), 4-(36.7%), and 5-(24.1%) year-olds (51.9% girls, 41.1% African-American, 31.9% Hispanic; 44.0% below the federal poverty line) completed the MAP-DB, which assesses how often children engage in aggressive behaviors. We used item-response theory (IRT) to address our objectives. RESULTS:Most aggressive behaviors toward siblings were psychometrically atypical when they occurred 'most days' or more; in contrast, most behaviors targeted at peers were atypical when they occurred 'some days' or more. With siblings, relational aggression was more atypical than verbal aggression, whereas with peers, both relational and physical aggression were more atypical than verbal aggression. In both relationships, the most typical behavior was a verbally aggressive action. Results were broadly replicated in a second, independent sample. CONCLUSIONS:These findings are a first step toward specifying features of sibling aggression that are markers of clinical risk and belie the notion that sibling aggression is inherently normative.
Project description:Studies have identified concurrent, longitudinal, and bidirectional associations between language difficulties and internalizing problems. This is commonly explained by social exclusion or withdrawal from peers, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study uses sibling data to investigate if the comorbidity between language difficulties and internalizing problems is best explained by familial factors shared by siblings, such as genes or family environment, or nonfamilial factors specific to each child, such as peer environment. Data include 5,568 siblings at 5 years and 3,654 siblings at 8 years participating in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We constructed a latent factor model at 5 and 8 years, including a family comorbidity factor capturing correlations between language and internalizing problems that were equally strong between as within siblings. Results showed that the correlation between one sibling's internalizing problems and the other sibling's language problems was mostly accounted for by a family comorbidity factor. The best-fitting longitudinal model included stability of the family comorbidity factor and stability of language and internalizing problems within each sibling and no cross-sibling or cross-trait longitudinal associations. This suggests that the association between language and internalizing problems may be best explained by family factors.
Project description:Sibling and peer bullying are reported as the most frequent forms of violence experienced across childhood. There is now ample evidence indicating an association between sibling and peer bullying, with those reporting sibling bullying at an increased risk of peer bullying. While there is convincing evidence of a causative association between peer bullying and a range of mental health outcomes, sibling bullying continues to receive far less attention. The aim of this study was to explore whether sibling bullying roles (non-involved, victim, bully-victim, bully) in middle childhood were independently associated with clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety and reports of suicidal ideation and self-harm in early adulthood. We further tested whether there was a cumulative relationship between involvement in sibling and peer bullying victimization. This study was based on up to 3,881 youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth-cohort based in the United Kingdom. Sibling and peer bullying was assessed via self-report when youth were 12 years of age, while depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and self-harm were assessed via self-administered computerized interviews at 24 years of age. Involvement as a sibling bully-victim was associated with clinical diagnosis of depression (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.33-2.72), while sibling victims were at increased odds of both suicidal ideation (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16-1.98) as well as suicidal self-harm (OR = 2.20, 95% CI, 1.36-3.58) in early adulthood, even after accounting for concurrent peer bullying and a range of other pre-existing childhood confounders. Sibling and peer bullying were further associated in a homotypic manner. A dose-response relationship of bullying in the home and school across mental health outcomes was found. Youth victimized by both their siblings and peers displayed the highest odds of developing clinical depression, suicidal ideation, and self-harm. Children bullied at home and at school had no safe place to escape the bullying and torment. Our findings highlight the need for intervention studies tailored toward reducing sibling bullying, as these may hold large promise for alleviating a range of adverse outcomes, including the prevention of peer bullying, which may be contingent on early bullying experiences in the home environment.
Project description:In two independent studies, we aimed to examine the extent to which teacher and peer nominations of loneliness are associated with children's and adolescents' self-reported loneliness, respectively. Additionally, we examined whether loneliness nominations from teachers and peers were informative above and beyond peer status and social behaviors associated with loneliness. In Study 1 (<i>N</i> = 1594, <i>M</i><sub>age</sub> = 9.43 years), teacher nominations of loneliness showed a small to moderate correlation with children's self-reported loneliness as assessed using the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (LSDQ). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that teacher nominations of loneliness predicted children's self-reported loneliness above and beyond teacher nominations of peer status and social behaviors. In Study 2 (<i>N</i> = 350, <i>M</i><sub>age</sub> = 13.81 years), peer nominations of loneliness showed a small to moderate correlation with adolescents' self-reported loneliness as assessed using the peer-related loneliness subscale of the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that peer nominations of loneliness predicted adolescents' self-reported loneliness above and beyond peer nominations of peer status and social behaviors. We conclude that loneliness nominations are valuable, but caution is needed when they are used exclusively to identify lonely children and adolescents.
Project description:This within-family longitudinal study accomplishes a novel multivariate assessment of socioemotional parenting cognitions and practices in mothers and their sibling children's socioemotional behaviors. Mothers participated with their 20-month-old firstborns and again, an average of 3 years later, with their 20-month-old secondborns (55 families, 165 participants). Continuity and stability in maternal cognitions and practices between the two times, and similarities, differences, and correspondences in siblings' behaviors, are assessed and compared. Maternal socioemotional parenting cognitions were continuous in mean level and stable in individual differences across siblings; maternal socioemotional practices were continuous in mean level but unstable in individual differences. Firstborns were more sociable and emotionally available to mothers than secondborns; first- and secondborns' socioemotional behaviors were largely unrelated. This study contributes to understanding socioemotional domains of parenting and child development, birth order effects, and the shared and nonshared contexts of siblings' environments within the family.
Project description:Background/Objectives:Obesity markers evolve over time and these changes are shared within the family orbit and governed by individual and environmental characteristics. Available reports often lack an integrated approach, in contrast to a multilevel framework that considers their concurrent influence. Hence, this study aims to (1) describe mean changes in obesity markers (body fat (%BF), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC)) across sib-ships; (2) analyze tracking of individuals within their sib-ship in these markers during 2 years of follow-up; (3) probe consistency in sibling resemblance in these markers; and (4) analyze the joint influence of individual and familial characteristics in these markers. Subjects/Methods:The sample comprises 168 biological Portuguese siblings (brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), and brother-sister (BS)) aged 9-17 years. %BF, BMI, and WC were measured using standardized protocols, and biological maturation was assessed. Physical activity, diet, screen time, and familial characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to analyze the clustered longitudinal data. Sibling resemblance was estimated with the intraclass correlation. Results:On average, all sib types increased in BMI and WC over 2 years of follow-up, and SS pairs increased in %BF. Individuals within sib-ships track high in all obesity markers across time. Consistency in siblings' resemblance was also noted, except for BB pairs in %BF which decreased at follow-up. More maturing siblings tend to have higher values in all markers. Greater screen time was associated with higher %BF, whereas those consuming more sugary drinks had lower %BF and BMI values. Siblings whose mothers had less qualified occupations tended to have lower BMI values. Conclusions:Longitudinal individual tracking and sibling resemblance for obesity markers were found. Yet, different trajectories were also identified depending on the marker and sib type. Individual and familial characteristics exert different influences on each obesity marker.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The EYTO-kids (European Youth Tackling Obesity in Adolescents and Children) study aims to increase fruit and/or vegetable consumption and physical activity, decrease sedentary lifestyles, and reduce the intake of sugary drinks and fast food using an innovative methodology based on social marketing and youth involvement. METHODS:This study is a pilot school-based cluster randomized controlled 10-month intervention spanning two academic years (2015-2016 and 2016-2017), with eight primary schools and three high schools randomized into and designated the control group and eight primary schools and four high schools designated the intervention group in Reus, Spain. At least 301 younger school peers per group should be included. At the intervention high schools, the adolescent creators (ACs) receive an initial 16-h training session. In total, 26-32 high school ACs (12-14 years) from the four high schools will design and implement four health-promotion activities (1 h/each) for their younger (8-10 years), primary school peers. The control group will not receive any intervention. The outcomes (fruit, vegetable, fast food and sugary drink consumption; physical activity; and sedentary behaviors) of the control and intervention groups will be measured pre- and post-intervention. CONCLUSION:This study describes a protocol for pilot, peer-led, social marketing and youth-involved intervention, where adolescents design and implement activities for their younger peers to promote healthy lifestyles.
Project description:Importance:Childhood intrafamilial aggression, a series of aggressive behaviors inflicted by family members, and adulthood mental health are associated with childhood peer bullying (eg, in the neighborhood or in school). However, few studies have been able to identify the contribution of childhood peer bullying to the association between childhood intrafamilial aggression and adult depression. Objective:To examine the mediating role of childhood peer bullying in the association between childhood intrafamilial aggression and depression in adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants:This population-based cross-sectional study used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Middle-aged and older adults (?45 years) participated in a CHARLS wave from July 1 to September 30, 2015, and the CHARLS life history survey from June 1 to December 31, 2014, with complete data. A 4-step mediation model with logistic regression was run to test the mediating role of peer bullying. Data analysis was performed from October 1 to 30, 2019. Exposures:Childhood intrafamilial aggression, including parental physical maltreatment and sibling aggression, and peer bullying. Main Outcomes and Measures:Depressive symptoms measured by a categorical variable derived from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, based on a cutoff score of 12. Results:Among the 15?450 respondents (mean [SD] age, 59.5 [9.9] years; 7987 women [51.7%]), 4422 (28.6%) were exposed to parental physical maltreatment; 986 (6.4%), to sibling aggression; and 2504 (16.2%), to peer bullying in childhood. Respondents experiencing intrafamilial aggression were more likely to be bullied by peers (parental physical maltreatment odds ratio [OR], 2.53 [95% CI, 2.25-2.83]; sibling aggression OR, 3.05 [95% CI, 2.46-3.78]). Children with these adverse experiences were at a higher risk of adult depression symptoms (parental physical maltreatment OR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.15-1.42]; sibling aggression OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.13-1.74]; peer bullying OR, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.56-2.01]). Peer bullying mediated 30% (95% CI, 19%-42%) of the association between childhood parental maltreatment and adult depression and 35% (95% CI, 15%-54%) of the association between sibling aggression and depression symptoms in adulthood. Conclusions and Relevance:This study found that being bullied by peers was a mediator of the association between childhood intrafamilial aggression and depression in adulthood. The findings have important implications to mitigate the effect of early-life stress and promote life-course mental health through dealing with childhood intrafamilial aggression and peer bullying experiences coordinately.
Project description:Considering the association between the neighborhood food environment and individual eating behaviors, this study aimed to assess the association between parents' reported use of food facilities by their children, and parental perceived travel time to food facilities, with their children's dietary patterns. Parents reported the use of supermarkets, full-service and fast-food restaurants, and perceived travel time to these food retailers. To assess school children's food consumption, a previous day dietary recall was applied. Factor analysis was conducted to identify dietary patterns. To test the association between reported use and perceived travel time to food retailers and school children's dietary patterns, we performed multilevel linear regression analyses. Parents' reported use of supermarkets was associated with children's higher score in the "Morning/Evening Meal" pattern. The use of full-service and fast-food restaurants was associated with children's higher score in the "Fast Food" pattern. Higher parental perceived travel time to full-service and fast-food restaurants was associated with children's lower score in the "Fast Food" pattern. Although the use of full-service and fast-food restaurants was associated with a less healthy dietary pattern, the perception of living further away from these food retailers may pose a barrier for the use of these facilities.